MGT Chap 15

26.
When employees in an organization have reason to believe that the management is overlooking their needs and interests, they are likely to respond by collectively forming _____.
A.

partnerships

B.

bureaus

C.

trade associations

D.

labor unions

E.

Interest groups

d

27.
Organizations that are formed in order to represent their members' interests while dealing with employers are known as
A.

employee guilds.

B.

sororities.

C.

lobbies.

D.

member clubs.

E.

labor unions.

e

28.
Max, a new supervisor at Freson Inc., is being trained on skills that managers and union leaders require to encourage employee-management cooperation. He is learning the different ways of dealing with employee-management conflicts and how to resolve situations in ways that benefit both parties. In the context of labor management, Max is receiving training on _____.
A.

checkoff provisions

B.

right-to-work laws

C.

maintenance of membership

D.

labor relations

E.

corporate campaigns

d

29.
A labor union in which all of the members have a particular skill or occupation is known as a(n) _____ union.
A.

common

B.

industrial

C.

craft

D.

regional

E.

employer's

c

30.
Alonso, the union steward at Selzar Inc., is attempting to persuade members of management to make certain revisions to the company's policies on job security and work rules on behalf of the union. The union believes that company management has neglected these aspects of the company's administration system for too long. Which of the following levels of decisions is Alonso most likely concerned with in this scenario?
A.

forming labor relations strategies

B.

administering agreements

C.

negotiating contracts

D.

terminating contracts

E.

forming dissociation strategies

c

31.
The United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters is a labor union that seeks to unite plumbers and pipefitters from around the country. The members of this union exhibit the same set of skills and are proficient in relatively similar tasks. Such an association is most likely an example of a(n) _____.
A.

craft union

B.

industrial union

C.

local union

D.

business union

E.

vertical union

a

32.
Which of the following is true of a craft union?
A.

It represents many different occupations.

B.

Membership in the union is the result of working for a particular employer in the industry.

C.

Changing employers is not very common.

D.

It is often responsible for training members through apprenticeships.

E.

It consists of members who are linked by their work in a particular industry.

d

33.
Identify the statement that characterizes an industrial union.
A.

All the members are in the same occupation.

B.

Union leaders try to limit the number of members in order to maintain high wages.

C.

Members are linked by their work in a particular industry.

D.

Members change employers more frequently than in other types of unions.

E.

It is often responsible for training its members through apprenticeships.

c

34.
Britt, a heavy equipment operator, Sara, an operating engineer, and Nick, a construction mechanic, hail from different parts of the United States. Though they have different occupations, they are all members of the same union. In the context of types of union, Britt, Sara, and Nick most likely belong to a(n) _____ union.
A.

international

B.

industrial

C.

stewards

D.

checkoff

E.

craft

b

35.
A difference between an industrial union and a craft union is that only an industrial union
A.

contains members who have a particular skill or occupation.

B.

is often responsible for training its members through apprenticeships.

C.

organizes as many employees in as wide a range of skills as possible.

D.

represents a particular occupation.

E.

comprises members who change employers more often.

c

36.
Most national unions in the United States are linked with the _____, an association that pursues to improve the shared interests of its member unions at the national level.
A.

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)

B.

Society of Modern Trade Workers and the Trade Federation of the States (SMTW-TFS)

C.

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)

D.

Chamber of Commerce (CoC)

E.

National Association of Manufacturers (NAM)

c

37.
The employees of Fanzi Textiles Inc. are concerned about company management overlooking their interests. They decide to form a union to voice their concerns and speak up for their rights. They elect Ronny to represent them during negotiations. Ronny's new role requires him to ensure that the terms of the labor contract are enforced and that the interests of the union are met. In this context, Ronny most likely holds the position of _____.
A.

business representative

B.

chief executive officer

C.

stakeholder

D.

union trustee

E.

union steward

e

38.
Identify the right statement regarding the effects of unions on company performance.
A.

As a result of the type of pay system favored by unions, employees are more inclined to compete than cooperate.

B.

Most studies show that union workers are less productive than nonunion workers.

C.

On average, union members receive higher wages and more generous benefits than nonunion workers.

D.

The introduction of a union invariably results in the employer paying lesser attention to employee ideas.

E.

Evidence shows that unions have a large positive effect on profits.

c

39.
Kristen, a production manager at KartWheel Designs Inc., believes that the formation of labor unions may have a negative impact on the performance of a company's stock. Which of the following statements is likely to strengthen Kristen's belief?
A.

Workers in unionized organizations tend to exhibit lower levels of productivity than workers in nonunion organizations.

B.

Unionized organizations are often required to pay their workers higher wages and offer them more generous benefits.

C.

Studies reveal that unions do not have any positive effects on performance measures, such as productivity, profits, and stock performance.

D.

Unions tend to have a positive impact on the self-esteem of their members.

E.

The formation of labor unions is likely to lead to conflicts between social and labor union goals.

b

40.
Which of the following is a factor that has been associated with the decline in union membership?
A.

high regulation in such areas as workplace safety and equal employment opportunity

B.

low competition between companies for scarce human resources

C.

high job growth in the manufacturing sector of the economy

D.

low costs of unionized labor

E.

low prospects for growth in the service industry

a

41.
Identify the correct statement about the trends in international union membership.
A.

In Western Europe, it is common to have union coverage rates of 80 to 90 percent.

B.

Coverage rates within the United States are much higher than in most other countries.

C.

U.S. employees tend to have a larger, more formal role in organizational decision making than in Western European countries.

D.

Worker representatives on boards of directors are much more common in the United States than in Western European countries.

E.

The union membership rate in the U.S. is second only to that of Denmark.

a

42.
Employees of Neronsen Inc. have been working to organize a union. The company's managers wish to maintain nonunion operations, because they believe the union's demands for more generous employee benefits would hurt profits. What evidence could the employees point to in support of the idea that unions are good for business?
A.

Unions can reduce turnover by giving employees a way to resolve problems.

B.

Whether unions make employees more productive remains open to question.

C.

Unions raise wage and benefits costs.

D.

Evidence has found an association between union coverage and lower profits.

E.

Unions decrease productivity because of the work rules they insist on.

a

43.
With reference to the impact of unions on company performance, it can be said that companies wishing to become more competitive must
A.

continually monitor their labor relations strategy.

B.

prohibit unions.

C.

actively encourage unions.

D.

deny collective bargaining rights to their employees.

E.

pay workers well above market rates.

a

44.
Broxton, a production manager at Silkenz Inc., is against the idea of forming a union. He believes that unionization may negatively affect the company's profit margins. Which statement best supports Broxton's viewpoint?
A.

Union workers tend to exhibit lower levels of productivity than nonunion workers.

B.

Unions are designed to cater to the interests of management rather than to those of employees.

C.

Unionization tends to reduce the overall costs of labor and operations.

D.

Forming an employee union will reduce the risk of work stoppages.

E.

