Mastering Health - Chapters 7-9

1) Nutrition is the science that investigates

the relationship between the body's functioning and the elements of food eaten.

2) The digestive process begins in the

mouth.

3) Calories are the measure of

energy obtained from a particular food.

4) After water, which are the next most abundant substances in the human body?

Proteins

5) Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and water are essential

nutrients.

6) One-third of the calories Americans consume come from

junk food.

7) How much of our total body weight is water?

50-70 percent

8) Which type of fiber dissolves in water and can be digested easily by bacteria in the colon?

Soluble

9) Which of the following guidelines will be helpful if you want to increase your intake of antioxidants?

Eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including dark green vegetables.

10) When protein is consumed, the body breaks it down into smaller molecules known as

amino acids.

11) Foods from animal sources usually contain which type of protein?

Complete

12) To support cellular growth and repair, a pregnant woman and a person recovering from surgery both need to eat

extra protein.

13) Minerals are inorganic elements that the body needs to

aid physiological processes, such as the absorption of vitamins.

14) The energy to sustain normal daily activities is provided by

carbohydrates.

15) The main fuel for the body's cells is

glucose.

16) Which of the following is a simple carbohydrate?

Lactose

17) Which of the following are sources of complex carbohydrates?

Grains, legumes, and vegetables

18) Paul drinks a glass of milk with dinner. The disaccharide in milk that must be broken down before being used by his body is

lactose.

19) Complex carbohydrates are also known as

polysaccharides.

20) Glucose is stored in muscles and the liver in the form of

glycogen.

21) How many grams of dietary fiber are recommended for adults to consume each day?

25-40 grams

22) Providing energy, insulating body organs, and maintaining body temperature are functions of

fats.

23) The majority of fat in the body consists of

triglycerides.

24) Arthur is diagnosed with atherosclerosis. Which substance makes up the major portion of the plaque build-up in his arteries?

Cholesterol

25) High levels of which type of cholesterol appear to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis?

HDL

26) What percentage of total calories consumed should come from fat?

20% to 35%

27) Monounsaturated fats are generally thought of as healthful because they appear to

lower LDL levels and increase HDL levels.

28) The process of hydrogenating fats is used to

solidify the oil and allow a longer shelf life.

29) What happens when oils are hydrogenated?

Trans-fatty acids are produced.

30) Flax seeds, fatty fish, walnuts, and dark green leafy vegetables contain beneficial fats known as

omega-3 fatty acids.

31) Which of the following would be the best source of omega-3 fatty acids?

Salmon

32) Colleen has been warned by her nutritionist that taking large amounts of a certain vitamin can be toxic because it accumulates in the liver. Which vitamin?

Vitamin A

33) Which type of foods are believed to have specific health benefits beyond basic nutrition?

Functional foods

34) Calcium is an example of which type of mineral?

Major mineral

35) Which mineral is necessary for the regulation of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body?

Sodium

36) The recommended daily amount of sodium for a healthy adult is fewer than 2,300 milligrams, which equates to

less than 1 teaspoon of table salt.

37) Which of the following is the primary mineral component in bones and teeth?

Calcium

38) In addition to dairy products, what other foods are good sources of calcium?

Broccoli and kale

39) What is the most common nutrient deficiency, both in the United States and worldwide?

Iron deficiency

40) Which ingredient in soft drinks can cause loss of bone density, especially in women?

Phosphoric acid

41) Which vitamin is necessary for the body to properly absorb calcium?

D

42) Empty calorie foods are foods that are

high-calorie foods with little nutritional value.

43) The term locavore describes people who

primarily eat foods grown or produced near their home.

44) Ida is a vegetarian who also consumes dairy products and eggs. People with her eating habits are known as

lacto-ovo vegetarians.

45) A person who avoids eating red meat but does consume seafood, dairy products, and eggs is known as a

pesco-vegetarian.

46) Antioxidants are substances that

stabilize free radicals.

47) The most common genetically modified food crops are

soybeans, corn, and cotton.

48) Organic foods are those that are

grown or produced without the use of pesticides, chemicals, or hormones.

49) Food irradiation

destroys pathogens in food and extends the shelf life.

50) Sulfites, salt, gluten, and coloring agents are examples of common

food additives.

51) T/F? Appetite is the body's physical need for food.

FALSE

52) T/F? Drinking too much water does not pose any serious risks to one's health.

FALSE

53) T/F? Dehydration is more life threatening than starvation.

TRUE

54) T/F? The human body can produce all of the essential nutrients it needs.

FALSE

55) T/F? Complete proteins are missing at least one amino acid.

FALSE

56) T/F? If appropriate combinations of plant-based foods are eaten, the complementary proteins can provide all the essential amino acids.

TRUE

57) T/F? The nine essential amino acids are produced by our bodies.

FALSE

58) T/F? The average American consumes too little protein.

FALSE

59) T/F? The best known disaccharide is table sugar, or sucrose.

TRUE

60) T/F? All types of fiber have been found to help reduce heart disease.

FALSE

61) T/F? Americans typically consume far too many refined carbohydrates.

TRUE

62) T/F? Some consumption of fats is essential to health.

TRUE

63) T/F? Trans-fatty acids can have a harmful effect on blood cholesterol by raising LDL and lowering HDL.

TRUE

64) T/F? Taking high doses of vitamins may cause toxicity and even death.

TRUE

65) T/F? The health benefits of antioxidants in reducing heart disease has been conclusively proven by scientific studies.

FALSE

66) T/F? Minerals are potent, essential, organic compounds that promote growth and help maintain life and health.

FALSE

67) T/F? Dietary fats are unhealthy in any quantity.

FALSE

68) T/F? Sodium, calcium, and iron are trace minerals.

FALSE

69) T/F? High sodium intake may increase a person's risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke.

TRUE

70) T/F? Soy milk and many leafy green vegetables are good sources of calcium.

TRUE

71) T/F? An individual with iron-deficiency anemia experiences periods of hyperactivity.

FALSE

72) T/F? The terms serving and portion are synonymous and may be used interchangeably.

FALSE

73) T/F? One serving (3 oz.) of meat or poultry is about the size of a checkbook.

FALSE

74) T/F? Vegetarians cannot acquire all the essential nutrients they need through their diet alone without supplementation.

FALSE

75) T/F? Blueberries are a good source of antioxidants.

TRUE

76) T/F? Probiotics appear to optimize the bacterial environment in the human intestinal tract and improve digestion.

TRUE

77) T/F? Folic acid, a synthetic form of folate, is added by manufacturers to bread, rice, cereal, and pasta products in the United States.

TRUE

78) T/F? The FDA evaluates and regulates dietary supplements.

FALSE

79) T/F? Vitamins are essential organic compounds.

TRUE

80) T/F? The process in which foods are broken down and absorbed or excreted by the body is metabolism.

FALSE

81) T/F? Amino acids are nitrogen-containing building blocks of protein.

TRUE

82) T/F? Complete grains are those that include the bran, germ, and endosperm, with only the husk removed.

FALSE

83) T/F? Complex carbohydrates formed by long chain of monosaccharides are known as polysaccharides.

