Nutrition 111

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How many nutritient classes are there?


Which of the following animal derived foods contain significant amount of carbohydrate (based on Exchange System)?


Which of the following digestive factors is categorized as a part of chemical digestion?


When monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood from small intestines, they first go to what?; this is also the organ that converts galactose and fructose to gluctose.


Which of the following carbohydrates is not found in plants?


Which hormone released from pancreas triggers the formation of glycogen?


Which edible part of of whole grain contains the most fiber?


Which of the following foods would most likely have the highest amount of fiber (>4 grams) per serving?

legumes and bran cereals

Which of the following parts of a wheat kernel is especially rich in vitamins and minerals?


There are multiple sources for adding sugar to the foods. Which of the following ingredients would NOT be a source oh high sugar?


Potential harmful effects of too much fiber includes:

dehydration and limits the absorption of iron

Sufficient fiber in the diet can have multiple health benefits. Which of the following is NOT a known health benefit of fiber?

decreased risk of heartburn

All of the following are characteristics of Type 2 diabetes, except?

the pancreas stops making adequate insulin

Hypoglycemia is…?

low blood glucose

Lactose intolerance occurs:?

when someone cannot digest the carbohydrates in milk

Pancreatic amylase is required for the digestion of?


About 95% of the lipids in foods and food in the human body are?


Which of the following is associated with a reduced risk of CVD?

raised HDL

Which of the following words on an ingredient list would alert you to the presence of trans-fatty acids in the product?

hydrogenated vegetable oil and shortening (Crisco)

Trans-fatty acids act similar to what fats in the body?


Which lipoprotein is made in the small intestine and contains a high concentration of fats consumed in the previous meal?


Recommendations concerning intakes of fats include:

<10% of calories as saturated/trans fat

The primary purpose of lowering the low density lipoprotein (LDL) choloesterol levels is to reduce to the risk of what?


Which of the following foods does not contain cholesterol?

peanut butter

You are trying to convince a friend not to buy fish oil supplements. YOu would use all the following arguments except:

overdose may cause heart disease and cancer

The body stores extra calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates as:


All of the following can raise HDL cholesterol except:

eating fiber

Which of the following can denature a protein?

All of above: heat, alcohol, and stomach acid

The proteins that act as catalysts and speed up reaction are the:


Stripped of their nitrogen, amino acids can be:

converted to glucose and fat

Which enzyme in the stomach is responsible for breaking peptide bonds of proteins?


You are trying to teach someone how to select an appropriate margarine to protect against heart disease. Therefore, you would tell the person to:

1) choose one that liquid oil as the first ingredient 2) choose one that is labeled made with sterol ethers

What are Simple sugars?

monosaccharides and disaccharides

glucose (simple sugar)

found in fruits, plats, and vegetables

fructose (simple sugar)

found in fruits and honey. Known as "fruit sugar."

Galactose (simple sugar)

found as part of lactose in milk


glucose + fructose. "table sugar." Made from sugar cane or sugar beets.


glucose + galactose. "milk sugar." Found in all dairy products.


Storage form of glucose in plants (chains of glucose.) Seeds contains starch molecules. Process known as photosynthesis.


Storage form of glucose in animals (lasts less than 24 hours.) Have stored glucose to last about 24 hours (humans)- not exercising. Stored glucose: liver and muscle. Longer and more branched compared to starch.


Many are chains of sugars that humans cannot digest. Forms supporting structures on plants. Classified: insoluble (does not dissolve in water) and solube (dissolves in water.) Total fiber= dietary fiber + functional fiber

Dietary fiber

naturally found in foods

functional fibers

added to food for beneficial effect

What is the minimum RDA needed?

130 g/day

What is the percentage of total calories needed for health?


Why do we need so many carbs?

For blood glucose. Glucose is perferred fuel for body. Nerve cells, brain, red blood cells depend primarily on glucose.

Digestion and absorption of carbs: starch

Digestion starts in mouth. Major digestion in small intestine (pancreatic amylase very important)

Digestion and absorption of carbs: sugars

Disaccharides are digested in small intestine

Digestion and absorption of carbs: fiber

Humans lack enzymes to breakdown fiber. Billions of bacteria living in intestines can break down soluble fiber for energy.