Unionization is associated with higher costs in wages and benefits.

e

45.
Leroy joins the human resource department at ZenFuels Inc., where the production workers are represented by a union. Which of the following goals would Leroy most likely be expected to work toward in supporting any negotiations with the union?
A.

discouraging employees from forming a union

B.

making managers and workers into adversaries

C.

keeping operations flexible and retaining some control over schedules

D.

raising the value of workers' compensation package

E.

ensuring a regular flow of new members into the union

c

46.
Joe and his colleagues are members of the union at Pinnacle Inc. While negotiating the terms of the labor contract, they request their employer to deduct union dues from their paychecks. This type of contractual arrangement between the two parties is known as a(n) _____.
A.

agency shop

B.

checkoff provision

C.

maintenance provision

D.

trade-off provision

E.

union shop

b

47.
Name the type of union security arrangement that is illegal under the provisions of the National Labor Relations Act.
A.

union shop

B.

agency shop

C.

closed shop

D.

open shop

E.

checkoff provision

c

48.
Barbara, a job applicant at Solace Corp., finds that the job she is applying for requires her to be a union member before being hired. She also learns that this arrangement is illegal under the National Labor Relations Act. In the context of the security provisions related to union membership, this Solace Corp. has a(n) _____ arrangement.
A.

open shop

B.

closed shop

C.

checkoff provision

D.

union shop

E.

agency shop

b

49.
Neal joins Filestene Inc. as an executive designer. The HR manager informs him that he will have to join the labor union within a period of 30 days from his start date. In the context of the security provisions related to union membership, Neal's HR manager is referring to a(n) _____ arrangement.
A.

closed shop

B.

maintenance of membership provision

C.

agency shop

D.

checkoff provision

E.

union shop

e

50.
Employees at Harlan Industries have formed a union and are negotiating a union security arrangement. Which option would be most favorable to the union and also legal?
A.

A closed shop, because any employee hired must be a union member

B.

An agency shop, because it requires employees to join the union for the length of the contract

C.

A union shop, because it requires all employees to join the union within 30 days of their start date with the company

D.

Maintenance of membership rules, because they require that union members remain at the company

E.

Free riders, because these let employees benefit from union activities without joining the union

c

51.
Which of the following is a union security arrangement that requires a person to pay union dues, but is not required to join the union?
A.

agency shop

B.

union shop

C.

closed shop

D.

maintenance of membership

E.

checkoff provision

a

52.
David is a non-union employee at Orion Inc. Although he does not intend to join the union at the company, he is still required to pay union dues as part of a union contract with the company. Which of the following does this scenario best exemplify?
A.

an agency shop agreement

B.

a checkoff provision

C.

a union shop agreement

D.

a trade-off provision

E.

a closed shop agreement

a

53.
Miranda is an employee covered by a union security arrangement that does not mandate she become a union member but requires that she pays union dues. In this scenario, which type of union security arrangement is described?
A.

maintenance shop

B.

union shop

C.

agency shop

D.

closed shop

E.

provision shop

c

54.
Brandon is a new employee at Relagen Inc. He wants to work for the company, but he has no desire to join the union or even consider the possibility of becoming a member in the future. Which of the following security provisions of union membership is most suitable for Brandon?
A.

A closed shop provision because it gives an employee the right to participate in decision making without becoming a member

B.

A maintenance of membership provision because it allows employees to join the union as passive members

C.

A union shop provision because it helps an employee use indirect influence to affect management-union contracts

D.

An agency shop provision because it requires employees to pay union dues but does not force them to become members

E.

A checkoff provision because it requires all the employees of an organization to join the union, regardless of their preferences

d

55.
_____ rules require that employees who join the union remain members for a certain period of time but do not require a union membership.
A.

Agency shop

B.

Union shop

C.

Closed shop

D.

Maintenance of membership

E.

Checkoff provision

d

56.
The idea that unions benefit people in communities by holding employers accountable for the way they treat workers is an example of a(n) _____ goal.
A.

management

B.

union

C.

industrial

D.

societal

E.

economical

d

57.
The National Labor Relations Act is also known as the _____.
A.

Taft-Hartley Act

B.

Wagner Act

C.

Landrum-Griffin Act

D.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act

E.

Hatch Act

b

58.
Which of the following is a federal law passed in 1935 that supports collective bargaining and sets out the rights of employees to form unions?
A.

The Landrum-Griffin Act

B.

The Civil Rights Act

C.

The Wagner Act

D.

The Taft-Hartley Act

E.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act

c

59.
Which of the following is covered by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)?
A.

a worker employed as a supervisor

B.

a person working for a parent

C.

an independent contractor

D.

a worker employed by an employer subject to the Railway Labor Act

E.

a worker going out on strike to secure better working conditions

e

60.
Who among the following is NOT covered by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)?
A.

an individual employed as a supervisor

B.

an individual employed in the service sector

C.

an individual employed by a private-sector firm with less than 15 full-time employees

D.

an individual joining a union that is not recognized by his or her employer

E.

an individual refraining from activity on behalf of the union

a

61.
Identify the unfair labor practice under Section 8(a) of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA).
A.

engaging in collective bargaining with a labor organization

B.

asking to meet with employees' representatives because the employees are on strike

C.

failing to pay unionized employees higher wages than nonunionized employees

D.

complementing performance-based pay plans in the company

E.

restraining employees in exercising their rights to join or assist a labor organization

e

62.
Which of the following is an unfair labor practice by unions under the Taft-Hartley Act?
A.

insisting on provisions that the employer may hire only workers who are union members

B.

nominating candidates to union office and conducting secret-ballot elections

C.

going out on strike to secure better working conditions

D.

refraining from activity on behalf of the union

E.

joining a union not recognized by the employer

a

63.
Which of the following laws permits states to pass right-to-work laws?
A.

the Taft-Hartley Act

B.

the Sarbanes-Oxley Act

C.

the Landrum-Griffin

D.

the Hatch Act

E.

the Maguire Act

a

64.
Which of the following statements is true of right-to-work laws?
A.

They are federal laws that protect employees' right to lifetime employment.

B.

They are state laws that make union shops, maintenance of membership, and agency shops illegal.

C.

They are laws that protect the right of unions to insist that the employer hire only union members.

D.

They are laws that allow terminating an existing contract and striking for a new one without notifying the employer.

E.

They are federal laws that ensure that all union members get pension benefits.

b

65.
Identify the right of employees that is covered under the Taft-Hartley Act.
A.

the right to nominate candidates for union office

B.

the right to participate in union meetings and secret-ballot elections

C.

the right to choose whether they join a union or other group

D.

the right to examine unions' financial records

E.

the right to physically block nonstriking employees from entering the workplace

c

66.
Identify the law that regulates unions' actions with reference to their members, including financial disclosure and the conduct of elections.
A.

the Hatch Act

B.

the Taft-Hartley Act

C.

the Landrum-Griffin Act

D.

the Civil Service Reform Act

E.

the Maguire Act

c

67.
Which of the following includes the right not nominate candidates for union office?
A.

the Roosevelt Act

B.

the California 1975 Labor Relations Act

C.

the Landrum-Griffin Act

D.

the Taft-Hartley Act

E.

the Wagner Act

c

68.
The National Labor Relations Board has two major functions: one is to prevent unfair labor practices, and the other one is to
A.

conduct periodic onsite inspections of union and company financial records.

B.

conduct and certify representation elections.

C.

make rules and regulations for union-management relations.

D.

levy punitive charges on violators.

E.

monitor and regulate labor relations in small, local businesses.

b

69.
The National Labor Relations Board certifies a union as the exclusive representative of a group of employees when
A.

the management of an organization approves of a union.

B.

a union pays its dues to the board.

C.

at least 51% of the employees join the union within a certain time (30 days) after beginning employment.

D.

a majority of workers vote in favor of a union.

E.

the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations votes in favor of a union.

d

70.
The _____ has the authority for certifying or decertifying a union through an election.
A.

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization (AFL-CIO)

B.

Small Business Association (SBA)

C.

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

D.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

E.

Selective Service System (SSS)

c

71.
Identify the category of employees excluded by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) from participating in organizing activities.
A.

employees in multiple facilities within a single employer

B.

employees covered by multiple employers

C.

employees with managerial duties

D.

employees who have been on strike for economic reasons for less than one year and who have been replaced by other employees

E.

employees who have a community of interest in their wages, hours, and working conditions

c

72.
Which of the following is true of how the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) carries out the function of preventing unfair labor practices?
A.

The deadline for filing a charge is twelve months after the alleged unfair practice.

B.