TRUE

84) T/F? Saturated fats are found primarily in animal sources and are solid at room temperature.

TRUE

85) T/F? The indigestible portion of plant foods is known as the whole grain.

FALSE

86) T/F? Foods that have a high nutritional value for their caloric content are calorie-dense foods.

FALSE

87) T/F? The form of vitamin B that is particularly important during fetal development is folate.

TRUE

88) T/F? A food allergy is a response to a food triggered by the immune system, while a food intolerance is not the result of an immune system response.

TRUE

89) T/F? A person following a vegan diet avoids all foods of animal origin.

TRUE

90) T/F? The four components of food safety emphasized in the USDA's Fight BAC! campaign are clean, chill, store, and cook.

FALSE

1) How many adults in the United States are classified as obese?

More than 70 million

2) Bob calculated his body mass index (BMI) to be 27. This classifies him as

overweight.

3) A female's basal metabolic rate (BMR) is highest during

puberty.

4) The most accurate and complete way to determine ideal body weight is to

measure body composition.

5) Jim, who is 34 years old, has body fat percentage of 24%. This is categorizes him as

overweight.

6) Stuart is 19 years old, is a champion swimmer, and has a body fat percentage of 6 percent. This classifies him as

underweight.

7) There are two categories of stored body fat: essential and

storage.

8) A woman whose body weight is more than 10 percent below healthy recommended levels is

underweight.

9) The type of fat that is necessary for maintaining basic life and reproductive functions is

essential fat.

10) Research has found that there are health risks associated with how fat is distributed in the body. In which area of the body is fat the biggest risk to health?

Abdomen

11) The system of measuring body composition by using a caliper to measure an underlying layer of fat is known as

the skinfold method.

12) Carla had her body fat measured using a method that sent a low level of electrical current through her body, which is known as

BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis).

13) Which of the following best describes research findings on the genetics of obesity?

Twin studies support genetic influence, but the environment plays a substantial role.

14) A person with the "thrifty gene" has

a slower metabolism.

15) What role does leptin play in weight management?

It signals satiety.

16) Which hormone plays a significant role in appetite stimulation?

Ghrelin

17) How does leptin act in the body?

It signals the brain that the stomach is full.

18) A person whose body weight is 100% or more above ideal weight is

morbidly obese.

19) The part of the brain that regulates appetite is the

hypothalamus.

20) Steve is thin and seems to be able to eat as much as he wants while not gaining weight. Which concept is a possible explanation for his ability to stay thin?

Adaptive thermogenesis

21) When fat cells swell and become larger as weight is gained, what process is occurring with these cells?

Hypertrophy

22) Troy's weight has always been around 180 pounds. When he gains a few pounds, he usually drops the extra weight relatively quickly but rarely drops below 180. Troy's ability to maintain a "standard" weight exemplifies which theory?

Set point

23) For some obese adults, gastric bypass surgery has been shown to be effective in treating

type 2 diabetes.

24) Metabolic rates begin to slow at which life stage?

After age 30

25) Rachel has gone on and off starvation diets for years. This will hinder long-term weight loss because this type of eating pattern

slows down the basal metabolic rate.

26) An increase in waist circumference increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and

stroke.

27) Which of the following improves the success rate of maintaining weight loss?

Regular exercise

28) Judith is taking an over-the-counter weight loss pill that works by decreasing the amount of fat her body can absorb. She is most likely taking

Alli.

29) One pound of additional body fat is created by consuming how many extra calories?

3,500

30) Linda always eats when she watches television. Watching television is an example of a

eating trigger.

31) Abdul is looking for a reputable weight-loss program. Which of the following would be the best choice?

A program that allows for individual choices in real-world situations

32) When fasting or eating a very-low-calorie diet for prolonged periods, the body will find fuel from its energy stores. One of the last reserves the body will use is from

protein in muscles and organs.

33) When the body is in starvation mode or has been subject to a very-low-calorie diet, it will metabolize body fat to produce an alternate fuel for brain cells; this process is known as

ketogenesis.

34) The feeling of fullness at the end of a meal is called

satiety.

35) Diets with a daily caloric value of 400 to 700 calories are termed

very-low-calorie diets.

36) Which of the following surgical procedures decreases the absorption of food into the body?

Gastric bypass

37) Most weight loss supplements contain caffeine and/or

diuretics.

38) The surgical procedure that removes fat cells from specific parts of the body is known as

liposuction.

39) A condition characterized by an excessive number of fat cells is

hyperplasia.

40) Automobiles, Internet use, and sedentary jobs are which type of factors that contribute to weight gain?

Environmental

41) Obesity is a risk factor for

heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes.

42) Problems with the BMI measurement include that it

is an indirect estimate of body fat.

43) Which environmental factor encourages us to increase our food consumption?

Easy access to high-calorie foods in stores and restaurants

44) The amount of energy the body uses at complete rest is known as the

basal metabolic rate.

45) The concept of adaptive thermogenesis attempts to explain

how thin people can consume large amounts of calories without gaining weight.

46) A person's exercise metabolic rate will increase if he or she

increases the activity level from light to moderate.

47) A measurement based on the relationship between a person's height and weight that is highly correlated to the amount of body fat is the

body mass index.

48) The measure of energy expended while a person is engaged in sedentary activities, such as sitting on a sofa or digesting food is the

resting metabolic rate.

49) Which theory holds that some people have a genetic disposition toward fat storage and retaining weight?

Thrifty gene theory

50) Which type of weight loss surgery involves a procedure that restricts stomach size to limit food intake?

Gastric banding

51) T/F? The terms overweight and obese are synonymous and may be used interchangeably.

FALSE

52) T/F? Children whose parents are obese also tend to be overweight.

TRUE

53) T/F? The mathematical formula to determine body mass index is BMI = weight (kg) / height squared (m2).

TRUE

54) T/F? Essential fat is necessary for maintenance of life.

TRUE

55) T/F? Abdominal fat is more threatening to health than fat deposited in other parts of the body.

TRUE

56) T/F? A small percentage of childhood obesity can be attributed to genetic factors.

TRUE

57) T/F? Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure during the recovery period after exertion.

FALSE

58) T/F? A person's basal metabolic rate (BMR) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) remain relatively stable throughout adult life.

FALSE

59) T/F? A waist circumference greater than 35 inches in men and 40 inches in women may indicate increased health risks.

FALSE

60) T/F? The resting metabolic rate (RMR) is higher than the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

TRUE

61) T/F? Obesity is a problem in Western cultures but not in Eastern nations.

FALSE

62) T/F? Large restaurant portions and "all you can eat" buffets have had little influence on Americans' eating habits.

FALSE

63) T/F? Most individuals who are overweight are lazy and weak-willed and could lose weight if they made an effort.

FALSE

64) T/F? Today's youth tend to eat larger portions and exercise less than any previous generation.

TRUE

65) T/F? According to the adaptive thermogenesis theory, thin people send signals to the brain that speeds up their metabolism when they consume larger amounts of food, which accounts for their not gaining weight.

TRUE

66) T/F? Hypoplasia (excessive fat cells) only occurs in children after they have been weaned from breast milk or formula.

