Microbiology Chapter 3

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Which of the following is NOT a membranous organelle within a eukaryotic cell?


The process of bringing a solid substance into the cell is known as __________.

can undergo transcription and translation simultaneously

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a eukaryotic cell?

their ribosomal proteins

The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following aspects EXCEPT __________.


The hami of some archaea are used for which of the following processes?


PHB is NOT associated with which of the following words?

The cell will gain water.

A bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen?

It has a cell wall that contains endotoxin.

A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain. Which of the following is FALSE?

It will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cells of the host.

A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx. Which of the following is FALSE?

energy production

If a eukaryotic cell suffers damage to its mitochondria, which of the following processes of life would be most immediately affected?

sexual reproduction

Which of the following is NOT a basic process of life?


The filament and basal body are associated with which of the following external structures found in some bacterial cells?

Gram-negative cells only

A periplasmic space is found in which of the following?

facilitated diffusion

Which of the following processes can be either specific or nonspecific depending upon the particular molecules that are transported?


Which of the following would NOT be found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell?

rotate as bacterial flagella do

Archaeal flagella __________.


Which of the following would NOT be expected to be present in a biochemical analysis of an archaeal cell?

a Gram-positive cell wall

Which of the following would contain teichoic acids?


Which of the following is NOT a component of eukaryotic cell walls?


In a hypotonic environment, the vacuole of a plant cell enlarges and pushes the cytoplasm against the cell wall. Which organelles are most likely able to store that extra water?

amino acids

Bacterial Cell Walls video Part A. Peptidoglycans are composed of sugars and _____.


Part B. One chain of alternating NAGs and NAMs is connected to another chain via _____.


Part C. One of the main differences between a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall is that the peptidoglycan portion of a Gram-positive cell wall is _____ as compared to a Gram-negative cell wall.

two N-acetylmuramic acid molecules

Part D. Within the peptidoglycan layer, the crossbridges that connect the chains of alternating sugar molecules extend between _____.

a chain-like fence

Part E. The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is most analogous to _____.

They serve to stabilize the cell wall and hold it in place.

Part F. What role do the teichoic acids play within the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria?

periplasmic space

Part G. The region between the outer and inner membranes of a Gram-negative bacterial cell is known as the __________, and it is the location of enzymes that assemble peptidoglycan.

The lysis of the cells releases lipid A from the lipopolysaccharide layer.

Part H. A patient is infected with Gram-negative bacteria and is experiencing only mild symptoms. When the patient is given an antibiotic causing lysis of the bacterial cells, he suddenly experiences an increase in inflammation and fever, as well as the formation of blood clots. What explanation best describes what happened?

short amino acid chains, NAG, NAM, and some lipid proteins

Academic Publishing Company. Part A Bacterial Cell Wall. How would you expect a microbiology student to be able to describe the composition of peptidoglycan? What is the composition of the peptidoglycan layers found in the cell wall of bacteria? Pick the answer that lists the composition of the bacterial cell wall.

Gram-positive bacterial cell wall: thick layer of peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, single lipid bilayer membrane
Gram-negative bacterial cell wall: lipopolysaccharides, periplasmic space, thin layer peptidoglycan, dual lipid bilayer membranes

Part B. Different Types of Bacterial Cell Walls. Place each attribute into the bin of the bacterial group it belongs to, based on whether the bacterium is a Gram-positive or a Gram-negative cell.


Part C. Purpose of the Bacterial Cell Wall: The composition of the cell wall allows for the expansion and contraction of the cell wall in response to the gain or loss of water from the cell. Choose True or False.


Part D. A cell wall is a requirement for all living bacteria. Choose True or False.

Bin1- cocci
Bin2- bacilli
Bin3- staphylococci
Bin4- streptobacilli
Bin5- vibrio
Bin6- spirochete

Part E- Bacterial Cell Shapes. Bin 1 – Image of a single round bacterium. Bin 2 – Image of a single rodishaped bacterium. Bin 3 – Image of a cluster of round bacteria. Bin 4 – Image of a string of rodishaped bacteria. Bin 5 – Image of a vibrio (commaishaped) bacterium. Bin 6 – Image of a corkscrewishaped spirochete bacterium. Drag the descriptive terms to the pictured bacterial shapes


Part F. Cell Wall Appendages. Bacterial flagella have a biological motor that spins within the cell wall and is powered by ATP. This allows the flagella to spin in a whiplike motion to propel the bacterium. Is this statement True or False? Choose the answer that you think is correct.


Flagella Video. Part A. What structural part of a bacterial flagellum is composed of flagellin?

A Gram-positive flagellum has only two rings in its basal body; Gram-negatives each have four.

Part B. How are Gram-positive and Gram-negative flagella different?

anchor the flagellum to the cell membrane.