Absorption of carbs

Monosaccharides are absorbed directly into blood. All sugas enter blood and go into liver. Fructose and galactose are converted to glucose in the liver.

Problems with milk digestion

Lactose: principal carbohydrate found in dairy products

Lactose intolerance occurs when people have deficiency of what enzyme and they cannot digest lactose properly


Symptoms of lactose intolerance

nausea, cramps, bloating, diarrhea, and gas

How the body uses glucose

1. Energy, stored, maintains blood glucose levels, and converted to fat in excess

1 g of glucose=

4 calories

If glucose is low:

Protein is broken down and converted to glucose. Fat is broken down and forms ketones. (Ketones provides alternate energy source for brain. Disturbs acid-base balance. Ketosis occurs after fasting two days. At least 130 g of carbs of carbs/ day avoid ketosis

When stored as Glycogen, with high glucose:

Insulin (hormone from pancreas) goes to muscle and liver to build up glycogen

When maintaining blood glucose levels, with high blood glucose levels

insulin (hormone from pancreas) moves glucose into cells

When maintaining blood glucose levels, with low blood glucose:

Glycogen (hormone from pancreas) and Epinephrine where liver digests stored glycogen to release glucose into blood

Once glycogen storage is at maximum capacity what happens?

glucose is stored as fat

Whole grains includes:

germ, endosperm, and bran. Examples: brown rice, oatmeal, and whole wheat.

Refined grains includes:

only the endosperm. Examples: wheat or white bread, white rice. Some vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and fiber are lost.

Enriched grains includes:

have iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate added back. Example: white flour.

soluble fiber

dissolves in water and is fermented (digested) by intestinal bacteria. Examples: pectin in fruits and vegetables, beta-glucan in oats and barley, gums in legumes. Moves slowly through the GI tract. Beans are best source.

Insoulbe fiber

does not dissolve in water. Examples: bran of whole grains, seeds, fruits, and vegetables. Moves rapidly through GI tract (laxative effect)

Total fiber recommendations for 19-50 y/o

1) 25 g for females 2) 38 g for males

Soulble fiber recommendations

1) 6-10 grams a day ( a part of 25 g and 38 g)

&gt;4 g/serving

bran cereals and beans

2-3.9 g/serving

whole wheat pastas amd cereals, many fruits and vegetables

Why should you help maintain body weight?

1) provides minimal energy 2) provides a feeling of fullness

Health benefits of fiber

lowers risk of heart disease and strokes (lowers blood cholesterol. Fiber binds to bile to be excreted. Fiber-rich foods displace CHOL raising food.) and improves body handling of glucose.

Health benefits of insoluble fiber

lower risk of colon cancer, improves health of digestive tract (keeps digestive tract tone (preventing diverticulous), preventing constipation/ hemorrhoids, and prvents appendicitis.)

Problems may be associated with too much fiber

May be deficient in nutrients and energy (Not enough food, bind some minerals (iron, zinc, and calcium), and insoluble fibers limit absorption time.) and dehydration

Does sugar intake cause obesity?


Does sugar intake cause hyperactivity?


Does suagr intake cause diabetes?


Does sugar intake cause heart disease?


Does sugar intake cause dental caries?


Carbs play a role in dental caries

Bacteria in mouth interact with sugars in foods to produce acids. Acids will eat away at teeth and cause deecay.

To minimize tooth decay:

1) Eat 3 balanced meals daily (keep snacking to a minimum, choosing whole fruits and raw vegetables.) 2) Include foods that fight dental caries: cheese, sugarless gum 3) Regular dental care and good dental hygiene

How much added sugar is too much?

DRI: no more than 25% of daily calories

World Health Organization/ Food and Agricultural Organization:

less than 10% of daily calories: 1) For active woman= 14 tsp of sugar daily 2) For active men= 18 tsp of sugar daily


A chronic disease. A disease characterized by high blood glucose levels and inadequate or ineffective insulin. Top ten killer of US adults.

Type 1- 10% of cases

Little or no pancreatic secretion of insulin. Often diagnosed in childhood. Insulin injections are required.