FALSE

67) T/F? Ghrelin is the hormone that signals the brain when you are full.

FALSE

68) T/F? Muscle tissue weighs the same as fat tissue.

FALSE

69) T/F? Psychological, social, and economic factors can create obstacles to successful weight control.

TRUE

70) T/F? Teasing, social rejection, and bullying of overweight children are examples of behaviors caused by obesity stigma.

TRUE

71) T/F? Increasing your muscle mass contributes to weight gain.

TRUE

72) T/F? Obesity is increasing dramatically among U.S. children.

TRUE

73) T/F? Exercise that involves using the large muscle groups will increase metabolic rate.

TRUE

74) T/F? An obese person burns fewer calories than a thin person walking the same distance.

FALSE

75) T/F? Since most people have difficulty controlling their eating patterns, they should rely on prepackaged meals or very-low-calorie diets to get a start on weight loss.

FALSE

76) T/F? Most over-the-counter and prescription drugs for weight loss have no side effects.

FALSE

77) T/F? Herbal weight loss aids are generally safer than prescription drugs.

FALSE

78) T/F? A cycle in which people restrict calories and lose weight, regain some or all of the weight, and then go on a diet again is known as yo-yo dieting.

TRUE

79) T/F? The thrifty gene theory holds that an internal thermostat works to maintain a person's weight around a narrowly set range.

FALSE

80) T/F? The ratio of lean body mass to fat body mass is body composition.

TRUE

81) T/F? Over 72% of the U.S. population is overweight or obese.

FALSE

82) T/F? Essential fat contributes to normal physiological functioning, while storage fat is the type overweight people need to shed.

TRUE

83) T/F? A particularly dangerous complication that can occur with starvation diets is type 2 diabetes.

FALSE

84) T/F? Exercise metabolic rate refers to the energy expenditure that occurs during physical activity.

TRUE

85) T/F? Less than 2% of obese people can attribute their weight gain to thyroid gland malfunction.

TRUE

86) T/F? The two major categories of weight-loss surgeries are bypass and malabsorption.

FALSE

87) T/F? Athletes may have trouble maintaining weight because they expend more calories than they take in.

TRUE

88) T/F? Obesogenic is the term used to describe conditions that lead people to become excessively fat.

TRUE

89) T/F? Eighty percent of dieters regain the lost weight within 2 years.

FALSE

90) T/F? Being overweight increases a person's risk of arthritis and osteoarthritis.

TRUE

1) The majority of adults

are dissatisfied with their bodies.

2) A healthy body image can contribute to enhanced

self-esteem.

3) Which of the following best defines body image?

Your overall feelings, perceptions, and assumptions about your body

4) Rita doesn't like the way she looks and complains to her friend Sue that she has the biggest thighs in town. She is ashamed to wear a bathing suit at the beach. Rita has

a negative body image.

5) The body image continuum developed by researchers at the University of Arizona

includes a range of attitudes and behaviors related to body image.

6) People who see only negatives when they look in the mirror and feel separated from their body are in which phase of the body image continuum?

Body hate/dissociation

7) Which of the following statements is true with respect to the relationship between body image and culture?

Ads and commercials often convey messages related to attractiveness.

8) What is the most important thing to remember when talking with a friend about his or her eating disorder?

Be a good listener and let the person know that you care.

9) Which of the following are risk factors that can lead to an eating disorder?

Media influence and low self-esteem

10) Tiffany is going through puberty and is concerned about her appearance. Her father assures her that she is growing into a beautiful young lady and that he is very proud of her. His reaction will likely cause her to

develop a positive body image.

11) True body image disorders are diagnosed

in a small percentage of the American population.

12) People who spend a significant amount of time viewing their body in a mirror and comparing their body to others are in which phase of the body image continuum?

Body preoccupied/obsessed

13) A common myth that contributes to negative body image is

how you look is more important than who you are.

14) People who believe that their body shape and size prevents them from dating or having a meaningful relationship are in which phase of the body image continuum?

Distorted body image

15) Karen is extremely dissatisfied with her body shape. She diets constantly and has undergone three cosmetic surgeries to alter her facial structure. Karen is most likely suffering from

body dysmorphic disorder.

16) The physical flaw that most individuals focus on related to negative body image is

overweight.

17) Purging after meals is an example of

disordered eating.

18) The body image disorder that results in a person becoming so obsessed with looking good that they no longer function normally in interpersonal relationships is

social physique anxiety.

19) Individuals with a fear of gaining weight that is so intense it leads to self-starvation suffer from

anorexia nervosa.

20) After drastic weight loss, an anorexic individual will most likely

feel that they are too fat.

21) A compensatory behavior is a behavior that

tries to balance out a previous behavior.

22) Darren works out excessively and has a well-developed, muscular body but low self-esteem. He may be suffering from

muscle dysmorphia.

23) The binge-and-purge cycle is characteristic of

bulimia nervosa.

24) An individual who regularly consumes excessively large amounts of food but does not purge or use other measures to lose the weight they have gained is suffering from

binge-eating disorder.

25) A term that is interchangeable with the term compulsive exercise is

anorexia athletica.

26) Which syndrome involves the interrelated health problems of low energy intake, menstrual dysfunction, and poor bone density?

Female athlete triad

27) The disorder with the highest death rate of any psychological illness is

anorexia nervosa.

28) Eating disorders that are not classified as anorexia or bulimia are eating disorders

not otherwise specified.

29) The female athlete triad occurs when a woman burns stores of fat for energy to the point that levels of which critical hormone decline?

Estrogen

30) How you see yourself in the mirror, how you picture yourself in your mind, and how you feel about your body are aspects that create your

body image.

31) What percentage of American women report being dissatisfied with their appearance?

80%

32) Feeling shame, discomfort, or anxiety about your body is part of having a(n)

negative body image.

33) Seeing yourself as you really are and accepting your body's unique features is part of having a(n)

positive body image.

34) Some body image disorders have been linked to differences in the brain's ability to regulate

neurotransmitters.

35) A pattern of abnormal food-related behaviors used to achieve or maintain a lower body weight is known as

disordered eating.

36) T/F? Studies indicate that 80% of American women are satisfied with their appearance.

FALSE

37) T/F? Maintaining a healthy body image contributes to stress.

FALSE

38) T/F? Body image is based solely on what a person sees when looking in a mirror.

FALSE

39) T/F? The concept of "ideal" body image changes as popular culture evolves.

TRUE

40) T/F? The typical American body is similar to the "ideal" body depicted by the media.

FALSE

41) T/F? Family, community, and cultural groups strongly influence the way we see ourselves.

TRUE

42) T/F? Research suggests that Asian American females living in the United States experience the highest rates of body dissatisfaction.

FALSE

43) T/F? Anyone can be slender and attractive if they work at it.

FALSE

44) T/F? People who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder often have some type of anxiety disorder as well.

TRUE

45) T/F? Social physique anxiety can have a positive effect on interpersonal relationships.

FALSE

46) T/F? Eating disorders affect people of all ages.

TRUE

47) T/F? Individuals with low self-esteem are at an increased risk for eating disorders.

TRUE

48) T/F? An eating disorder is usually related to achieving an athletic performance goal.