The NLRB has no authority to issue cease-and-desist orders to halt unfair labor.

C.

The board can order the employer to reinstate workers but cannot order them to pay back pay.

D.

The NLRB is not authorized to set aside the results of an election and must approach the courts for this purpose.

E.

If an employer or union refuses to comply with an NLRB order, the board has the authority to petition the U.S. Court of Appeals.

e

73.
Jane and Martha work at Anden Inc. Jane claims that forming a union can help enhance workers' bargaining power with management. Martha, however, argues that it is quite challenging to form a union. Which of the following statements strengthens Martha's argument?
A.

Unionized employees have low negotiating power with the management.

B.

A union needs to convince a majority of workers to have a common goal.

C.

Union workers generally have lower productivity than nonunion workers.

D.

A union's goals must always contradict the employer's goals.

E.

A union must only include members with highly conceptual skills who can easily deal with conflict resolution.

b

74.
What is the minimum percent of employees in a bargaining unit who must sign authorization cards for the National Labor Relations Board to hold a union representation election?
A.

30 percent

B.

51 percent

C.

20 percent

D.

10 percent

E.

55 percent

a

75.
During an organizing campaign, which of the following occurs when union representatives make contact with employees, present their message about the union, and invite them to sign an authorization card?
A.

The unions determine who is eligible to vote.

B.

The union is automatically recognized if at least 30 percent of employees agree.

C.

The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) conducts a secret-ballot election if only 30 to 50 percent of employees signed cards.

D.

The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) certifies the union as the exclusive representative of employees if the employer refuses to sign the card.

E.

The employees cannot participate in any of the proceedings.

c

76.
House Factory Inc. and a union conducting an organizing campaign agree on the time and place of an election and a way to determine who can vote. Which type of election does this scenario best describe?
A.

stipulation election

B.

decertification election

C.

union election

D.

agreement election

E.

consent election

e

77.
Identify the guideline that should be followed by a supervisor to discourage unions.
A.

promise employees that they will receive favorable terms or conditions of employment if they forgo union activity

B.

threaten employees with harsher terms and conditions of employment or employment loss if they engage in union activity

C.

limit direct contact with employees

D.

interrogate employees about pro-union or anti-union sentiments that they or others may have

E.

report any direct or indirect signs of union activity to a core management group

e

78.
Connor, an HR manager, heard from other managers that there was talk of a union organizing effort at his company. Connor saw no signs of a union at work, so he downplayed the rumors. Therefore, he was caught by surprise when the union presented authorization cards and a request for a representation election. Which statement best explains the flaw in Connor's reasoning about the organizing effort?
A.

For the organizing process to continue, at least 30% of the employees must sign an authorization card.

B.

In an election, workers may have a choice from among more than one union.

C.

In most organizing efforts, there is a hotly contested election campaign.

D.

Unions usually launch an organizing campaign by discussing issues with employees at home.

E.

Regulations forbid unions from using online databases to identify issues of interest to particular workers.

d

79.
Which of the following terms refers to a substitute arrangement of union membership in which members receive discounts on insurance and credit cards rather than representation in collective bargaining?
A.

card-check provision

B.

corporate union membership

C.

indirect union provision

D.

associate union membership

E.

relational union membership

d

80.
One of the substitutes for traditional organizing is to conduct _____, which bring financial, political, or public pressure on employers during union organization and contract negotiation.
A.

collective coercion

B.

corporate campaigns

C.

indirect provisions

D.

associate campaigns

E.

social campaigns

b

81.
Which of the following best describes a card-check provision?
A.

It is an arrangement that allows the employer, on behalf of the union, to automatically deduct union dues from the employees' paychecks.

B.

It is an agreement that if a certain percentage of employees sign an authorization card, the employer will recognize their union representation.

C.

It is an alternative form of union membership in which members receive discounts on insurance and credit cards rather than representation in collective bargaining.

D.

It is a formal and binding pledge by the employer not to oppose organizing efforts elsewhere in the company.

E.

It is a formal and binding pledge by at least 51 percent of employees to not unionize.

b

82.
The hourly employees at BigHeart Health System have become dissatisfied with their union. They find that management communicates more openly and treats them with respect in resolving problems, so they don't see much value in paying dues to a union. What option do the employees have in this situation?
A.

They may negotiate for a neutrality provision to neutralize the union's authority.

B.

They must accept the union, because they voted for representation in a lawful manner.

C.

They can request an immediate decertification election.

D.

They can call for a decertification election to take place when their contract term ends.

E.

They can request that their union representative terminate the union contract.

d

83.
Representatives of management at Eternal Steel and of the union representing its workers are preparing to negotiate contract provisions related to job security. Which of the following topics are most likely to be included in this round of contract negotiations?
A.

work rules, rest periods, and hours of work

B.

health insurance, pension plans, and bonuses

C.

application of rules to apprentices and employees who are veterans

D.

training programs, transfer arrangements, and relocation allowances

E.

grievance procedures, job classifications, and production standards

d

84.
Collective bargaining differs from one situation to another in terms of _____.
A.

bargaining provisions

B.

bargaining structure

C.

bargaining campaigns

D.

bargaining strategies

E.

bargaining techniques

b

85.
In collective bargaining, the term _____ refers to the range of employees and employers covered by the contract.
A.

arbitrated team

B.

bargaining structure

C.

union leverage

D.

differentiated group

E.

associate mediation

b

86.
Which of the following depicts the most complex bargaining structure in collective bargaining?
A.

a craft union representing one facility

B.

a teachers' union representing a large city's school district

C.

a craft union representing employees in two facilities of one company

D.

an industrial union representing all hourly employees of several companies

E.

a carpenters' union representing the employees of one construction firm

d

87.
Timothy, a manager at Zillful Company, is concerned because negotiations with the union are breaking down, and the union is discussing a strike. What would be the major harm from management's perspective?
A.

The company would have to hire replacement workers, and they might be more productive.

B.

When the company does not have enough workers, production output will fall.

C.

Employees will call off the strike if they do not receive pay from their employer.

D.

Employees are rarely serious when they threaten to go on strike.

E.

Employees will decide they are better off without union representation.

b

88.
During contract negotiations, the union representing the teachers in District 46 is calling for a strike if the union's demands aren't met by the end of the week. A new school board member is worried about school shutting down and suggests directing the negotiators to accept the union's demands. A more experienced board member says the teachers also have reasons for not wanting to strike. Which of the following would be one of the most likely reasons for teachers not wanting to strike?
A.

The school board member will picket the schools during the strike.

B.

The union will likely be able to make up for some pay during the strike.

C.

The janitors' union will refuse to cross the teachers' picket lines.

D.

The district will not pay the teachers while they are on strike.

E.

During a strike, the employer excludes workers from the workplace.

d

89.
An employer's exclusion of workers from a workplace until they meet certain conditions is known as a _____.
A.

strike

B.

lockout

C.

mediation

D.

picket line

E.

sabbatical

b

90.
The _____ usually provides the neutral third party who is used for the common alternatives to strikes.
A.

National Labor Relations Board

B.

Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service

C.

Federal Labor Relations Board

D.

Federal Arbitration and Consulting Service

E.

