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A simple and more familiar type of canon is called


Meter is an organizing principle shared by music and poetry


Traditional music of the Far East is largely


Most large musical ensembles use a conductor in order to perform together


A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern repeated throughout a musical work is called an ostinato


Which of the following terms describes a concordant or agreeable combination of tones


The smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called


A musical form based on statement, departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary form


Describe the organ

Sound is created when air flows through pipes controlled by the organist, Some organs have more than one keyboard, including one played by the feet The sound of an organ can be imitated by electric keyboards and synthesizers

Ternary form is best outlined as A-B-A


The procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is called


A heterophonic texture frequently occurs in music involving improvisation, such as jazz


Which of the following would be classified as an unpitched percussion instrument

bass drum

The striking emotional effect created by the high point in a melodic line is called

The climax

When a piece of music begins on the last beat of a measure, it is said to begin with

an upbeat

Which marking is appropriate for a slow tempo


The percussion family is comprised of a variety of instruments that are made to sound by

striking or shaking:

The trumpet is the lowest in pitch of the brass family


The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra by Britten is based on a dance tune by Beethoven


Meter is the measurement of musical time


A melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known as


Harmonic movement is generated by motion toward a goal or resolution


Disjunct motion describes melodies that skip in disjointed intervals


The special effect produced on a string instrument by plucking the string with the finger is called


The guitar is most likely of African origin


Flutes and whistles are classified as idiophones


Most compositions use one type of texture exclusively


Which of the following is a double reed instrument

the oboe

Forms are fixed molds into which composers force their material


Which of the following songs is in compound meter

Rock-a-bye Baby

Which historical event did NOT take place in the Renaissance

the writing of the Magna Carta

The singing leader in Jewish religious services is called

the cantor

A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate


The Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instruments


The term a cappella refers to choral music performed_______ .

without any instrumental accompaniment

The texts for madrigals are generally drawn from the fixed poetic meters


The raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending forms


Which religious figure is praised in the text of Hildegard’s Alleluia, O virga mediatrix

the Virgin Mary

Who is the Greek god of music?


Women poet-musicians in southern France were called Minnesingers


The overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay’s L’homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-A


The upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices


The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved


The three most important triads used in diatonic harmony are

I, IV, and V

The Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the Magnificat


Instruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal line


The raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending forms


Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion


Renaissance painters preferred symbolism to realism


The service in the Roman Catholic Church that symbolically reenacts the sacrifice of Christ is

the Mass

what does NOT describe Gabrieli’s O quam suavis:

a cappella performance

The High Middle Ages witnessed

the building of great cathedrals,the founding of universities, and the rise of the bourgeoisie

In addition to composing music, Hildegard of Bingen is known for:

visions that foretold the future, founding her own convent and writing religious poetry

The value we place on music today is part of our ancient heritage


The vivid depiction of the text through music, known as word painting, is a hallmark of

the madrigal

Although feudal society was male-dominated, the status of women was raised by prevailing attitudes of chivalry and devotion to the cult of the Virgin Mary


Which of the following characterizes Monteverdi’s madrigal Ecco mormorar l’onde

careful musical pictorialization of specific images

Which was NOT a function of secular music in medieval court life

devotional services

Claudio Monteverdi’s career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periods


A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate


The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved


A sharp will lower the tone by a half step


Which of the following does NOT make frequent use of pentatonic scales

Western art music

Mout me fu grief/Robin m’aime/Portare has three voices, each with the same text


After the Protestant revolt of the early sixteenth century, the Roman Catholic Church responded with a movement to recapture the loyalty of its people

This was known as: the Counter-Reformation

Which of the following was a lively circle or line dance, often performed outdoors


In Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervals


During the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing was

St: Mark’s of Venice

Secular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musicians


What characterizes the minor scale

It has a lowered third degree

A setting of plainchant with many notes per syllable is called syllabic


What characterizes humanism

thinking centered on human issues and individuality, inspiration from the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, and independence from traditional and religion

Instruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal line


The earliest operas took their plots from

Greek mythology

The overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay’s L’homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-A


Bach wrote his Musical Offering for

Frederick the Great:

Dido’s lament from Purcell’s Dido and Aeneus is a da capo aria


The three main keyboard instruments of the Baroque were the harpsichord, organ, and piano


The libretoo for Handel’s oratorio Messiah is a compilation of verses from the Bible


Bach completed just over one hundred cantatas in his lifetime


The French rondeau led directly to the rondo of the eighteenth century


The Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instruments


What Baroque genre was the direct ancestor of the symphony

sonata da camera

During the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing was

St: Mark’s of Venice

Which of the following is noted as a reformer of eighteenth-century opera


The approximate dates of the Baroque period are


Which does NOT characterize an oratorio

elaborate scenery

The expansion and reworking of a theme within a composition is called thematic development