FALSE

49) T/F? Life-threatening weight loss is one characteristic of anorexia nervosa.

TRUE

50) T/F? Individuals with anorexia nervosa usually recognize when they have become too thin.

FALSE

51) T/F? Bulimia nervosa has the highest death rate of any psychological illness.

FALSE

52) T/F? Individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa tend to be underweight.

FALSE

53) T/F? Night-eating syndrome is one of the conditions grouped under the designation of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS).

TRUE

54) T/F? Individuals with binge-eating disorder usually maintain a normal weight.

FALSE

55) T/F? Binge eating once a week over a three-month time period meets the criteria of a binge-eating disorder diagnosis.

TRUE

56) T/F? Treatment for eating disorders focuses first on reducing the threat to life.

TRUE

57) T/F? Compulsive exercisers engage in excessive exercise but can calmly deal with days when they cannot complete the amount of exercise they perceive as adequate.

FALSE

58) T/F? People with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa run the risk of dying from sudden cardiac arrest.

TRUE

59) T/F? Treatment for eating disorders usually involves long-term hospitalization and drug therapy.

FALSE

60) T/F? One of the many health risks of bulimia nervosa is damage to kidney function.

TRUE

1) Which of the following is a correct definition of exercise?

Planned, structured, and repetitive movement

2) The ability to perform moderate to vigorous physical activities on a regular basis and to complete daily tasks without undue fatigue demonstrates

physical fitness.

3) Aerobic literally means

with oxygen.

4) The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity is

cardiorespiratory fitness.

5) The fitness of a person's cardiorespiratory system is assessed by measuring

the volume of oxygen the muscles consume during exercise.

6) Swimming, cycling, and jogging are examples of

aerobic activities.

7) Muscular strength is the amount of force

a muscle is capable of exerting in one contraction.

8) Muscular endurance is a muscle's ability to

exert force repeatedly or to sustain a contraction for a length of time.

9) Which of the following describes the most common method used to measure muscle strength?

Maximum weight that can be moved at one time

10) Regular exercise reduces the risk for cardiovascular diseases by

improving blood flow and strengthening the heart muscle.

11) Aerobic capacity is measured by

VO2 max.

12) The range of motion possible at a particular joint or series of joints is

flexibility.

13) Which of the following changes could an individual expect from participating in regular aerobic exercise?

Increase in HDLs

14) Which of the following is true regarding exercise and cancer?

Exercise appears to reduce the risk of breast cancer and colon cancer.

15) Bridget suffers from a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, which increases her risk of fractures. Which disease does she have?

Osteoporosis

16) Regular exercise has been associated with improved mental health, which is attributed to its ability to increase

endorphins.

17) Vigorous exercise has been shown to burn off chemical byproducts released by the body's response to

stress.

18) Exercise frequency refers to

the number of times per week you need to do a particular exercise to see benefits.

19) Exercise intensity refers to

how difficult the workout must be to attain the desired level of fitness.

20) The talk test is used to measure the

intensity of exercise.

21) The maximum heart rate for John, who just turned 20 years old, would be

200.

22) The easiest way to check to make sure you are walking or running with enough intensity to improve cardiorespiratory fitness is to

use the talk test.

23) The maximum amount a person can lift in one contraction is a measurement known as

one repetition maximum (1 RM).

24) Muscular strength is best developed by

overloading the muscles to force them to adapt.

25) When training all major muscle groups in a single strength-training workout, a person should complete

large-muscle group exercises before small-muscle group exercises.

26) During a strength training workout, a rest period of how many minutes for a particular muscle group is recommended between sets?

2 to 3

27) Which of the following activities, performed three times a week, will be most effective at increasing your cardiorespiratory fitness?

Swimming

28) Increasing strength by regularly creating a degree of tension in the muscles greater than they are accustomed to is

overloading the muscles.

29) Billy just completed an intense resistance-training workout. How long should he wait before his next weight training workout to allow his muscles to rebuild and recover?

24 to 48 hours

30) The FITT principle for muscular endurance and strength includes resistance training

2 to 3 days per week.

31) Thea is a swimmer. To improve her stroke performance, she concentrates mainly on her upper body when weight training. Her training method is an example of

specificity.

32) Carlos uses barbells for strength training; the barbells create which type of resistance?

Fixed

33) Which type of stretching slowly and gradually lengthens muscles and tendons?

Static stretching

34) Which of the following forms of exercise includes a component specifically designed to increase strength?

Pilates

35) The body's core muscles are the foundation for all movement and include

deep back, abdominal, and hip muscles.

36) Strong core muscles can

improve posture and prevent back pain.

37) Performance-enhancing drugs that are synthetic versions of the hormone testosterone are

anabolic steroids.

38) A potentially fatal dilution of sodium concentration in the blood that results from overconsumption of water is

hyponatremia.

39) Walt broke his leg during a football game. Which type of injury is this?

Traumatic

40) The best fluid to drink during a 45-minute exercise session is

plain water.

41) Which of the following best describes a way to prevent overuse injuries?

Vary your fitness activities throughout the week.

42) An acronym for the standard first-aid treatment for fitness-related injuries is

RICE

43) Nellie just sprained her ankle playing basketball. How often should she ice her injury?

20 minutes every hour for the first 24 to 72 hours

44) Which of the following would be an example of using the "C" component in the RICE principle for injury treatment?

Wearing a compression bandage

45) A pain in the front part of the lower leg that can be due to more than 20 different medical conditions is commonly known as

shin splints.

46) The least serious heat-related problem that can be prevented by adequate fluid intake is

heat cramps.

47) Ryan has been working in his yard on a very hot summer day. He is experiencing nausea, headache, dizziness, faintness, and the chills. Ryan is most likely suffering from

heat exhaustion.

48) A potentially fatal condition resulting from abnormally low body core temperature is

hypothermia.

49) Why is ice applied to an exercise injury?

To relieve pain and reduce bleeding

50) How is regular exercise beneficial for joints?

It increases range of motion

51) T/F? Most Americans are sufficiently active for optimal health.

FALSE

52) T/F? Exercise will improve the quality of your life but will not increase the duration of your life.

FALSE

53) T/F? Exercise is a type of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive.

TRUE

54) T/F? Intensity as part of the FITT principle refers to the duration of a workout or activity.

FALSE

55) T/F? Research suggests that exercising 120 minutes per week while eating fewer calories and less fat could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

FALSE

56) T/F? The amount of reduction in breast cancer risk due to exercise depends on the longevity of exercise habits.

TRUE

57) T/F? Regular physical activity reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome.

TRUE

58) T/F? A person's metabolic rate is elevated for several hours after a vigorous workout.

TRUE

59) T/F? Regular physical activity has been noted to increase stress, resulting in a negative impact on mental health.

FALSE

60) T/F? Aerobic capacity determines the functional status of the cardiorespiratory system.

TRUE

61) T/F? Target heart rate refers to the maximum heart rate you can achieve during exercise.

FALSE

62) T/F? The amount of rest between exercise sessions is not important in regard to effective strength-training.

FALSE

63) T/F? The effects of strength training are specific to the muscles exercised.