Part C. The rings

Rod and Rings

Part D. The basal body is comprised of which structural component(s) of flagella?

can be identified and classified by differences in their flagellar proteins.

Part E. Pathogenic bacteria

the flagella rotate clockwise

Flagella Video. Part A Tumbles occur when


Part B. Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?

the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled.

Part C. Peritrichous bacteria make a run when

Lophotrichous and monotrichous

Part D. Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?

Flagella can rotate 360 degrees.

Flagella Video. Part A. Which of the following statements about bacterial flagella is true?

movement towards or away from a stimulus.

Part B. Taxis is

Positive phototaxis

Part C. Which of the following terms refers to a bacterium moving towards a light source?

runs to become more frequent

Part D. As a bacterium approaches a food source, one would expect

The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella.

Part E. Why are receptors on the cell surface necessary for bacterial movement?


Membrane Permeability Video. Part A. Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?

through integral transport proteins.

Part B. Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell

It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins.

Part C. What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?

would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane.

Part D. A positively charged sodium ion

It powers the diffusion of water across the cell membrane.

Part E. Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false?

They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.

Membrane Structure video. Part A. What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?

transport function

Part B. Integral proteins are mostly involved in

By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein

Part C. How does water enter and exit a cell?

is a type of peripheral protein above that can be used as a receptor or in enzymatic functions.

Part D. A glycoprotein

N-acetylmuramic acid

Part A. Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms? (concept mapping activity)

both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms

Part B. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit the growth of __________.

Gram negative; membrane

Part C. Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer of ___________.

ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient.

Active Transport Video. Part A. Why is ATP necessary for active transport?


Part B. Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?

Uniport and Symport

Part C. Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?

Both the circle and the square

Part D. Which molecule shown in the animation, the square or the circle, is moving against its concentration gradient?

Antiport and Symport

Part E. Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?


Active Transport Video Part A. Which of the active transport types employs diffusion?


Part B. What type of transport uses two transport proteins?


Part C. Sodium and potassium ions need to be pumped simultaneously against their concentration gradients. Which one of the transport proteins would be most effective at this?

They provide transport proteins with the energy needed to pump molecules against their concentration gradients.

Part D. Why are ATPases associated with active transport proteins?


Part E. Efflux pumps can be used to pump antibiotics out of a cell once they enter to protect the cell. This will be done against the concentration gradient of the antibiotic. Which of the active transports would most likely be used?

The concentration gradient drives the movement.

Passive Transport Video Part A. Why is no energy required in passive transport?

molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.

Part B. Once equilibrium is reached,

Positively charged hydrogen ions

Part C. Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?

Water movement is driven by the concentration of solutes rather than its own concentration.

Passive Transport Video Part A. How is osmosis different from simple diffusion?

allow a variety of molecules to cross the cytoplasmic membrane.

Part B.Nonspecific permeases

The cell will lose its interior water, causing it to shrivel up and possibly die.

Part C. What will happen to a cell that is placed in a solution containing a high concentration of sugar, a molecule that cannot pass across the cell membrane?

Simple diffusion does not require a permease.

Part D. How is simple diffusion different from other types of passive transport?

Nadia’s white blood cells have a nucleus, while the Streptococcus pyogenes do not.

The Big Game Part A. When the nurse practitioner looked into Nadia’s throat, she saw white spots on the tonsils. These were white blood cells attempting to fight off the infection. Which of the following statements explains a key difference between Nadia’s white blood cells and the Streptococcus pyogenes infecting her throat?


Part B. Which of the following is NOT a function of the Streptococcus pyogenes cytoplasmic membrane?

the presence of teichoic acid

Part C. Nadia has an infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which has a Gram-positive cell wall. What distinguishes Gram-positive bacterial cell walls from Gram-negative bacteria cell walls?

damage to the bacterial cell wall

Part D.Penicillin is used to treat Streptococcus pyogenes infections. Treatment is successful when the pathogen is killed, but the medication does not harm the host cells. Penicillin disrupts the peptide bridges between NAM units. This results in __________.

both fimbriae and glycocalyces

Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?


Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of

Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.

Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is TRUE?

Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.

Which of the following statements concerning pili is FALSE?


Bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain


Lipid A is a component of


Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma lack cell walls. What sort of environment do they require for survival?


Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes?

During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.

Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?

group translocation.

The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of


Endocytosis and exocytosis are means of transport used by


Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of 50S and 30S subunits.


Which of the following is classified as a nonmembranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?

Only gram-negative cells have a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer.

Which of the following statements accurately describes a difference between gram-positive and gram-negative cells?


BioFlix Tour of Animal Cell Video Part A. Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?


Part B. The structural framework in a cell is the


Part C. Where in a cell is ATP made?


Part D. What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?


Part E. One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by

Golgi apparatus

Part F. Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?


Part G. Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles?

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Part H. Where are lipids made in the cell?

plasma membrane

Part I. What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?

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