Microbiology Chapter 19

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D

Hypersensitivity is due to A) The presence of an antigen. B) Immunity. C) The presence of antibodies. D) An altered immune response. E) Allergies.

A

The chemical mediators of anaphylaxis are A) Found in basophils and mast cells. B) Antibodies. C) Antigens. D) Antigen-antibody complexes. E) The proteins of the complement system.

C

Which of the following may result from systemic anaphylaxis? A) Hay fever B) Asthma C) Shock D) Hives E) Immunodeficiency

C

Which antibodies will be in the serum of a person with blood type B, Rh-? A) Anti-A, anti-B, anti-Rh B) Anti-A, anti-Rh C) Anti-A D) Anti-B, anti-Rh E) Anti-B

D

Which type of transplant is least compatible? A) Autograft B) Allograft C) Isograft D) Xenotransplant E) All of the above are equally compatible.

E

Which of the following is NOT used to determine relatedness between a donor and a recipient for transplants? A) ABO antigens B) ABO antibodies C) MHC antigens D) MHC antibodies E) All of the above are used to determine relatedness between donor and recipient.

B

Graft-versus-host disease will most likely be a complication of A) A skin graft. B) A bone marrow transplant. C) A blood transfusion. D) An Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus. E) All of the above.

A

Immune complexes include A) Antibodies against self and complement. B) Viruses and antiviruses. C) IgE antibodies. D) Macrophages and T cells. E) CTLs.

B

A healthy immune system destroys cancer cells with A) Tumor-specific antigens. B) CTLs. C) IgG antibodies. D) IgE antibodies. E) CD4+ T cells.

B

The symptoms of an immune complex reaction are due to A) Destruction of the antigen. B) Complement fixation. C) Phagocytosis. D) Antibodies against self. E) Cytokines.

A

Autoimmunity is due to A) IgG and IgM antibodies. B) IgA antibodies. C) IgD antibodies. D) IgE antibodies. E) CTLs.

A

Allergic contact dermatitis is due to A) Sensitized T cells. B) IgG antibodies. C) IgE antibodies. D) IgM antibodies. E) Activated macrophages.

A

Which of these causes of glomerulonephritis leads to all the others? A) Antibodies against Streptococcus B) Circulating immune complexes C) Complement fixation D) Formation of immune complexes E) Production of IgG

C

Which of these causes damage to kidney cells in glomerulonephritis? A) Antibodies against Streptococcus B) Circulating immune complexes C) Complement fixation D) Formation of immune complexes E) Production of IgG

B

A hypersensitivity reaction occurs A) During the first exposure to an antigen. B) On a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen. C) In immunologically tolerant individuals. D) During autoimmune diseases. E) In individuals with diseases of the immune system.

A

Which of the following statements about type I hypersensitivities is false? A) They are cell-mediated. B) They involve IgE antibodies. C) The symptoms are due to histamine. D) Antibodies are bound to host cells. E) The symptoms occur soon after exposure to an antigen.

C

Which of the following statements about type IV hypersensitivities is false? A) They are cell-mediated. B) The symptoms occur within a few days after exposure to an antigen. C) They can be passively transferred with serum. D) The symptoms are due to lymphokines. E) They contribute to the symptoms of certain diseases.

C

Which of the following blood transfusions are incompatible? Donor Recipient 1. AB, Rh- AB, Rh+ 2. A, Rh+ A, Rh- 3. A, Rh+ O, Rh+ 4. B, Rh- B, Rh+ 5. B, Rh+ A, Rh+ A) 2 and 5 B) 1, 2, and 3 C) 2, 3, and 5 D) 3 and 4 E) 1 and 2

B

Hemolytic disease of the newborn can result from A) An Rh+ mother with an Rh- fetus. B) An Rh- mother with an Rh+ fetus. C) An AB mother with a B fetus. D) An AB mother with an O fetus. E) An Rh- mother and an A fetus.

B

Reaction of antigen with IgE antibodies attached to mast cells causes A) Lysis of the cells. B) Release of chemical mediators. C) Complement fixation. D) Agglutination. E) Hemolysis.

C

Which of the following involves a monoclonal antitumor antibody and a toxin? A) Immunologic enhancement B) Immunologic surveillance C) Immunotherapy D) Immunosuppression E) Immune complex

D

Which of the following may be inherited or result from HIV infection? A) Immunologic enhancement B) Immunologic surveillance C) Immunotherapy D) Immunosuppression E) Autoimmunity

D

Treatment with certain drugs to reduce transplant rejection can cause A) Immunologic enhancement. B) Immunologic surveillance. C) Immunotherapy. D) Immunosuppression. E) Autoimmunity

B

Which of the following statements about human embryonic stem cells is false? A) They produce MHC I antigens. B) They produce MHC II antigens. C) They are pluripotent. D) They are undifferentiated.