TRUE

64) T/F? Flexibility refers to the ability to move rapidly on demand.

FALSE

65) T/F? The safest exercises for improving flexibility involve stretch-and-bounce movements.

FALSE

66) T/F? The array of stretching exercises associated with yoga are called asanas, or postures.

TRUE

67) T/F? At least five minutes of your workout should be devoted to warming up; cooling down and stretching at the end of your workout are optional.

FALSE

68) T/F? Traumatic injuries occur because of cumulative, day-after-day stresses placed on body parts.

FALSE

69) T/F? If pain is felt on the ball of the foot, at the heel, or both, the problem might be plantar fasciitis.

TRUE

70) T/F? If you strain a muscle during exercise, you should put a heat pack on it when you get home to ease the pain and promote healing.

FALSE

71) T/F? Elevation of an injured limb means to raise the affected area to a level above the heart.

TRUE

72) T/F? To become accustomed to working out in heat more quickly, you should wear extra layers of clothing and exercise during the hottest part of the day.

FALSE

73) T/F? Hypothermia only occurs if you are exposed to temperatures below freezing.

FALSE

74) T/F? It is equally important to consume sufficient amounts of fluids in both hot and cold environments.

TRUE

75) T/F? The ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity on a regular basis without excessive fatigue constitutes physical fitness.

TRUE

76) T/F? Physical activity incorporates all body movements produced by the skeletal and cardiac muscles that result in increased energy expenditure.

FALSE

77) T/F? Flexibility is the range of motion possible at a particular joint or series of joints.

TRUE

78) T/F? Body composition is the relative proportions and distribution of fat and lean tissue in the body.

TRUE

79) T/F? An elliptical trainer (also called an elliptical machine) is a stationary exercise machine that permits walking or running on a moving surface.

FALSE

80) T/F? An inflatable ball made of burst-resistant vinyl that can be used for strengthening core muscles or to improve flexibility is called a medicine ball.

FALSE

81) T/F? A pedometer is a battery-operated device that measures the number of steps a person takes.

TRUE

82) T/F? Heat exhaustion is a deadly heat stress illness that occurs when the body's heat production significantly exceeds its cooling capacities and core body temperature rises to dangerous levels.

FALSE

83) T/F? Involuntary muscle contractions that occur during or following exercise in hot and/or humid weather are called heat cramps.

TRUE

84) T/F? The term adaptability means that if you stop exercising, the body responds by deconditioning.

FALSE

85) T/F? Regular exercise increases the level of LDL or "good" cholesterol.

FALSE

86) T/F? Tai chi is a system of exercise that originated in China that involves performing a series of flowing movements and positions known as forms.

TRUE

87) T/F? Injuries that occur as a result of cumulative, repeated stresses on tendons, muscles, and joints are overuse injuries.

TRUE

88) T/F? Yoga is a system of exercise that originated in India that includes movements that improve flexibility, strength, and posture; all of its various forms include time spent in meditation.

FALSE

89) T/F? Pilates is a system of exercise developed in the 1920s that combines stretching with movement against resistance provided by devices and equipment using tension springs, bands, and pulleys.

TRUE

90) T/F? After a large meal, it is best to wait at least 2 hours before exercising to avoid stomach upset, cramping, or diarrhea.

FALSE

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Mastering Health – Chapters 7-9

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1) Nutrition is the science that investigates

the relationship between the body’s functioning and the elements of food eaten.

2) The digestive process begins in the

mouth.

3) Calories are the measure of

energy obtained from a particular food.

4) After water, which are the next most abundant substances in the human body?

Proteins

5) Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and water are essential

nutrients.

6) One-third of the calories Americans consume come from

junk food.

7) How much of our total body weight is water?

50-70 percent

8) Which type of fiber dissolves in water and can be digested easily by bacteria in the colon?

Soluble

9) Which of the following guidelines will be helpful if you want to increase your intake of antioxidants?

Eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including dark green vegetables.

10) When protein is consumed, the body breaks it down into smaller molecules known as

amino acids.

11) Foods from animal sources usually contain which type of protein?

Complete

12) To support cellular growth and repair, a pregnant woman and a person recovering from surgery both need to eat

extra protein.

13) Minerals are inorganic elements that the body needs to

aid physiological processes, such as the absorption of vitamins.

14) The energy to sustain normal daily activities is provided by

carbohydrates.

15) The main fuel for the body’s cells is

glucose.

16) Which of the following is a simple carbohydrate?

Lactose

17) Which of the following are sources of complex carbohydrates?

Grains, legumes, and vegetables

18) Paul drinks a glass of milk with dinner. The disaccharide in milk that must be broken down before being used by his body is

lactose.

19) Complex carbohydrates are also known as

polysaccharides.

20) Glucose is stored in muscles and the liver in the form of

glycogen.

21) How many grams of dietary fiber are recommended for adults to consume each day?

25-40 grams

22) Providing energy, insulating body organs, and maintaining body temperature are functions of

fats.

23) The majority of fat in the body consists of

triglycerides.

24) Arthur is diagnosed with atherosclerosis. Which substance makes up the major portion of the plaque build-up in his arteries?

Cholesterol

25) High levels of which type of cholesterol appear to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis?

HDL

26) What percentage of total calories consumed should come from fat?

20% to 35%

27) Monounsaturated fats are generally thought of as healthful because they appear to

lower LDL levels and increase HDL levels.

28) The process of hydrogenating fats is used to

solidify the oil and allow a longer shelf life.

29) What happens when oils are hydrogenated?

Trans-fatty acids are produced.

30) Flax seeds, fatty fish, walnuts, and dark green leafy vegetables contain beneficial fats known as

omega-3 fatty acids.

31) Which of the following would be the best source of omega-3 fatty acids?

Salmon

32) Colleen has been warned by her nutritionist that taking large amounts of a certain vitamin can be toxic because it accumulates in the liver. Which vitamin?

Vitamin A

33) Which type of foods are believed to have specific health benefits beyond basic nutrition?

Functional foods

34) Calcium is an example of which type of mineral?

Major mineral

35) Which mineral is necessary for the regulation of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body?

Sodium

36) The recommended daily amount of sodium for a healthy adult is fewer than 2,300 milligrams, which equates to

less than 1 teaspoon of table salt.

37) Which of the following is the primary mineral component in bones and teeth?

Calcium

38) In addition to dairy products, what other foods are good sources of calcium?

Broccoli and kale

39) What is the most common nutrient deficiency, both in the United States and worldwide?

Iron deficiency

40) Which ingredient in soft drinks can cause loss of bone density, especially in women?

Phosphoric acid

41) Which vitamin is necessary for the body to properly absorb calcium?

D

42) Empty calorie foods are foods that are

high-calorie foods with little nutritional value.

43) The term locavore describes people who

primarily eat foods grown or produced near their home.

44) Ida is a vegetarian who also consumes dairy products and eggs. People with her eating habits are known as

lacto-ovo vegetarians.

45) A person who avoids eating red meat but does consume seafood, dairy products, and eggs is known as a

pesco-vegetarian.

46) Antioxidants are substances that

stabilize free radicals.