National Mediation and Arbitration Commission

b

91.
Lola, a neutral third party, tries to resolve a conflict initiated by a manager and union representative at Thornton Inc. She does so by listening to what both parties have to say about the issue and facilitating the negotiations. In this scenario, Lola is exercising which of the following types of alternatives to work stoppages?
A.

mediation

B.

final-offer arbitration

C.

fact-finder technique

D.

conventional arbitration

E.

rights arbitration

a

92.
According to the provisions outlined in the contract between Kranfer Inc. and its labor union, Kranfer must pay its employees double for working overtime. However, due to financial constraints, the company is unable to meet these demands. The company and the union decide to negotiate the terms of the contract in a relatively informal manner. A non-authoritative third party is invited to listen to the views of both sides and to help resolve the conflict. In the context of the alternatives to work stoppages, the third party in this scenario is an example of a(n) _____.
A.

arbitrator

B.

fact finder

C.

mediator

D.

rights enforcer

E.

stakeholder

c

93.
The Transport Union in Atlanta, Georgia, enters into a contract with the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The contract requires the government agency to pay a yearly bonus to union members. A year after signing the contract, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority refuses to pay the annual bonus, which triggers a conflict between the union and the agency. A third party intervenes to resolve the conflict between the two parties. The third party evaluates the arguments of both sides and proposes a solution. Both parties have the right to decline the proposal, but they decide to accept it. In the context of the alternatives to work stoppage, the third party in this scenario is an example of a(n) _____.
A.

fact finder

B.

arbitrator

C.

stakeholder

D.

moderator

E.

rights enforcer

a

94.
The Public Transport Union and the Chicago Transit Authority are in conflict with each other. When the conflict escalates, the Chicago City Council decides to intervene and settle the dispute. The Council, after listening to offers from both sides, puts forth a binding settlement, which both parties must accept. In the context of the alternatives to work stoppages, this is an example of _____.
A.

arbitration

B.

fact finder negotiation

C.

mediation

D.

checkoff bargain

E.

grievance leverage

a

95.
Bargaining over a new union contract typically occurs
A.

only about every three years.

B.

year after year.

C.

only on the anniversary of the union's establishment.

D.

when the union wants more power over an organization.

E.

when a company feels a union is overstepping its boundaries.

a

96.
The method for providing solutions to union-management conflicts over interpretation or violation of a collective bargaining agreement is known as a _____.
A.

complaint protocol

B.

chain of command

C.

grievance procedure

D.

protest procedure

E.

corporate campaign

c

97.
The employees' union and the management at Rexen Inc. enter into a contract, which requires Rexen to improve its facilities and to ensure the safety of its employees. However, a few months later, the employees observe that the conditions have remained the same and that management has not taken any steps to revamp its systems. As a result, the union files a case against Rexen for violating the terms of their contract. In order to resolve this issue, the union and Rexen will both have to participate in a process for resolving conflicts, known as _____.
A.

lockout protocols

B.

right-to-work laws

C.

the unionship arrangement

D.

the grievance procedure

E.

the chain of command

d

98.
A production worker believes that her supervisor is intentionally assigning her to work on machinery for which she does not have the proper training. She is worried about her safety and wonders if the supervisor is intentionally harassing her. The worker is represented by a union, so she starts the grievance process specified in the labor agreement. Assuming this is a typical grievance procedure, in which step, if any, will the employee likely act alone?
A.

The final step; the employee and the supervisor would meet together with the union-appointed arbitrator.

B.

The first step; the employee can speak with her supervisor on her own before involving the union.

C.

The step in which a written grievance is submitted; this must be written and delivered by the employee only.

D.

None; the union handles all steps of the grievance procedure without involving the employee.

E.

The step of deciding to appeal an unresolved grievance; it is up to the employee to choose arbitration or no appeal.

d

99.
During the grievance process, the union appeals a grievance to top line management and senior industrial relations staff. What step comes next?
A.

The union steward and employee decide whether the contract was violated.

B.

The union decides whether to appeal the unresolved grievance to arbitration.

C.

The written grievance is submitted to the production superintendent, another line manager, or industrial relations representative.

D.

The decision resulting from the appeal is put into writing.

E.

The employee (and the union steward) discuss the problem with a supervisor.

d

100.
A nursing assistant in a nursing home filed a grievance that he was unfairly passed over for a promotion. Discussions and appeals did not satisfy the employee, so the issue went to arbitration. The arbitrator decided that the nursing home must promote the employee, based on the terms of its contract, in spite of management's protests that the employee was too unreliable to handle the greater responsibility. The employee's supervisor urges Scott, the director of human resources, to file an appeal in the state courts. Scott says doing so would be a wasted expense. Which of the following statements best supports Scott's conclusion?
A.

The company should have considered whether the grievance procedure is fair.

B.

The majority of grievances are settled during the early stages of the process.

C.

Courts generally do not have the authority to rule on employment matters.

D.

Courts generally avoid reviewing arbitrators' decisions in these matters.

E.

Courts generally rule against businesses in employment matters.

d

101.
An electric utility operates in a state with right-to-work laws. About three-quarters of its line workers have elected to join the union that represents them. Joel, one of the line workers, believes that his supervisor is unfairly passing him over when selecting employees to earn extra pay by working overtime. Joel wants to file a grievance according to the process in the labor agreement, but he is not a member of the union. What must the union do in this situation?
A.

It must let Joel join the union so he can have representation in the process.

B.

It must allow Joel to use the process it negotiated, but it need not send representatives.

C.

It has no obligations in this process, because Joel chose not to be represented.

D.

It must give Joel representation equal to what a union member would receive.

E.

It must give Joel a copy of the labor agreement, but it need not be involved in the process.

d

102.
Janet, a sales manager at Drexler Inc., claims that labor and management are rivals for most organizations. Carmella, the HR manager, says she is aware of exceptions. Which statement best supports Carmella's perspective?
A.

After the 1980s, most unions and organizations have acted more like adversaries.

B.

Examples of cooperation between labor and management include employee involvement in decision making and self-managing teams.

C.

Finding win-win solutions is almost impossible because unions and management have conflicting goals.

D.

Organizations often define jobs narrowly, which is a sign of cooperation.

E.

Creating a union necessarily forces employers to pay more wages, which results in loss of profits.

b

103.
Veronica, a vice president of human resources at an auto company, wants to develop its programs for employee empowerment. However, she is concerned because unions are heavily involved in representing auto workers and might object to empowerment programs. Which of the following statements about the National Labor Relations Board would best address Veronica's concern?
A.

The NLRB has issued statements indicating that it will not tolerate employee empowerment.

B.

In its rulings, the NLRB has allowed employee empowerment in certain very limited situations.

C.

The NLRB has issued rulings that say employee empowerment is allowed only in a nonunion environment.

D.

In its rulings, the NLRB has shown clear support for employee involvement in decision making.

E.

The NLRB makes it an unfair labor practice to form employee participation committees to make decisions.

d

104.
The executives of BeeGood Honey are proud of the company's management practices, which they believe ensure fair treatment of employees better than union representation does. However, some complaints about working conditions have shown up in the suggestion box. The executives asked the HR manager, Leslie, to plan a system of employee-manager meetings to address issues such as these. As Leslie considers this request, what potential problem should she keep in mind?
A.

Legal guidelines covering an employer-established system of representation are lengthy and precise.

B.

Workers tend to think representatives in an employer-established system cannot be counted on to stand up for them.

C.

It is statistically likely that most BeeGood workers are already represented by unions.

D.

It is possible that a management-established system of employee representation may violate the NLRA.

E.

Unions have never tried to organize BeeGood's workers, so they can easily make a case that the company organized workers illegally.

d

105.
A chain of fried-fish restaurants hires part-time workers and pays minimum wage. Turnover is very high. Given that most employees do not stay at a restaurant long or work there full-time, organizing campaigns are very difficult. With these facts in mind, Gloria, the chain's vice president of human resources, believes unions will not have an impact on the company. What possible force in labor markets is Gloria overlooking?
A.

self-managing employee teams, which could conduct an union organizing campaign

B.

management-established representation systems, which are endorsed by the NLRB

C.

the National Labor Relations Board, which could require the company to form a union

D.

worker centers, which could influence attitudes through publicity and community support

E.

arbitration panels, which could rule that fair labor conditions require a union

d

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26.
When employees in an organization have reason to believe that the management is overlooking their needs and interests, they are likely to respond by collectively forming _____.
A.

partnerships

B.

bureaus

C.

trade associations

D.

labor unions

E.