All of the following are fast, lively dance types EXCEPT

the sarabande

Religion remained a driving force behind power struggles in the Baroque era


Johann Sebastian Bach lived a short, unhappy life and had no children


An early American polyphonic setting of a psalm or hymn in an imitative style is called

a fuging tune

The upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices


In earlier times, a composer’s choice of key for a piece depended largely on the capabilities of the instruments for which it was intended


Vivaldi lived and worked in


Bach’s passions are musical setting of the account of the Crucifixion by one of the four Evangelists


As a reaction to the grandiose gesture of the Baroque, the Rococo style was a miniature and ornate art aimed at enchantment of the senses


The harpsichord is different from the piano because

it usually has two keyboards, rather than one, its strings are plucked rather than struck, it is not capable of a wide dynamic range

During the Baroque era, some boy singers were castrated to preserve the high register of their voices, allowing them to sing high-pitched operatic roles


The term trio sonata refers to the number of parts, or musical lines, rather than the number of players


Jean-Joseph Mouret died a celebrated, wealthy artistic hero


A theme may be fragmented by dividing it into smaller units called_____


Late in life, Handel turned his efforts from opera to

the oratorio

It was through the musical innovations of the __________ that opera was born

Florentine Camerata

Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion


The group of early Baroque writers, artists, and musicians whose aim was to resurrect the musical drama of ancient Greece was known as

The Florentine Camerata

Secular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musicians


Claudio Monteverdi’s career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periods


In the Baroque era, music centered on frequent changes of mood


Which best describes how Baroque musicians made a living

as servants to royalty or nobility, as members of the church, and as employees of a free city

Which two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo in the Baroque era

cello and harpsichord

A fugue is a form exclusively for solo keyboard performance


What is NOT a major choral work by Bach


The Baroque era was an age of political freedom and democracy


A sinfonia is a short instrumental passage that facilitates scene changes


In London, Handel composed operas in Italian


In opera, the lyric melodies that release emotional tension are called recitatives


A short phrase repeated over and over in the bass is called

a ground bass

What is the typical form of a Scarlatti sonata

one-movement binary form

The opening movement of Bach’s cantata A Mighty Fortress Is Our God is best described as

a fugal chorale

The orchestra plays a prominent role in the second movement of Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No

2: False

Which best describes the form of the final love duet in The Coronation of Poppea

A-B-B-A, with ground bass

The French overture is composed in three sections


What is the form of the individual movements in a suite


Barbara Strozzi was probably trained as a courtesan, in singing, lute playing, and writing poetry


What does NOT characterize Vivaldi’s concertos The Four Seasons

They avoid ritornello form

While playing the basso continuo, musicians in the Baroque era improvised on the figured bass


The chaconne is a variation form based on a repeated succession of harmonies


The role of the chorus was especially important in the oratorio


The Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the Magnificat


Purcell’s opera, Dido and Aeneus, was composed for

a girls’ school production in Chelsy:

Corelli’s trio sonatas served as models for the establishment of the church and chamber sonata


In a fugue, the areas of relaxation where the subject is not heard are called


The only basic rule of theme and variations form is that the theme must always be easily heard


The instrument which Mozart played and for which he wrote many concertos was

the piano:

The American Declaration of Independence reflects the intellectual climate of the Classical era


Mozart is remembered today as________

the most gifted child prodigy in the history of music

Which best describes the form of the first movement of Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik


In the nineteenth-century symphony, the minuet was often replaced by the scherzo


The classical attitude toward art is considerably more objective than the Romantic


Modern scientists have shown that listening to Mozart

helps with solving math problems

The famous four-note figure at the beginning of Beethoven’s Symphony No 5 is best described as

a motive

Ancient people (the Greeks and Romans, especially) believed that music had no effect on the body


A string quartet consists of

2 violins, viola, and cello

The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, development, and


The Classical string quartet literature follows the same basic formal design as the symphony and sonata


What best describes the opening of the first movement of Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik

a march-like character

Romantic elements can be found in the late works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven


In sonata-allegro form, the section that features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay is called

the development

Mozart was consistently supported by Vienna’s most important patrons


The harmony of the Classical-era composers was largely chromatic


The term multimovement cycle is applied not only to sonatas and chamber music but also to concertos and symphonies


The percussion section of a modern orchestra includes a number of instruments of Turkish origin


The first movement of a Classical concerto features sonata-allegro form with

a double exposition

In the first movement of a Classical concerto, there is usually a double exposition


Beethoven, like Mozart, wrote music very quickly and with great ease


Mozart’s Symphony No 40 in G minor can be viewed as Romantic in spirit


Beethoven opposed democracy in favor of the rule of a strong leader


The third movement of a Classical symphony is most frequently in

minuet and trio form

How many movements were typical of pre-Classical symphonies


In Haydn’s time, the trumpet had not yet advanced beyond the natural form of the instrument with no valves