47) The most common genetically modified food crops are

soybeans, corn, and cotton.

48) Organic foods are those that are

grown or produced without the use of pesticides, chemicals, or hormones.

49) Food irradiation

destroys pathogens in food and extends the shelf life.

50) Sulfites, salt, gluten, and coloring agents are examples of common

food additives.

51) T/F? Appetite is the body’s physical need for food.

FALSE

52) T/F? Drinking too much water does not pose any serious risks to one’s health.

FALSE

53) T/F? Dehydration is more life threatening than starvation.

TRUE

54) T/F? The human body can produce all of the essential nutrients it needs.

FALSE

55) T/F? Complete proteins are missing at least one amino acid.

FALSE

56) T/F? If appropriate combinations of plant-based foods are eaten, the complementary proteins can provide all the essential amino acids.

TRUE

57) T/F? The nine essential amino acids are produced by our bodies.

FALSE

58) T/F? The average American consumes too little protein.

FALSE

59) T/F? The best known disaccharide is table sugar, or sucrose.

TRUE

60) T/F? All types of fiber have been found to help reduce heart disease.

FALSE

61) T/F? Americans typically consume far too many refined carbohydrates.

TRUE

62) T/F? Some consumption of fats is essential to health.

TRUE

63) T/F? Trans-fatty acids can have a harmful effect on blood cholesterol by raising LDL and lowering HDL.

TRUE

64) T/F? Taking high doses of vitamins may cause toxicity and even death.

TRUE

65) T/F? The health benefits of antioxidants in reducing heart disease has been conclusively proven by scientific studies.

FALSE

66) T/F? Minerals are potent, essential, organic compounds that promote growth and help maintain life and health.

FALSE

67) T/F? Dietary fats are unhealthy in any quantity.

FALSE

68) T/F? Sodium, calcium, and iron are trace minerals.

FALSE

69) T/F? High sodium intake may increase a person’s risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke.

TRUE

70) T/F? Soy milk and many leafy green vegetables are good sources of calcium.

TRUE

71) T/F? An individual with iron-deficiency anemia experiences periods of hyperactivity.

FALSE

72) T/F? The terms serving and portion are synonymous and may be used interchangeably.

FALSE

73) T/F? One serving (3 oz.) of meat or poultry is about the size of a checkbook.

FALSE

74) T/F? Vegetarians cannot acquire all the essential nutrients they need through their diet alone without supplementation.

FALSE

75) T/F? Blueberries are a good source of antioxidants.

TRUE

76) T/F? Probiotics appear to optimize the bacterial environment in the human intestinal tract and improve digestion.

TRUE

77) T/F? Folic acid, a synthetic form of folate, is added by manufacturers to bread, rice, cereal, and pasta products in the United States.

TRUE

78) T/F? The FDA evaluates and regulates dietary supplements.

FALSE

79) T/F? Vitamins are essential organic compounds.

TRUE

80) T/F? The process in which foods are broken down and absorbed or excreted by the body is metabolism.

FALSE

81) T/F? Amino acids are nitrogen-containing building blocks of protein.

TRUE

82) T/F? Complete grains are those that include the bran, germ, and endosperm, with only the husk removed.

FALSE

83) T/F? Complex carbohydrates formed by long chain of monosaccharides are known as polysaccharides.

TRUE

84) T/F? Saturated fats are found primarily in animal sources and are solid at room temperature.

TRUE

85) T/F? The indigestible portion of plant foods is known as the whole grain.

FALSE

86) T/F? Foods that have a high nutritional value for their caloric content are calorie-dense foods.

FALSE

87) T/F? The form of vitamin B that is particularly important during fetal development is folate.

TRUE

88) T/F? A food allergy is a response to a food triggered by the immune system, while a food intolerance is not the result of an immune system response.

TRUE

89) T/F? A person following a vegan diet avoids all foods of animal origin.

TRUE

90) T/F? The four components of food safety emphasized in the USDA’s Fight BAC! campaign are clean, chill, store, and cook.

FALSE

1) How many adults in the United States are classified as obese?

More than 70 million

2) Bob calculated his body mass index (BMI) to be 27. This classifies him as

overweight.

3) A female’s basal metabolic rate (BMR) is highest during

puberty.

4) The most accurate and complete way to determine ideal body weight is to

measure body composition.

5) Jim, who is 34 years old, has body fat percentage of 24%. This is categorizes him as

overweight.

6) Stuart is 19 years old, is a champion swimmer, and has a body fat percentage of 6 percent. This classifies him as

underweight.

7) There are two categories of stored body fat: essential and

storage.

8) A woman whose body weight is more than 10 percent below healthy recommended levels is

underweight.

9) The type of fat that is necessary for maintaining basic life and reproductive functions is

essential fat.

10) Research has found that there are health risks associated with how fat is distributed in the body. In which area of the body is fat the biggest risk to health?

Abdomen

11) The system of measuring body composition by using a caliper to measure an underlying layer of fat is known as

the skinfold method.

12) Carla had her body fat measured using a method that sent a low level of electrical current through her body, which is known as

BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis).

13) Which of the following best describes research findings on the genetics of obesity?

Twin studies support genetic influence, but the environment plays a substantial role.

14) A person with the "thrifty gene" has

a slower metabolism.

15) What role does leptin play in weight management?

It signals satiety.

16) Which hormone plays a significant role in appetite stimulation?

Ghrelin

17) How does leptin act in the body?

It signals the brain that the stomach is full.

18) A person whose body weight is 100% or more above ideal weight is

morbidly obese.

19) The part of the brain that regulates appetite is the

hypothalamus.

20) Steve is thin and seems to be able to eat as much as he wants while not gaining weight. Which concept is a possible explanation for his ability to stay thin?

Adaptive thermogenesis

21) When fat cells swell and become larger as weight is gained, what process is occurring with these cells?

Hypertrophy

22) Troy’s weight has always been around 180 pounds. When he gains a few pounds, he usually drops the extra weight relatively quickly but rarely drops below 180. Troy’s ability to maintain a "standard" weight exemplifies which theory?

Set point

23) For some obese adults, gastric bypass surgery has been shown to be effective in treating

type 2 diabetes.

24) Metabolic rates begin to slow at which life stage?

After age 30

25) Rachel has gone on and off starvation diets for years. This will hinder long-term weight loss because this type of eating pattern

slows down the basal metabolic rate.

26) An increase in waist circumference increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and

stroke.

27) Which of the following improves the success rate of maintaining weight loss?

Regular exercise

28) Judith is taking an over-the-counter weight loss pill that works by decreasing the amount of fat her body can absorb. She is most likely taking

Alli.

29) One pound of additional body fat is created by consuming how many extra calories?

3,500

30) Linda always eats when she watches television. Watching television is an example of a

eating trigger.

31) Abdul is looking for a reputable weight-loss program. Which of the following would be the best choice?

A program that allows for individual choices in real-world situations

32) When fasting or eating a very-low-calorie diet for prolonged periods, the body will find fuel from its energy stores. One of the last reserves the body will use is from

protein in muscles and organs.

33) When the body is in starvation mode or has been subject to a very-low-calorie diet, it will metabolize body fat to produce an alternate fuel for brain cells; this process is known as

ketogenesis.