Interest groups

d

27.
Organizations that are formed in order to represent their members’ interests while dealing with employers are known as
A.

employee guilds.

B.

sororities.

C.

lobbies.

D.

member clubs.

E.

labor unions.

e

28.
Max, a new supervisor at Freson Inc., is being trained on skills that managers and union leaders require to encourage employee-management cooperation. He is learning the different ways of dealing with employee-management conflicts and how to resolve situations in ways that benefit both parties. In the context of labor management, Max is receiving training on _____.
A.

checkoff provisions

B.

right-to-work laws

C.

maintenance of membership

D.

labor relations

E.

corporate campaigns

d

29.
A labor union in which all of the members have a particular skill or occupation is known as a(n) _____ union.
A.

common

B.

industrial

C.

craft

D.

regional

E.

employer’s

c

30.
Alonso, the union steward at Selzar Inc., is attempting to persuade members of management to make certain revisions to the company’s policies on job security and work rules on behalf of the union. The union believes that company management has neglected these aspects of the company’s administration system for too long. Which of the following levels of decisions is Alonso most likely concerned with in this scenario?
A.

forming labor relations strategies

B.

administering agreements

C.

negotiating contracts

D.

terminating contracts

E.

forming dissociation strategies

c

31.
The United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters is a labor union that seeks to unite plumbers and pipefitters from around the country. The members of this union exhibit the same set of skills and are proficient in relatively similar tasks. Such an association is most likely an example of a(n) _____.
A.

craft union

B.

industrial union

C.

local union

D.

business union

E.

vertical union

a

32.
Which of the following is true of a craft union?
A.

It represents many different occupations.

B.

Membership in the union is the result of working for a particular employer in the industry.

C.

Changing employers is not very common.

D.

It is often responsible for training members through apprenticeships.

E.

It consists of members who are linked by their work in a particular industry.

d

33.
Identify the statement that characterizes an industrial union.
A.

All the members are in the same occupation.

B.

Union leaders try to limit the number of members in order to maintain high wages.

C.

Members are linked by their work in a particular industry.

D.

Members change employers more frequently than in other types of unions.

E.

It is often responsible for training its members through apprenticeships.

c

34.
Britt, a heavy equipment operator, Sara, an operating engineer, and Nick, a construction mechanic, hail from different parts of the United States. Though they have different occupations, they are all members of the same union. In the context of types of union, Britt, Sara, and Nick most likely belong to a(n) _____ union.
A.

international

B.

industrial

C.

stewards

D.

checkoff

E.

craft

b

35.
A difference between an industrial union and a craft union is that only an industrial union
A.

contains members who have a particular skill or occupation.

B.

is often responsible for training its members through apprenticeships.

C.

organizes as many employees in as wide a range of skills as possible.

D.

represents a particular occupation.

E.

comprises members who change employers more often.

c

36.
Most national unions in the United States are linked with the _____, an association that pursues to improve the shared interests of its member unions at the national level.
A.

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)

B.

Society of Modern Trade Workers and the Trade Federation of the States (SMTW-TFS)

C.

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)

D.

Chamber of Commerce (CoC)

E.

National Association of Manufacturers (NAM)

c

37.
The employees of Fanzi Textiles Inc. are concerned about company management overlooking their interests. They decide to form a union to voice their concerns and speak up for their rights. They elect Ronny to represent them during negotiations. Ronny’s new role requires him to ensure that the terms of the labor contract are enforced and that the interests of the union are met. In this context, Ronny most likely holds the position of _____.
A.

business representative

B.

chief executive officer

C.

stakeholder

D.

union trustee

E.

union steward

e

38.
Identify the right statement regarding the effects of unions on company performance.
A.

As a result of the type of pay system favored by unions, employees are more inclined to compete than cooperate.

B.

Most studies show that union workers are less productive than nonunion workers.

C.

On average, union members receive higher wages and more generous benefits than nonunion workers.

D.

The introduction of a union invariably results in the employer paying lesser attention to employee ideas.

E.

Evidence shows that unions have a large positive effect on profits.

c

39.
Kristen, a production manager at KartWheel Designs Inc., believes that the formation of labor unions may have a negative impact on the performance of a company’s stock. Which of the following statements is likely to strengthen Kristen’s belief?
A.

Workers in unionized organizations tend to exhibit lower levels of productivity than workers in nonunion organizations.

B.

Unionized organizations are often required to pay their workers higher wages and offer them more generous benefits.

C.

Studies reveal that unions do not have any positive effects on performance measures, such as productivity, profits, and stock performance.

D.

Unions tend to have a positive impact on the self-esteem of their members.

E.

The formation of labor unions is likely to lead to conflicts between social and labor union goals.

b

40.
Which of the following is a factor that has been associated with the decline in union membership?
A.

high regulation in such areas as workplace safety and equal employment opportunity

B.

low competition between companies for scarce human resources

C.

high job growth in the manufacturing sector of the economy

D.

low costs of unionized labor

E.

low prospects for growth in the service industry

a

41.
Identify the correct statement about the trends in international union membership.
A.

In Western Europe, it is common to have union coverage rates of 80 to 90 percent.

B.

Coverage rates within the United States are much higher than in most other countries.

C.

U.S. employees tend to have a larger, more formal role in organizational decision making than in Western European countries.

D.

Worker representatives on boards of directors are much more common in the United States than in Western European countries.

E.

The union membership rate in the U.S. is second only to that of Denmark.

a

42.
Employees of Neronsen Inc. have been working to organize a union. The company’s managers wish to maintain nonunion operations, because they believe the union’s demands for more generous employee benefits would hurt profits. What evidence could the employees point to in support of the idea that unions are good for business?
A.

Unions can reduce turnover by giving employees a way to resolve problems.

B.

Whether unions make employees more productive remains open to question.

C.

Unions raise wage and benefits costs.

D.

Evidence has found an association between union coverage and lower profits.

E.

Unions decrease productivity because of the work rules they insist on.

a

43.
With reference to the impact of unions on company performance, it can be said that companies wishing to become more competitive must
A.

continually monitor their labor relations strategy.

B.

prohibit unions.

C.

actively encourage unions.

D.

deny collective bargaining rights to their employees.

E.

pay workers well above market rates.

a

44.
Broxton, a production manager at Silkenz Inc., is against the idea of forming a union. He believes that unionization may negatively affect the company’s profit margins. Which statement best supports Broxton’s viewpoint?
A.

Union workers tend to exhibit lower levels of productivity than nonunion workers.

B.

Unions are designed to cater to the interests of management rather than to those of employees.

C.

Unionization tends to reduce the overall costs of labor and operations.

D.

Forming an employee union will reduce the risk of work stoppages.

E.