In Haydn’s The Creation, the soloists include three archangels Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael


Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op27, No: 2, was subtitled "Moonlight" by______

the poet Rellstab shortly after the composer’s death

How is the melody of Schubert’s Lied The Trout used in the quintet of the same name

It is the basis of a theme and variations movement

The __________ accompanies the baritone voice in the Tuba mirum section of Mozart’s Requiem


A trouser role is sung by a man in eighteenth-century opera


The Trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, composed in 1796, was Haydn’s last orchestral work


Turkish percussion instruments can be heard in Beethoven’s Symphony No_____


Mozart’s Requiem was sung in a worldwide memorial for the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States


Which character in Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro is best described as a young, innocent man who is in love with love


Who was Haydn’s principal patron

Prince Esterhazy

The music of which composer inspired Haydn to write an oratorio


In the Classical era, the sonata was intended for professional musicians only


Haydn’s orchestras in London were smaller than his earlier ensembles


The career of Joseph Haydn spanned the years from the formation of the Classical style to the beginning of Romanticism


The Janissary band was

a Turkish military ensemble

Mozart wrote his piano concertos primarily for his own public performances


The text of the Ode to Joy, set as the finale of Beethoven’s Symphony No 9, is by


The last movement of Mozart’s Sonata in A major, K 331, is inspired by music from which country


The first movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in G major, K 453, is monothematic


Of the following, which characterizes Maria Theresa Paradis

woman virtuoso pianist, student of Mozart, blind since birth

Unlike Mozart, Beethoven used sketchbooks to work out musical ideas


Mozart’s librettist for The Marriage of Figaro was

Lorenzo da Ponte

In depicting "Chaos" at the beginning of The Creation, Haydn

composes a dramatic C-minor overture

Beethoven belonged to a generation of artists who were influenced by the full impact of:

the French Revolution

Beethoven’s famous Moonlight Sonata has _______ movements


The early Classical symphony was characterized by quickly ascending themes with a strong rhythmic drive

These are known as: rocket themes

In the nineteenth century, the Mass was performed only in church


The first movement of a symphony is usually in

sonata-allegro form

During the Classical era, the prevalent form of opera that occupied itself mainly with the affairs of nobility and Greek legends was

opera seria

A typical feature of a concerto is a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment called

the cadenza

Comic opera was generally in the language of the audience or in the vernacular


Beethoven and Mozart wrote duo sonatas that treated the two instruments as nearly equal partners


What is the form of the last movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in G major, K 453


The fourth movement of a Classical symphony is usually quicker and lighter than the first movement


Beethoven’s Battle Symphony pays tribute to

Wellington’s victory over Napoleon:

What is unusual about Beethoven’s Symphony No 5

There is no break between the third and fourth movements

The text for the Dies irae is a poem in 3-line rhymed verses


Rapid-fire, talky singing whose primary function is to advance the plot in an opera is called


The terzetta, or trio, from Act I of The Marriage of Figaro is in rondo form


Opera buffa was typically serious in tone, with plots dealing with historical or legendary figures


In the Classical concerto, the marking of andante or adagio would most likely apply to the third movement


Using material from an earlier movement in a symphony is called

cyclical form

Schubert set his Trout Quintet in the standard four-movement structure


The form of the first movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op 27, No 2

is a modified song form

In the latter part of the eighteenth century, new opera types were devised that featured naturalness and simplicity


Beethoven achieved much acclaim during his lifetime and died a famous and revered composer


The establishment of a four-movement cycle for the symphony is generally credited to the London school of composers


The sonata is an instrumental work in one movement for one or two solo instruments


Beethoven was unable to compose music after he became deaf


Who wrote Kyrie," from the L’homme Armé Mass

Guillaume Du Fay

What year was Guillaume Du Fay born


What year did Du Fay die


What is the significance of Kyrie

This movement, which is the opening movement of the mass, is divided into three sections based on the text. Each section begins with 3 of the 4 voice parts; the tenor joins later and has the slower moving fixed tune (cantus firmus)

cantus firmus

"fixed melody", usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the Renaissance

Who wrote "Gloria," from Pope Marcellus Mass

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

What year was Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina born


What year did Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina die


What is the significance of Gloria

Monophonic chant opening, Changes of density and texture set in various registers, A cappella performance, Clearly audible text set syllabically, Alternation of homorhythmic and polyphonic textures, Full, consonant harmony


all parts sing different notes or rhythms at the same time


single melodic line without supporting harmonies


where all the voices move in the same rythm

Who wrote Fair Phyllis

John Farmer

What year was John Farmer born

fl 1591

What year did John Farmer die


Who wrote A Mighty Fortress is our God or Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott

Johann Sebastian Bach

What year was Bach born


What year did Bach die


What is significance of Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott

imitative treatment of the familiar tune in all voice parts and in the trumpets. Dense polyphonic texture created between chorus and orchestra for each line of text, Canon on chorale tune heard in the instruments , played in augmentation


Same sequence as someone else but one beat after.


the statement of a theme in notes of greater duration (usually twice the length of the original)

Who wrote "Spring" from the Four Seasons

Antonio Vivaldi

What year was Antonio Vivaldi born


What year did Antonio Vivaldi die


What is the significance of Spring from the four seassons

Musical pictorialization of images of spring, based on the poem, Virtuosity of solo violin part, with fast-running scales and trills. Recurring theme


short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto


a note that alternates rapidly with another note a semitone above it

Who wrote Water Music in D Major

George Frideric Handel

What year was Handel born


What year did Handel die


What is significant about Spring from The Four Seasons

tenary form, section with dotted rhythms, followed by a return of the opening material, Fanfare-like opening with quick exchanges between brass and strings. Percussion (timpani) added to orchestra.

ternary form:

3 part form. The piece divides into 3 parts of which the 3rd is an exact repeat, or almost so, of the first part

binary form

a musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other


a short lively tune played on brass instruments

Who wrote String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth Movement

Joseph Haydn

What year was Joseph Haydn born


What year did Hayden die


What is the significance of String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth Movement

Folklike character, with strongly syncopated dance rhythms, Opening theme introduced by first violin, stated in 2 parts, each repeated (A-A-B-B), First violin dominates the melody throughout, Shift from opening minor key (D minor) to brighter, major key (D major)

minor key

a piece of music based in the minor scale, with a sad or haunting sound

major key

a piece of music based in the major scale, Scale built on thee formula of two whole steps, one half step, three whole steps, one half step.


temporary irregularity in musical rhythm

Who wrote Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

What year was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born


What year did Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart die


What is the significance of Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music)

Sonata-Allegro form, Intimate string chamber music style. Quick-paced movement with 3 themes, sonata-allegro form Overall homophonic texture. First theme is disjunt, marchlike, and ascends quickly (rocket theme); second theme, graceful and conjunct.

Sonata Allegro

Classical period, dramatic musical form involving exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda

Rocket theme

quickly ascending rhythmic melody used in Classical-era instrumental music; the technique is credited to the composers in Mannheim, Germany


musical texture which focuses on a single melody with accompaning harmonies (mainly chordal)


progressing melodically by intervals larger than a major second


melody that moves in stepwise motion without major skips and leaps between the intervals, Smooth, connected melody that moves principally in stepwise motion,


the highness or lowness of a particular sound


number of vibrations per second.


volume or loudness of sound


the tune in music, a sequence of moving pitches that create thought


span of pitches


general shape of a melody.


distances between any two pitches of a melody.


a unit that makes up a melody

Counter melody

a melody accompanied by a second melody


the point where the musician takes a deep breath, the punctuation for music.


the movement of music in time.


the basic unit of rhythm.


first beat of any patter


the last beat of a measure


a weak beat


the organized pattern of rhythmic pulses

Duple meter

a simple marching meter (left-right-left-right)

Triple meter

a simple meter that has three beats to a measure and is often used for waltzes

Quadruple Meter

a simple that has four beats to a measure with the primary accent on first beat and second strongest on the third

Compound meters

a meter where the beat is divided into three


what marks of meter, contains a fixed number of beats


a term used to describe simultaneous events in music, also the movement of one chord to the next


three or more notes all sound together at once.


interval of eight notes


group of eight pitches arranged in ascending and descending order


a combination of three notes or tones

tonic note

the first note of a scale or key, also called a keynote


a combination of tones that are dcordant


a combination of tones that need to be resolved


The resolving of dsonance, notes are pleasing to the ears


the sustained sounding of one or more tones for harmonic support, common in Asian and folk music


the combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines

strophic form

melody repeated with each stanza


solemn or very, very slow.


broad or very slow


quite slow.


a walking pace.


of course moderate.


a fast or cheerful pace.


a lively pace.


very fast.






a little.

Non troppo

not too much

Piansimo (pp

very soft.

Piano (p)

very soft

Mezzo piano(mp)

moderately soft



Mezzo forte(mf)

moderately loud.


a very loud piece of music.


to accent a single note or cord


instruments that produce sound by using air., horns, bagpipes, whistles and accordions.


produce sound from vibrating sting that is stretched between two separate points, Violins, sitars, guitars, harps and Chinese yangquins


instrument that produces sound by vibration of materials they are made of


instrument that makes sound when its stretched membrane is struck or rubbed

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