34) The feeling of fullness at the end of a meal is called

satiety.

35) Diets with a daily caloric value of 400 to 700 calories are termed

very-low-calorie diets.

36) Which of the following surgical procedures decreases the absorption of food into the body?

Gastric bypass

37) Most weight loss supplements contain caffeine and/or

diuretics.

38) The surgical procedure that removes fat cells from specific parts of the body is known as

liposuction.

39) A condition characterized by an excessive number of fat cells is

hyperplasia.

40) Automobiles, Internet use, and sedentary jobs are which type of factors that contribute to weight gain?

Environmental

41) Obesity is a risk factor for

heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes.

42) Problems with the BMI measurement include that it

is an indirect estimate of body fat.

43) Which environmental factor encourages us to increase our food consumption?

Easy access to high-calorie foods in stores and restaurants

44) The amount of energy the body uses at complete rest is known as the

basal metabolic rate.

45) The concept of adaptive thermogenesis attempts to explain

how thin people can consume large amounts of calories without gaining weight.

46) A person’s exercise metabolic rate will increase if he or she

increases the activity level from light to moderate.

47) A measurement based on the relationship between a person’s height and weight that is highly correlated to the amount of body fat is the

body mass index.

48) The measure of energy expended while a person is engaged in sedentary activities, such as sitting on a sofa or digesting food is the

resting metabolic rate.

49) Which theory holds that some people have a genetic disposition toward fat storage and retaining weight?

Thrifty gene theory

50) Which type of weight loss surgery involves a procedure that restricts stomach size to limit food intake?

Gastric banding

51) T/F? The terms overweight and obese are synonymous and may be used interchangeably.

FALSE

52) T/F? Children whose parents are obese also tend to be overweight.

TRUE

53) T/F? The mathematical formula to determine body mass index is BMI = weight (kg) / height squared (m2).

TRUE

54) T/F? Essential fat is necessary for maintenance of life.

TRUE

55) T/F? Abdominal fat is more threatening to health than fat deposited in other parts of the body.

TRUE

56) T/F? A small percentage of childhood obesity can be attributed to genetic factors.

TRUE

57) T/F? Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure during the recovery period after exertion.

FALSE

58) T/F? A person’s basal metabolic rate (BMR) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) remain relatively stable throughout adult life.

FALSE

59) T/F? A waist circumference greater than 35 inches in men and 40 inches in women may indicate increased health risks.

FALSE

60) T/F? The resting metabolic rate (RMR) is higher than the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

TRUE

61) T/F? Obesity is a problem in Western cultures but not in Eastern nations.

FALSE

62) T/F? Large restaurant portions and "all you can eat" buffets have had little influence on Americans’ eating habits.

FALSE

63) T/F? Most individuals who are overweight are lazy and weak-willed and could lose weight if they made an effort.

FALSE

64) T/F? Today’s youth tend to eat larger portions and exercise less than any previous generation.

TRUE

65) T/F? According to the adaptive thermogenesis theory, thin people send signals to the brain that speeds up their metabolism when they consume larger amounts of food, which accounts for their not gaining weight.

TRUE

66) T/F? Hypoplasia (excessive fat cells) only occurs in children after they have been weaned from breast milk or formula.

FALSE

67) T/F? Ghrelin is the hormone that signals the brain when you are full.

FALSE

68) T/F? Muscle tissue weighs the same as fat tissue.

FALSE

69) T/F? Psychological, social, and economic factors can create obstacles to successful weight control.

TRUE

70) T/F? Teasing, social rejection, and bullying of overweight children are examples of behaviors caused by obesity stigma.

TRUE

71) T/F? Increasing your muscle mass contributes to weight gain.

TRUE

72) T/F? Obesity is increasing dramatically among U.S. children.

TRUE

73) T/F? Exercise that involves using the large muscle groups will increase metabolic rate.

TRUE

74) T/F? An obese person burns fewer calories than a thin person walking the same distance.

FALSE

75) T/F? Since most people have difficulty controlling their eating patterns, they should rely on prepackaged meals or very-low-calorie diets to get a start on weight loss.

FALSE

76) T/F? Most over-the-counter and prescription drugs for weight loss have no side effects.

FALSE

77) T/F? Herbal weight loss aids are generally safer than prescription drugs.

FALSE

78) T/F? A cycle in which people restrict calories and lose weight, regain some or all of the weight, and then go on a diet again is known as yo-yo dieting.

TRUE

79) T/F? The thrifty gene theory holds that an internal thermostat works to maintain a person’s weight around a narrowly set range.

FALSE

80) T/F? The ratio of lean body mass to fat body mass is body composition.

TRUE

81) T/F? Over 72% of the U.S. population is overweight or obese.

FALSE

82) T/F? Essential fat contributes to normal physiological functioning, while storage fat is the type overweight people need to shed.

TRUE

83) T/F? A particularly dangerous complication that can occur with starvation diets is type 2 diabetes.

FALSE

84) T/F? Exercise metabolic rate refers to the energy expenditure that occurs during physical activity.

TRUE

85) T/F? Less than 2% of obese people can attribute their weight gain to thyroid gland malfunction.

TRUE

86) T/F? The two major categories of weight-loss surgeries are bypass and malabsorption.

FALSE

87) T/F? Athletes may have trouble maintaining weight because they expend more calories than they take in.

TRUE

88) T/F? Obesogenic is the term used to describe conditions that lead people to become excessively fat.

TRUE

89) T/F? Eighty percent of dieters regain the lost weight within 2 years.

FALSE

90) T/F? Being overweight increases a person’s risk of arthritis and osteoarthritis.

TRUE

1) The majority of adults

are dissatisfied with their bodies.

2) A healthy body image can contribute to enhanced

self-esteem.

3) Which of the following best defines body image?

Your overall feelings, perceptions, and assumptions about your body

4) Rita doesn’t like the way she looks and complains to her friend Sue that she has the biggest thighs in town. She is ashamed to wear a bathing suit at the beach. Rita has

a negative body image.

5) The body image continuum developed by researchers at the University of Arizona

includes a range of attitudes and behaviors related to body image.

6) People who see only negatives when they look in the mirror and feel separated from their body are in which phase of the body image continuum?

Body hate/dissociation

7) Which of the following statements is true with respect to the relationship between body image and culture?

Ads and commercials often convey messages related to attractiveness.

8) What is the most important thing to remember when talking with a friend about his or her eating disorder?

Be a good listener and let the person know that you care.

9) Which of the following are risk factors that can lead to an eating disorder?

Media influence and low self-esteem

10) Tiffany is going through puberty and is concerned about her appearance. Her father assures her that she is growing into a beautiful young lady and that he is very proud of her. His reaction will likely cause her to

develop a positive body image.

11) True body image disorders are diagnosed

in a small percentage of the American population.

12) People who spend a significant amount of time viewing their body in a mirror and comparing their body to others are in which phase of the body image continuum?

Body preoccupied/obsessed

13) A common myth that contributes to negative body image is

how you look is more important than who you are.

14) People who believe that their body shape and size prevents them from dating or having a meaningful relationship are in which phase of the body image continuum?