Unionization is associated with higher costs in wages and benefits.

e

45.
Leroy joins the human resource department at ZenFuels Inc., where the production workers are represented by a union. Which of the following goals would Leroy most likely be expected to work toward in supporting any negotiations with the union?
A.

discouraging employees from forming a union

B.

making managers and workers into adversaries

C.

keeping operations flexible and retaining some control over schedules

D.

raising the value of workers’ compensation package

E.

ensuring a regular flow of new members into the union

c

46.
Joe and his colleagues are members of the union at Pinnacle Inc. While negotiating the terms of the labor contract, they request their employer to deduct union dues from their paychecks. This type of contractual arrangement between the two parties is known as a(n) _____.
A.

agency shop

B.

checkoff provision

C.

maintenance provision

D.

trade-off provision

E.

union shop

b

47.
Name the type of union security arrangement that is illegal under the provisions of the National Labor Relations Act.
A.

union shop

B.

agency shop

C.

closed shop

D.

open shop

E.

checkoff provision

c

48.
Barbara, a job applicant at Solace Corp., finds that the job she is applying for requires her to be a union member before being hired. She also learns that this arrangement is illegal under the National Labor Relations Act. In the context of the security provisions related to union membership, this Solace Corp. has a(n) _____ arrangement.
A.

open shop

B.

closed shop

C.

checkoff provision

D.

union shop

E.

agency shop

b

49.
Neal joins Filestene Inc. as an executive designer. The HR manager informs him that he will have to join the labor union within a period of 30 days from his start date. In the context of the security provisions related to union membership, Neal’s HR manager is referring to a(n) _____ arrangement.
A.

closed shop

B.

maintenance of membership provision

C.

agency shop

D.

checkoff provision

E.

union shop

e

50.
Employees at Harlan Industries have formed a union and are negotiating a union security arrangement. Which option would be most favorable to the union and also legal?
A.

A closed shop, because any employee hired must be a union member

B.

An agency shop, because it requires employees to join the union for the length of the contract

C.

A union shop, because it requires all employees to join the union within 30 days of their start date with the company

D.

Maintenance of membership rules, because they require that union members remain at the company

E.

Free riders, because these let employees benefit from union activities without joining the union

c

51.
Which of the following is a union security arrangement that requires a person to pay union dues, but is not required to join the union?
A.

agency shop

B.

union shop

C.

closed shop

D.

maintenance of membership

E.

checkoff provision

a

52.
David is a non-union employee at Orion Inc. Although he does not intend to join the union at the company, he is still required to pay union dues as part of a union contract with the company. Which of the following does this scenario best exemplify?
A.

an agency shop agreement

B.

a checkoff provision

C.

a union shop agreement

D.

a trade-off provision

E.

a closed shop agreement

a

53.
Miranda is an employee covered by a union security arrangement that does not mandate she become a union member but requires that she pays union dues. In this scenario, which type of union security arrangement is described?
A.

maintenance shop

B.

union shop

C.

agency shop

D.

closed shop

E.

provision shop

c

54.
Brandon is a new employee at Relagen Inc. He wants to work for the company, but he has no desire to join the union or even consider the possibility of becoming a member in the future. Which of the following security provisions of union membership is most suitable for Brandon?
A.

A closed shop provision because it gives an employee the right to participate in decision making without becoming a member

B.

A maintenance of membership provision because it allows employees to join the union as passive members

C.

A union shop provision because it helps an employee use indirect influence to affect management-union contracts

D.

An agency shop provision because it requires employees to pay union dues but does not force them to become members

E.

A checkoff provision because it requires all the employees of an organization to join the union, regardless of their preferences

d

55.
_____ rules require that employees who join the union remain members for a certain period of time but do not require a union membership.
A.

Agency shop

B.

Union shop

C.

Closed shop

D.

Maintenance of membership

E.

Checkoff provision

d

56.
The idea that unions benefit people in communities by holding employers accountable for the way they treat workers is an example of a(n) _____ goal.
A.

management

B.

union

C.

industrial

D.

societal

E.

economical

d

57.
The National Labor Relations Act is also known as the _____.
A.

Taft-Hartley Act

B.

Wagner Act

C.

Landrum-Griffin Act

D.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act

E.

Hatch Act

b

58.
Which of the following is a federal law passed in 1935 that supports collective bargaining and sets out the rights of employees to form unions?
A.

The Landrum-Griffin Act

B.

The Civil Rights Act

C.

The Wagner Act

D.

The Taft-Hartley Act

E.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act

c

59.
Which of the following is covered by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)?
A.

a worker employed as a supervisor

B.

a person working for a parent

C.

an independent contractor

D.

a worker employed by an employer subject to the Railway Labor Act

E.

a worker going out on strike to secure better working conditions

e

60.
Who among the following is NOT covered by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)?
A.

an individual employed as a supervisor

B.

an individual employed in the service sector

C.

an individual employed by a private-sector firm with less than 15 full-time employees

D.

an individual joining a union that is not recognized by his or her employer

E.

an individual refraining from activity on behalf of the union

a

61.
Identify the unfair labor practice under Section 8(a) of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA).
A.

engaging in collective bargaining with a labor organization

B.

asking to meet with employees’ representatives because the employees are on strike

C.

failing to pay unionized employees higher wages than nonunionized employees

D.

complementing performance-based pay plans in the company

E.

restraining employees in exercising their rights to join or assist a labor organization

e

62.
Which of the following is an unfair labor practice by unions under the Taft-Hartley Act?
A.

insisting on provisions that the employer may hire only workers who are union members

B.

nominating candidates to union office and conducting secret-ballot elections

C.

going out on strike to secure better working conditions

D.

refraining from activity on behalf of the union

E.

joining a union not recognized by the employer

a

63.
Which of the following laws permits states to pass right-to-work laws?
A.

the Taft-Hartley Act

B.

the Sarbanes-Oxley Act

C.

the Landrum-Griffin

D.

the Hatch Act

E.

the Maguire Act

a

64.
Which of the following statements is true of right-to-work laws?
A.

They are federal laws that protect employees’ right to lifetime employment.

B.

They are state laws that make union shops, maintenance of membership, and agency shops illegal.

C.

They are laws that protect the right of unions to insist that the employer hire only union members.

D.

They are laws that allow terminating an existing contract and striking for a new one without notifying the employer.

E.

They are federal laws that ensure that all union members get pension benefits.

b

65.
Identify the right of employees that is covered under the Taft-Hartley Act.
A.

the right to nominate candidates for union office

B.

the right to participate in union meetings and secret-ballot elections

C.

the right to choose whether they join a union or other group

D.

the right to examine unions’ financial records

E.

the right to physically block nonstriking employees from entering the workplace

c

66.
Identify the law that regulates unions’ actions with reference to their members, including financial disclosure and the conduct of elections.
A.

the Hatch Act

B.

the Taft-Hartley Act

C.

the Landrum-Griffin Act

D.

the Civil Service Reform Act

E.

the Maguire Act

c

67.
Which of the following includes the right not nominate candidates for union office?
A.

the Roosevelt Act

B.

the California 1975 Labor Relations Act

C.

the Landrum-Griffin Act

D.

the Taft-Hartley Act

E.

the Wagner Act

c

68.
The National Labor Relations Board has two major functions: one is to prevent unfair labor practices, and the other one is to
A.

conduct periodic onsite inspections of union and company financial records.

B.

conduct and certify representation elections.

C.

make rules and regulations for union-management relations.

D.

levy punitive charges on violators.

E.

monitor and regulate labor relations in small, local businesses.

b

69.
The National Labor Relations Board certifies a union as the exclusive representative of a group of employees when
A.

the management of an organization approves of a union.

B.

a union pays its dues to the board.

C.

at least 51% of the employees join the union within a certain time (30 days) after beginning employment.

D.

a majority of workers vote in favor of a union.

E.

the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations votes in favor of a union.

d

70.
The _____ has the authority for certifying or decertifying a union through an election.
A.

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization (AFL-CIO)

B.

Small Business Association (SBA)

C.

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

D.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

E.

Selective Service System (SSS)

c

71.
Identify the category of employees excluded by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) from participating in organizing activities.
A.

employees in multiple facilities within a single employer

B.

employees covered by multiple employers

C.

employees with managerial duties

D.

employees who have been on strike for economic reasons for less than one year and who have been replaced by other employees

E.

employees who have a community of interest in their wages, hours, and working conditions

c

72.
Which of the following is true of how the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) carries out the function of preventing unfair labor practices?
A.

The deadline for filing a charge is twelve months after the alleged unfair practice.

B.

The NLRB has no authority to issue cease-and-desist orders to halt unfair labor.