Type 2- 90% of cases

Some cells do not respond to insulin. Elevated blood insulin. Often diagnosed in adulthood. Drugs are usually necessary. People 45 and older or at risk for diabetes should be tested. Higher risk if obese or overweight. More gentically linked.


Impaired glucose tolerance. Blood glucose higher than normal but not yet high enough to be classified as diabetes. Damage to heart and circulatory system can occur.

Diabetes warning:

Thirsty, frequent urination, impaired vision, weight loss, hunger, and slow wound healing

Diabetes complications:

High blood glucose levels cause: 1) Nerve damage, numbness, and poor circulation a) infections, leg and foot amputations 2) Eye damage, blindness 3) Tooth and gum decay 4) Kidney damage 5) Increased risk of heart disease

Blood glucose control is key:

1) Possibly drugs 2) Physical exercise 3) Well-balanced diet containing a) High fiber carbohydrates from whole grains, fruits and vegetables b) Low-fat milk c) Adequate lean protein sources d) unsaturated fats

Symptoms and tr;eatment for Hypoglycemia

hunger, shakiness, dizziness, sweating, light-headedness; Treat low blood glucose and/or identify underlying problems

Name two sugar substitutes

sugar alcohols and artificial sweetners

sugar alcohols

two calories/gram. Examples: sorbitol, isomalt, mannitol, and xylitol. Do not contribute to dental caries. Side effect: diarrhea.

artificial sweetners

sugar free. SUPERSWEET. eXAMPLES: Aspartame, Saccharin, and sucralose. Pose no health risk.

Functions of fats in the body

Major energy storage (why not store glucose? gycogen holds too much water.) Shock absorbers. Insulators (controlling body temperature.) Cell membranes. Transport of proteins in blood.

Functions of fats in food

Energy dense foods. Transportation of fat-soluble vitamins. Taste/ flavor. Tenderness of meats. Flakiness of baked goods. Satiety (feeling of satisfaction after meals.)

Types of lipids

fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols

Fatty acids

Simplest lipids. Over 20 different fatty acids. Can vary by: a) # of carbons in chain b) if double bonds are present c) where double bonds exist.

Types of fatty acids

3 major types: saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats. Saturated fats has no double bonds, monounsaturated fat has 1 double bond, and polyunsaturated fats has 2 or more bonds.

Liquid at room temperature=

unsaturated (can be mono or poly)

Solid at room temperatre=


animal fats=

saturated fats

plant fats=

unsaturated fats, USUALLY..expceptions: palm kernel oil, palm oil, and coconut oil. Oils high in monounsaturated fats are better choices: olive and canola


Are more commonly known as fat. Major form of fat in foods. Storage form of fat in body. Made of : 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids (mixture of three types)


Made of: 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acid (fat soluble), 1 phosphorus (water soluble)

Phospholipids act as?

emulsifiers- to keep oils and water mixed together. Example: lecithin ( Cell membranes and in foods (mayo))


Molecules: rings of carbon atoms with side chains. Example: cholesterol. (Important role in cell membranes, used to make bile and Vitamin D, not required in diet since body makes all cholesterol needed.)

Lipids in Body: Digestion of fats

1) starts in the mouth (chewing and lipase) 2) some in the stomach 3) Majority occurs in small intestine (gallbladder releases bile and pancreas releases lipase.) 4) The final products: monoglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids

Action of bile

acts as an emulsifier

Absorption of fats

digestion fats are absorbed into intestinal cells: 1) small fatty acids: enter blood and travel to liver 2) long fatty acids: are formed into chylomicrons and move into lymphatic system


carry lipids in the blood and also in lymph

Types of lipoproteins

Chylomicrons, Very low density (VLDL), Low Density (LDL), High Density (HDL)


delivers fat from intestines to liver and other tissues


delivers fat made in liver to tissues


delivers cholesterol (CHOL)


picks up CHOL and delivers to liver

storing fat

excess calories are stored as triglycerides in adipocytes (fats)

Using stored fat energy: Used on demand

During low food energy or if burning energy. Fat cells release fat components into the blood, then Hungry cells receive fat, fragment it, combine with a glucose fragment to release Energy.