B

In the immune complex reaction shown in Figure 19.1, what is the structure labeled a? A) Antibody B) Antigen C) Complement D) Neutrophil E) Mast cell

D

In the immune complex reaction shown in Figure 19.1, what is the structure labeled b? A) Antibody B) Antigen C) Complement D) Neutrophil E) Mast cell

A

Worldwide, the primary method of transmission of HIV is A) Heterosexual intercourse. B) Homosexual intercourse. C) Intravenous drug use. D) Blood transfusions. E) Nosocomial.

C

Someone with AIDS probably A) Does not make any antibodies. B) Makes T-dependent antibodies. C) Makes T-independent antibodies. D) Makes TC- and Treg-dependent antibodies. E) None of the above.

A

Which of the following is the LEAST likely vaccine against HIV? A) Attenuated virus B) Glycoprotein C) Protein core D) Subunit E) All of the above are equally likely.

E

Which of the following is a possible outcome of an HIV infection? A) Latency B) Slow production of new viruses C) TC-killing of infected cells D) Viral-killing of infected cells E) All of the above

D

Which of the following does NOT transmit HIV? A) Homosexual activity B) Heterosexual activity C) Hypodermic needles D) Mosquitoes E) Human milk

B

Drugs, such as AZT and ddC, currently used to treat AIDS act by A) Stimulatory TH cells. B) Stopping DNA synthesis. C) Promoting antibody formation. D) Neutralizing the virus. E) All of the above.

A

During asymptomatic phase I of HIV disease, HIV infection is diagnosed by A) Measuring viral RNA. B) Measuring antibodies against HIV. C) Counting CD4+ T cells. D) Counting CD8+ T cells. E) Testing for seroconversion.

E

Which one of the following statements about HIV is false? A) CD8+ T cells decrease the viral load. B) HIV can be transmitted by cell-to-cell contact. C) Bone marrow can be a reservoir for future infection. D) Viral infection of TH cells results in signs elsewhere in the patient. E) Long-term nonprogessors lack CD4 molecules.

C

Which of the following is NOT an immune complex disease? A) Rheumatic fever B) Systemic lupus erythematosus C) Hemolytic disease of the newborn D) Glomerulonephritis E) Psoriasis

E

Which of the following is NOT considered a type I hypersensitivity? A) Asthma B) Dust allergies C) Penicillin allergic reactions D) Pollen allergies E) Transplant rejections

C

All of the following lead to drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura.Which occurs first? A) Antibodies are made against the drug. B) Complement is fixed. C) Drug binds to platelets. D) Platelets are destroyed

A

Immunodeficiencies are caused by all of the following. Which one does NOT cause an acquired immunodeficiency? A) Chromosomal-linked B-cell deficiency B) Cyclosporine to inhibit IL-2 secretion C) HIV infection D) Rapamycin to inhibit IL-2 action E) All of the above cause an acquired immunodeficiency.

A

Which of the following describes a cytotoxic autoimmune reaction? A) Antibodies react to cell-surface antigens. B) Antibodies are not made. C) Cells are killed. D) Immune complexes form. E) Mediate by T cells.

C

Symptoms of delayed cell-mediated reactions are due to A) IgE antibodies. B) Cytotoxic T cells. C) Cytokines. D) IgG antibodies. E) Antigens.

A

Desensitization involves injection of A) Antigens. B) IgG antibodies. C) IgE antibodies. D) Antihistamine. E) Histamine.

C

The following events occur if human cells expressing HLA-I are mixed with anti-HLA-I, complement, and trypan blue. What step indicates the cells are HLA-I? A) The MAC makes a pore in the plasma membrane. B) Complement is fixed. C) Trypan blue enters the cells. D) Antibody binds to the cells. E) None of the above; the T cells are missing.

B

In rheumatoid arthritis, IgM, IgG, and complement deposit in joints. This is an example of A) Cytotoxic autoimmunity. B) Immune complex autoimmunity. C) Cell-mediated autoimmunity. D) Immunosuppression. E) Acquired immunodeficiency.

C

MMR vaccine contains hydrolyzed gelatin. A person receiving this vaccine could develop an anaphylactic reaction if the person has A) An immunodeficiency. B) Antibodies against eggs. C) Antibodies against gelatin. D) Received the influenza vaccine. E) Antibodies against measles.

B

Delayed hypersensitivities are due to A) IgE antibodies. B) T cells. C) IgG antibodies. D) Platelets. E) Antibodies against self.

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