C.

The board can order the employer to reinstate workers but cannot order them to pay back pay.

D.

The NLRB is not authorized to set aside the results of an election and must approach the courts for this purpose.

E.

If an employer or union refuses to comply with an NLRB order, the board has the authority to petition the U.S. Court of Appeals.

e

73.
Jane and Martha work at Anden Inc. Jane claims that forming a union can help enhance workers’ bargaining power with management. Martha, however, argues that it is quite challenging to form a union. Which of the following statements strengthens Martha’s argument?
A.

Unionized employees have low negotiating power with the management.

B.

A union needs to convince a majority of workers to have a common goal.

C.

Union workers generally have lower productivity than nonunion workers.

D.

A union’s goals must always contradict the employer’s goals.

E.

A union must only include members with highly conceptual skills who can easily deal with conflict resolution.

b

74.
What is the minimum percent of employees in a bargaining unit who must sign authorization cards for the National Labor Relations Board to hold a union representation election?
A.

30 percent

B.

51 percent

C.

20 percent

D.

10 percent

E.

55 percent

a

75.
During an organizing campaign, which of the following occurs when union representatives make contact with employees, present their message about the union, and invite them to sign an authorization card?
A.

The unions determine who is eligible to vote.

B.

The union is automatically recognized if at least 30 percent of employees agree.

C.

The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) conducts a secret-ballot election if only 30 to 50 percent of employees signed cards.

D.

The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) certifies the union as the exclusive representative of employees if the employer refuses to sign the card.

E.

The employees cannot participate in any of the proceedings.

c

76.
House Factory Inc. and a union conducting an organizing campaign agree on the time and place of an election and a way to determine who can vote. Which type of election does this scenario best describe?
A.

stipulation election

B.

decertification election

C.

union election

D.

agreement election

E.

consent election

e

77.
Identify the guideline that should be followed by a supervisor to discourage unions.
A.

promise employees that they will receive favorable terms or conditions of employment if they forgo union activity

B.

threaten employees with harsher terms and conditions of employment or employment loss if they engage in union activity

C.

limit direct contact with employees

D.

interrogate employees about pro-union or anti-union sentiments that they or others may have

E.

report any direct or indirect signs of union activity to a core management group

e

78.
Connor, an HR manager, heard from other managers that there was talk of a union organizing effort at his company. Connor saw no signs of a union at work, so he downplayed the rumors. Therefore, he was caught by surprise when the union presented authorization cards and a request for a representation election. Which statement best explains the flaw in Connor’s reasoning about the organizing effort?
A.

For the organizing process to continue, at least 30% of the employees must sign an authorization card.

B.

In an election, workers may have a choice from among more than one union.

C.

In most organizing efforts, there is a hotly contested election campaign.

D.

Unions usually launch an organizing campaign by discussing issues with employees at home.

E.

Regulations forbid unions from using online databases to identify issues of interest to particular workers.

d

79.
Which of the following terms refers to a substitute arrangement of union membership in which members receive discounts on insurance and credit cards rather than representation in collective bargaining?
A.

card-check provision

B.

corporate union membership

C.

indirect union provision

D.

associate union membership

E.

relational union membership

d

80.
One of the substitutes for traditional organizing is to conduct _____, which bring financial, political, or public pressure on employers during union organization and contract negotiation.
A.

collective coercion

B.

corporate campaigns

C.

indirect provisions

D.

associate campaigns

E.

social campaigns

b

81.
Which of the following best describes a card-check provision?
A.

It is an arrangement that allows the employer, on behalf of the union, to automatically deduct union dues from the employees’ paychecks.

B.

It is an agreement that if a certain percentage of employees sign an authorization card, the employer will recognize their union representation.

C.

It is an alternative form of union membership in which members receive discounts on insurance and credit cards rather than representation in collective bargaining.

D.

It is a formal and binding pledge by the employer not to oppose organizing efforts elsewhere in the company.

E.

It is a formal and binding pledge by at least 51 percent of employees to not unionize.

b

82.
The hourly employees at BigHeart Health System have become dissatisfied with their union. They find that management communicates more openly and treats them with respect in resolving problems, so they don’t see much value in paying dues to a union. What option do the employees have in this situation?
A.

They may negotiate for a neutrality provision to neutralize the union’s authority.

B.

They must accept the union, because they voted for representation in a lawful manner.

C.

They can request an immediate decertification election.

D.

They can call for a decertification election to take place when their contract term ends.

E.

They can request that their union representative terminate the union contract.

d

83.
Representatives of management at Eternal Steel and of the union representing its workers are preparing to negotiate contract provisions related to job security. Which of the following topics are most likely to be included in this round of contract negotiations?
A.

work rules, rest periods, and hours of work

B.

health insurance, pension plans, and bonuses

C.

application of rules to apprentices and employees who are veterans

D.

training programs, transfer arrangements, and relocation allowances

E.

grievance procedures, job classifications, and production standards

d

84.
Collective bargaining differs from one situation to another in terms of _____.
A.

bargaining provisions

B.

bargaining structure

C.

bargaining campaigns

D.

bargaining strategies

E.

bargaining techniques

b

85.
In collective bargaining, the term _____ refers to the range of employees and employers covered by the contract.
A.

arbitrated team

B.

bargaining structure

C.

union leverage

D.

differentiated group

E.

associate mediation

b

86.
Which of the following depicts the most complex bargaining structure in collective bargaining?
A.

a craft union representing one facility

B.

a teachers’ union representing a large city’s school district

C.

a craft union representing employees in two facilities of one company

D.

an industrial union representing all hourly employees of several companies

E.

a carpenters’ union representing the employees of one construction firm

d

87.
Timothy, a manager at Zillful Company, is concerned because negotiations with the union are breaking down, and the union is discussing a strike. What would be the major harm from management’s perspective?
A.

The company would have to hire replacement workers, and they might be more productive.

B.

When the company does not have enough workers, production output will fall.

C.

Employees will call off the strike if they do not receive pay from their employer.

D.

Employees are rarely serious when they threaten to go on strike.

E.

Employees will decide they are better off without union representation.

b

88.
During contract negotiations, the union representing the teachers in District 46 is calling for a strike if the union’s demands aren’t met by the end of the week. A new school board member is worried about school shutting down and suggests directing the negotiators to accept the union’s demands. A more experienced board member says the teachers also have reasons for not wanting to strike. Which of the following would be one of the most likely reasons for teachers not wanting to strike?
A.

The school board member will picket the schools during the strike.

B.

The union will likely be able to make up for some pay during the strike.

C.

The janitors’ union will refuse to cross the teachers’ picket lines.

D.

The district will not pay the teachers while they are on strike.

E.

During a strike, the employer excludes workers from the workplace.

d

89.
An employer’s exclusion of workers from a workplace until they meet certain conditions is known as a _____.
A.

strike

B.

lockout

C.

mediation

D.

picket line

E.

sabbatical

b

90.
The _____ usually provides the neutral third party who is used for the common alternatives to strikes.
A.

National Labor Relations Board

B.

Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service

C.

Federal Labor Relations Board

D.

Federal Arbitration and Consulting Service

E.