Fat recommendations

% calories as fat: 20-35% of total calories. <10% of calories from saturated fat/trans fat. Daily Value: 65 total fat, <20 g saturated fat, and <300 mg total CHOL

Fat sources:

Unsaturated fats, saturated fats, cholesterol, and trans fats

Unsaturated fats

Vegetable oils (soybean, corn, and canola.) Soybeans, walnuts, flaxseeds, wheat germ.

Saturated fats

Animal sources: fatty meats, whole-milk, skin on poultry, lard and butter. Plant sources: coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil


only in animal sources

Trans fats

Margarine, shortening (Cisco); plant, and in many snack food

Making better meat and dairy choices: Leaner meat

Look for loin or round in the cut of meat. Beware of: skin in ground turkey/ chicken, marbling, and processing/ frying of turkey/ chicken products (patties, nuggets, fingers, or wings)

Making better meat and dairy choices: Low-fat dairy

Choose 1% or less. Low fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, or cheese

Trans fatty acids: characteristics

Behaves like saturated fat, raises LDL and lowers HDL, and associated with increased inflammation

Trans fatty acids: 2 sources

Hydrogenation of unsaturated fats and small amounts found naturally in beef and dairy.


Makes unsaturated fats more like saturated fats. Benefits: Longer shelf life, spreadable product, stable product, and withstand higher cooking temperatures

sources of hydrogenated fats:

margarine, shortening, baked goods, chips, and fast foods

Finding fats with less hydrogenation: First ingredient

Liquid vegetable oil or water. Soft or liquid oils are better.

Linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid)

Found in many vegetable oils and nuts. Used to make molecules for blood cutting and blood pressure. Increase blood clotting.

alpha-linolenic (omega- 3 fatty acids)

Found in green leafy vegetables, soy and canola oils, and fish oils. Reduce blood clotting.

Advice about consuming essential fats:

Eat fish 2-3X/ week and small amounts of vegetable oils, nuts or seeds. Caution taking fish oil supplement (Raise HDL, fats are easily oxidized, highers bleeding time, oils can be contaminated (Mercury), Possible toxic levels of Vit. A and D, and Expensive.

Cardiovascular disease

Any disease affexting the heart or blood vessels


The most common form of CVD. Hardening of arteries caused from lipid rish plaques

Procees of Atherosclerosis

Damage to arteries, immune cells react, smooth muscle cells of arteries replicate, form plaque, and finally blood clot forms

CVD (omega- 3 fatty acids can reduce): Medical risks

Age, male gender, diabetic, family history of CVD, increase LDL, decrease HDL, and high blood pressure

CVD: lifestyle risks

Cigarette smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, atherogenic diet (high in saturated fat, trans fat, and CHOL), Metabolic Syndrome

Characteristic of metabolic syndrome

Central obesity, abnormal blood lipids (low LDL, high triglycerides), elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose (haven’t had anything to eat for at least 8 hours and whats going on after eating)

Blood lipid goal: Triglyceride

<150 mg/dl

Blood lipid goal: total cholesterol

<200 mg/dl

Blood lipid goal: LDL CHOL

<100 mg/dl

Blood lipid goal: HDL CHOL

>60 mg/dl

How to improve blood lipid levels: decreased LDL

lowered saturated/ trans fats and replace with unsaturated fats, lose weight, consume less CHOL, increase soluble fiber, and stand/sterol esters in diet

how to improve blood lipid levels: increase HDL

increased physical activity, monunsaturated fats in diet (MUFOs), stop smoking, soy products, and alcohol moderation

Fat substitutes: carb- based

using purees of fruit (applesauce)

Fat substitutes: Protein-based and Fat-based

ex.: fat free pringles, wow chips (sucrose and fatty acids, indigestible)

Olestra (Olean)

Advantages: stable, same properties as fat, zero calories. Disadvantages: vitamin looses, risk of upset GI tract, expensive


is a toxic chemical expecially harmful to the nervous system of an unborn child. Accumulates in larger fish than with a longer life.

Fish recommendations during pregnancy

up to 12 oz. of other fish (variety) weekly

Minimize risk of CVD

Eat: legume, vegetables, whole grains, nuts. Less saturated/trans fat and CHOL and Omega-3 fatty acids. Physical activity/manage weight. Keep blood pressure down: limit salt to less than 6 g and limit alcohol to less than 2 drinks/day

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