nervous hw

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Motor innervation to the stomach is classified as __________ .

visceral motor

The somatic sensory division of the PNS __________.

includes general senses of pressure, pain, vibration, and temperature in body wall and limbs

The visceral motor division of the PNS __________.

regulates the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle and regulates secretion by the body’s many glands

A somatic motor neuron carries

motor commands to the skeletal musculature.

The peripheral nerve fibers that speed up the movement of the digestive tract are classified as

general visceral motor (efferent).

True or False?
The somatic motor subdivision of the peripheral nervous system is considered to be an involuntary nervous system.

False

In which direction does the nerve signal pass at the synapse illustrated here?

from presynaptic axon terminal to postsynaptic dendrite

What is the function of synaptic vesicles inside axon terminals?

store and release neurotransmitters

This is the site of communication between neurons.

synapse

The ________ of a presynaptic neuron associates with the dendrite of a postsynaptic neuron.

axon terminal

Chemical signals diffuse between neurons at this location.

synapse

This region of the neuron contains a single nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm.

cell body

This neuronal region transmits electrical impulses away from the cell body.

axon

Which of the following is the correct path an impulse takes across a synapse?

A. dendrite of presynaptic neuron, synaptic cleft, axon of postsynaptic neuron
B. axon of postsynaptic neuron, dendrite of presynaptic neuron, synaptic cleft
C. axon of presynaptic neuron, synaptic cleft, dendrite of postsynaptic neuron
D. synaptic cleft, dendrite of postsynaptic neuron, axon of presynaptic neuron

C. axon of presynaptic neuron, synaptic cleft, dendrite of postsynaptic neuron

Action potentials travel along the

axon membrane

The chemical substance that is released at axon terminals is called a

neurotransmitter

Identify the letter that indicates the region of a neuron where neurotransmitters are released. (picture of the neuron)

E

What is the most likely function of the neuron illustrated here? (B#1)

a sensory neuron

Motor neurons __________.

form junctions with effector cells, stimulating muscles to contract or glands to secrete

Which of the following statements describes interneurons?

A. Interneurons are neurons only found in the autonomic nervous system.
B. Interneurons are an embryonic cell type that becomes a neuron.
C. Interneurons are unipolar neurons whose cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglia.
D. Interneurons are multipolar neurons that are confined to the CNS and are linked together in chains that form complex neuronal pathways.

D. Interneurons are multipolar neurons that are confined to the CNS and are linked together in chains that form complex neuronal pathways.

The majority of neurons in the body are

multipolar

Which of the following statements concerning sensory neurons is incorrect?

A. They have peripheral and central processes.
B. Most are pseudounipolar.
C. Most have their cell bodies in ganglia outside the CNS.
D. They contain only dendrites.

They contain only dendrites.

Interneurons are found

only in the CNS.

Which relatively rare type of neuron has two processes extending from opposite sides of the cell body?

bipolar

True or false?
Most neurons in the body are multipolar neurons.

true

True or false?
Less than 15% of all neurons are interneurons.

false

What important function could be diminished if the cilia on ependymal cells were absent?

circulation of cerebrospinal fluid

Which cells provide the myelin sheath for neurons in the CNS?

oligodendrocyctes

These glial cells surround the cell bodies of sensory neurons within ganglia of the PNS.

satellite cells

Myelin on axons functions to

speed the rate of impulse conduction and insulate neighboring axons from one another

Nonmyelinated axons

conduct impulses more slowly than myelinated axons.

A nerve cell is the same as a

neuron

A node of Ranvier (myelin sheath gap)

is a bare region of axonal membrane in myelinated axons only.

The difference between myelinated and unmyelinated axons is that

Schwann cells wrap around myelinated axons in concentric layers.

Ciliated neuroglial cells that form an epithelium and play an active role in forming and moving cerebrospinal fluid are

ependymal cells.

true or false?
Microglia are ciliated to help circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

false

Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells myelinate neurons within the peripheral nervous system.

false

The entire nerve is surrounded by a tough fibrous sheath called the

epineurium.

The covering of a fascicle within a nerve is the

perineurium

Which of the following sequences puts the components of a reflex arc in the correct order of their activation?

receptor, sensory neuron, CNS integration center, motor neuron, effector

Which of the following is the correct arrangement of a reflex arc?

receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, effector

An axon collateral from one neuron that circles back and synapses with a previous neuron describes

a reverberating circuit.

Which statement below describes the nervous tissue damage associated with multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Myelin sheaths produced by oligodendrocytes are destroyed.

Identify the letter that indicates the gaps between Schwann cells that are known as myelin sheath gaps (nodes of Ranvier).

D

Identify the letter that indicates a Schwann cell.

C

Identify which diagram represents a cell that produces a myelin sheath in the central nervous system.

E

Identify which letter represents an oligodendrocyte.

E

Identify which diagram represents cells that produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid.

D

True or False
A neuron is a collection of nerve fibers in the PNS.

False

Ganglia represent

groups of neuron cell bodies.

Of the following, which is the only structure that is found in the PNS, as opposed to in the CNS?

a ganglion

Which part or parts of the neuron are found in the white matter of the central nervous system?

long axonal processes

How are gray matter and white matter arranged in the CNS?

Gray matter is deep to the superficial white matter in the spinal cord.

White matter represents

myelinated axons traveling together in the CNS.

In the region of the spinal cord, the cell bodies of most interneurons lie in

the dorsal half of the gray matter.

Gray matter in the CNS contains all of the following except

fiber tracts.

The white matter is the site where neuron cell bodies are clustered.

false

Which structure is responsible for formation of the regeneration tube following injury to an axon?

Schwann cells

In what instance is axonal regeneration possible?

If the cell body of a PNS neuron survives when an axon is damaged, axon filaments can extend peripherally from the injured site toward the original target

Regeneration of peripheral axons requires

formation of a tube by Schwann cells to guide growth

Which statement is true concerning neuronal regeneration?

Reinnervation of the target organ with partial recovery of function is sometimes possible in the PNS.

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