MGT Quiz 9

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Our perceptions of equity or fair treatment are significantly associated with job satisfaction, commitment, performance, and turnover.


According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, in the zone between the motivating factors and the hygiene factors, employees are _____.

neither satisfied or dissatisfied

_______ is the use of desirable consequences to strengthen a particular behavior.

positive reinforcement

Self-determination theory assumes that people are driven to try to grow and attain fulfillment, with their behavior and well-being influenced by three innate needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness.


For managers, the importance of Maslow’s contribution is that he showed that workers _____.

have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck

The theory under which people make the choice that promises them the greatest reward if they think they can get it is _____.

expectancy theory

Managers can use both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to encourage better work performance.


According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a hygiene factor?

interpersonal relationships

In equity theory, employees are motivated to _____.

resolve feelings of injustice and see fairness in the rewards they expect for task performance

The process of strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative is called _____.

negative reinforcement

A simple model of motivation does not include which of the following?


In reinforcement theory, both extinction and punishment increase the likelihood that a given behavior will be repeated.


Having a best friend at work is not a factor that is characteristic of the best workplaces.


According to equity theory, employees who feel they are being underrewarded might respond by doing less work, calling in sick, or leaving early.


____________ is the theory that attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated while behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated.

reinforcement theory

Goal-setting theory suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that have all of the following characteristics except _____.

little or no feedback

Need-based perspectives try to explain why employees have different needs, what behaviors they select to satisfy them, and how they decide if their choices were successful.


According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are associated with job dissatisfaction.


It is natural for people to set and strive for goals; even if people don’t understand and accept the goals, the goal-setting process is useful.


McClelland believes that achievement, affiliation, and power are major motives which determine people’s behavior in the workplace and that we learn these from the culture and our life experiences.


Managers use motivation to get talented prospective workers to work for them.


When workers perceive they are being treated fairly on the job, they are most likely to _____.

support organizational change

When using punishment, a manager should _____.

do it in conjunction with positive reinforcement

McClelland identifies the need for institutional power as positive and involving problem solving to further mutual goals.


According to expectancy theory, for a person’s motivation to be high, he or she must be high on all three elements: instrumentality, performance, and valence.


Positive reinforcement is the process of strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative.


If you assign a lot of importance or a high value to your prospective bonus or pay raise, then your valence is said to be high.


The weakening of behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced is called _____.


Inputs, outputs, and comparisons are the essential elements in equity setting theory.


According to goal-setting theory, goal setting helps motivate you by doing all the following except _____.

taking attention away from real work

According to Herzberg’s theory, the first thing managers of employees who dislike their jobs should do is to _____.

make sure pay levels, policies, and working conditions are reasonable

Maslow’s levels of needs, in order from lowest (most basic) to highest level, are _____.

physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization

Theories that try to understand the thought processes by which people decide how to act are called _____.

process perspectives

Those with a high need for achievement may be the least efficient managers because they resist making decisions that make others resent them.


According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a motivating factor?

the work itself

In using reinforcement, a manager should _____.

clearly communicate the desired behavior

No matter how fair managers think the organization’s policies, procedures, and reward system are, each employee’s perception of those factors is what counts.


When using goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers should _____.

help employees understand and accept the goals

An extrinsic reward such as money is the payoff a person receives from others for performing a particular task.


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