National Mediation and Arbitration Commission

b

91.
Lola, a neutral third party, tries to resolve a conflict initiated by a manager and union representative at Thornton Inc. She does so by listening to what both parties have to say about the issue and facilitating the negotiations. In this scenario, Lola is exercising which of the following types of alternatives to work stoppages?
A.

mediation

B.

final-offer arbitration

C.

fact-finder technique

D.

conventional arbitration

E.

rights arbitration

a

92.
According to the provisions outlined in the contract between Kranfer Inc. and its labor union, Kranfer must pay its employees double for working overtime. However, due to financial constraints, the company is unable to meet these demands. The company and the union decide to negotiate the terms of the contract in a relatively informal manner. A non-authoritative third party is invited to listen to the views of both sides and to help resolve the conflict. In the context of the alternatives to work stoppages, the third party in this scenario is an example of a(n) _____.
A.

arbitrator

B.

fact finder

C.

mediator

D.

rights enforcer

E.

stakeholder

c

93.
The Transport Union in Atlanta, Georgia, enters into a contract with the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The contract requires the government agency to pay a yearly bonus to union members. A year after signing the contract, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority refuses to pay the annual bonus, which triggers a conflict between the union and the agency. A third party intervenes to resolve the conflict between the two parties. The third party evaluates the arguments of both sides and proposes a solution. Both parties have the right to decline the proposal, but they decide to accept it. In the context of the alternatives to work stoppage, the third party in this scenario is an example of a(n) _____.
A.

fact finder

B.

arbitrator

C.

stakeholder

D.

moderator

E.

rights enforcer

a

94.
The Public Transport Union and the Chicago Transit Authority are in conflict with each other. When the conflict escalates, the Chicago City Council decides to intervene and settle the dispute. The Council, after listening to offers from both sides, puts forth a binding settlement, which both parties must accept. In the context of the alternatives to work stoppages, this is an example of _____.
A.

arbitration

B.

fact finder negotiation

C.

mediation

D.

checkoff bargain

E.

grievance leverage

a

95.
Bargaining over a new union contract typically occurs
A.

only about every three years.

B.

year after year.

C.

only on the anniversary of the union’s establishment.

D.

when the union wants more power over an organization.

E.

when a company feels a union is overstepping its boundaries.

a

96.
The method for providing solutions to union-management conflicts over interpretation or violation of a collective bargaining agreement is known as a _____.
A.

complaint protocol

B.

chain of command

C.

grievance procedure

D.

protest procedure

E.

corporate campaign

c

97.
The employees’ union and the management at Rexen Inc. enter into a contract, which requires Rexen to improve its facilities and to ensure the safety of its employees. However, a few months later, the employees observe that the conditions have remained the same and that management has not taken any steps to revamp its systems. As a result, the union files a case against Rexen for violating the terms of their contract. In order to resolve this issue, the union and Rexen will both have to participate in a process for resolving conflicts, known as _____.
A.

lockout protocols

B.

right-to-work laws

C.

the unionship arrangement

D.

the grievance procedure

E.

the chain of command

d

98.
A production worker believes that her supervisor is intentionally assigning her to work on machinery for which she does not have the proper training. She is worried about her safety and wonders if the supervisor is intentionally harassing her. The worker is represented by a union, so she starts the grievance process specified in the labor agreement. Assuming this is a typical grievance procedure, in which step, if any, will the employee likely act alone?
A.

The final step; the employee and the supervisor would meet together with the union-appointed arbitrator.

B.

The first step; the employee can speak with her supervisor on her own before involving the union.

C.

The step in which a written grievance is submitted; this must be written and delivered by the employee only.

D.

None; the union handles all steps of the grievance procedure without involving the employee.

E.

The step of deciding to appeal an unresolved grievance; it is up to the employee to choose arbitration or no appeal.

d

99.
During the grievance process, the union appeals a grievance to top line management and senior industrial relations staff. What step comes next?
A.

The union steward and employee decide whether the contract was violated.

B.

The union decides whether to appeal the unresolved grievance to arbitration.

C.

The written grievance is submitted to the production superintendent, another line manager, or industrial relations representative.

D.

The decision resulting from the appeal is put into writing.

E.

The employee (and the union steward) discuss the problem with a supervisor.

d

100.
A nursing assistant in a nursing home filed a grievance that he was unfairly passed over for a promotion. Discussions and appeals did not satisfy the employee, so the issue went to arbitration. The arbitrator decided that the nursing home must promote the employee, based on the terms of its contract, in spite of management’s protests that the employee was too unreliable to handle the greater responsibility. The employee’s supervisor urges Scott, the director of human resources, to file an appeal in the state courts. Scott says doing so would be a wasted expense. Which of the following statements best supports Scott’s conclusion?
A.

The company should have considered whether the grievance procedure is fair.

B.

The majority of grievances are settled during the early stages of the process.

C.

Courts generally do not have the authority to rule on employment matters.

D.

Courts generally avoid reviewing arbitrators’ decisions in these matters.

E.

Courts generally rule against businesses in employment matters.

d

101.
An electric utility operates in a state with right-to-work laws. About three-quarters of its line workers have elected to join the union that represents them. Joel, one of the line workers, believes that his supervisor is unfairly passing him over when selecting employees to earn extra pay by working overtime. Joel wants to file a grievance according to the process in the labor agreement, but he is not a member of the union. What must the union do in this situation?
A.

It must let Joel join the union so he can have representation in the process.

B.

It must allow Joel to use the process it negotiated, but it need not send representatives.

C.

It has no obligations in this process, because Joel chose not to be represented.

D.

It must give Joel representation equal to what a union member would receive.

E.

It must give Joel a copy of the labor agreement, but it need not be involved in the process.

d

102.
Janet, a sales manager at Drexler Inc., claims that labor and management are rivals for most organizations. Carmella, the HR manager, says she is aware of exceptions. Which statement best supports Carmella’s perspective?
A.

After the 1980s, most unions and organizations have acted more like adversaries.

B.

Examples of cooperation between labor and management include employee involvement in decision making and self-managing teams.

C.

Finding win-win solutions is almost impossible because unions and management have conflicting goals.

D.

Organizations often define jobs narrowly, which is a sign of cooperation.

E.

Creating a union necessarily forces employers to pay more wages, which results in loss of profits.

b

103.
Veronica, a vice president of human resources at an auto company, wants to develop its programs for employee empowerment. However, she is concerned because unions are heavily involved in representing auto workers and might object to empowerment programs. Which of the following statements about the National Labor Relations Board would best address Veronica’s concern?
A.

The NLRB has issued statements indicating that it will not tolerate employee empowerment.

B.

In its rulings, the NLRB has allowed employee empowerment in certain very limited situations.

C.

The NLRB has issued rulings that say employee empowerment is allowed only in a nonunion environment.

D.

In its rulings, the NLRB has shown clear support for employee involvement in decision making.

E.

The NLRB makes it an unfair labor practice to form employee participation committees to make decisions.

d

104.
The executives of BeeGood Honey are proud of the company’s management practices, which they believe ensure fair treatment of employees better than union representation does. However, some complaints about working conditions have shown up in the suggestion box. The executives asked the HR manager, Leslie, to plan a system of employee-manager meetings to address issues such as these. As Leslie considers this request, what potential problem should she keep in mind?
A.

Legal guidelines covering an employer-established system of representation are lengthy and precise.

B.

Workers tend to think representatives in an employer-established system cannot be counted on to stand up for them.

C.

It is statistically likely that most BeeGood workers are already represented by unions.

D.

It is possible that a management-established system of employee representation may violate the NLRA.

E.

Unions have never tried to organize BeeGood’s workers, so they can easily make a case that the company organized workers illegally.

d

105.
A chain of fried-fish restaurants hires part-time workers and pays minimum wage. Turnover is very high. Given that most employees do not stay at a restaurant long or work there full-time, organizing campaigns are very difficult. With these facts in mind, Gloria, the chain’s vice president of human resources, believes unions will not have an impact on the company. What possible force in labor markets is Gloria overlooking?
A.

self-managing employee teams, which could conduct an union organizing campaign

B.

management-established representation systems, which are endorsed by the NLRB

C.

the National Labor Relations Board, which could require the company to form a union

D.

worker centers, which could influence attitudes through publicity and community support

E.

arbitration panels, which could rule that fair labor conditions require a union

d

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