Distorted body image

15) Karen is extremely dissatisfied with her body shape. She diets constantly and has undergone three cosmetic surgeries to alter her facial structure. Karen is most likely suffering from

body dysmorphic disorder.

16) The physical flaw that most individuals focus on related to negative body image is

overweight.

17) Purging after meals is an example of

disordered eating.

18) The body image disorder that results in a person becoming so obsessed with looking good that they no longer function normally in interpersonal relationships is

social physique anxiety.

19) Individuals with a fear of gaining weight that is so intense it leads to self-starvation suffer from

anorexia nervosa.

20) After drastic weight loss, an anorexic individual will most likely

feel that they are too fat.

21) A compensatory behavior is a behavior that

tries to balance out a previous behavior.

22) Darren works out excessively and has a well-developed, muscular body but low self-esteem. He may be suffering from

muscle dysmorphia.

23) The binge-and-purge cycle is characteristic of

bulimia nervosa.

24) An individual who regularly consumes excessively large amounts of food but does not purge or use other measures to lose the weight they have gained is suffering from

binge-eating disorder.

25) A term that is interchangeable with the term compulsive exercise is

anorexia athletica.

26) Which syndrome involves the interrelated health problems of low energy intake, menstrual dysfunction, and poor bone density?

Female athlete triad

27) The disorder with the highest death rate of any psychological illness is

anorexia nervosa.

28) Eating disorders that are not classified as anorexia or bulimia are eating disorders

not otherwise specified.

29) The female athlete triad occurs when a woman burns stores of fat for energy to the point that levels of which critical hormone decline?

Estrogen

30) How you see yourself in the mirror, how you picture yourself in your mind, and how you feel about your body are aspects that create your

body image.

31) What percentage of American women report being dissatisfied with their appearance?

80%

32) Feeling shame, discomfort, or anxiety about your body is part of having a(n)

negative body image.

33) Seeing yourself as you really are and accepting your body’s unique features is part of having a(n)

positive body image.

34) Some body image disorders have been linked to differences in the brain’s ability to regulate

neurotransmitters.

35) A pattern of abnormal food-related behaviors used to achieve or maintain a lower body weight is known as

disordered eating.

36) T/F? Studies indicate that 80% of American women are satisfied with their appearance.

FALSE

37) T/F? Maintaining a healthy body image contributes to stress.

FALSE

38) T/F? Body image is based solely on what a person sees when looking in a mirror.

FALSE

39) T/F? The concept of "ideal" body image changes as popular culture evolves.

TRUE

40) T/F? The typical American body is similar to the "ideal" body depicted by the media.

FALSE

41) T/F? Family, community, and cultural groups strongly influence the way we see ourselves.

TRUE

42) T/F? Research suggests that Asian American females living in the United States experience the highest rates of body dissatisfaction.

FALSE

43) T/F? Anyone can be slender and attractive if they work at it.

FALSE

44) T/F? People who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder often have some type of anxiety disorder as well.

TRUE

45) T/F? Social physique anxiety can have a positive effect on interpersonal relationships.

FALSE

46) T/F? Eating disorders affect people of all ages.

TRUE

47) T/F? Individuals with low self-esteem are at an increased risk for eating disorders.

TRUE

48) T/F? An eating disorder is usually related to achieving an athletic performance goal.

FALSE

49) T/F? Life-threatening weight loss is one characteristic of anorexia nervosa.

TRUE

50) T/F? Individuals with anorexia nervosa usually recognize when they have become too thin.

FALSE

51) T/F? Bulimia nervosa has the highest death rate of any psychological illness.

FALSE

52) T/F? Individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa tend to be underweight.

FALSE

53) T/F? Night-eating syndrome is one of the conditions grouped under the designation of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS).

TRUE

54) T/F? Individuals with binge-eating disorder usually maintain a normal weight.

FALSE

55) T/F? Binge eating once a week over a three-month time period meets the criteria of a binge-eating disorder diagnosis.

TRUE

56) T/F? Treatment for eating disorders focuses first on reducing the threat to life.

TRUE

57) T/F? Compulsive exercisers engage in excessive exercise but can calmly deal with days when they cannot complete the amount of exercise they perceive as adequate.

FALSE

58) T/F? People with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa run the risk of dying from sudden cardiac arrest.

TRUE

59) T/F? Treatment for eating disorders usually involves long-term hospitalization and drug therapy.

FALSE

60) T/F? One of the many health risks of bulimia nervosa is damage to kidney function.

TRUE

1) Which of the following is a correct definition of exercise?

Planned, structured, and repetitive movement

2) The ability to perform moderate to vigorous physical activities on a regular basis and to complete daily tasks without undue fatigue demonstrates

physical fitness.

3) Aerobic literally means

with oxygen.

4) The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity is

cardiorespiratory fitness.

5) The fitness of a person’s cardiorespiratory system is assessed by measuring

the volume of oxygen the muscles consume during exercise.

6) Swimming, cycling, and jogging are examples of

aerobic activities.

7) Muscular strength is the amount of force

a muscle is capable of exerting in one contraction.

8) Muscular endurance is a muscle’s ability to

exert force repeatedly or to sustain a contraction for a length of time.

9) Which of the following describes the most common method used to measure muscle strength?

Maximum weight that can be moved at one time

10) Regular exercise reduces the risk for cardiovascular diseases by

improving blood flow and strengthening the heart muscle.

11) Aerobic capacity is measured by

VO2 max.

12) The range of motion possible at a particular joint or series of joints is

flexibility.

13) Which of the following changes could an individual expect from participating in regular aerobic exercise?

Increase in HDLs

14) Which of the following is true regarding exercise and cancer?

Exercise appears to reduce the risk of breast cancer and colon cancer.

15) Bridget suffers from a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, which increases her risk of fractures. Which disease does she have?

Osteoporosis

16) Regular exercise has been associated with improved mental health, which is attributed to its ability to increase

endorphins.

17) Vigorous exercise has been shown to burn off chemical byproducts released by the body’s response to

stress.

18) Exercise frequency refers to

the number of times per week you need to do a particular exercise to see benefits.

19) Exercise intensity refers to

how difficult the workout must be to attain the desired level of fitness.

20) The talk test is used to measure the

intensity of exercise.

21) The maximum heart rate for John, who just turned 20 years old, would be

200.

22) The easiest way to check to make sure you are walking or running with enough intensity to improve cardiorespiratory fitness is to

use the talk test.

23) The maximum amount a person can lift in one contraction is a measurement known as

one repetition maximum (1 RM).

24) Muscular strength is best developed by

overloading the muscles to force them to adapt.

25) When training all major muscle groups in a single strength-training workout, a person should complete

large-muscle group exercises before small-muscle group exercises.

26) During a strength training workout, a rest period of how many minutes for a particular muscle group is recommended between sets?

2 to 3

27) Which of the following activities, performed three times a week, will be most effective at increasing your cardiorespiratory fitness?

Swimming

28) Increasing strength by regularly creating a degree of tension in the muscles greater than they are accustomed to is

overloading the muscles.

29) Billy just completed an intense resistance-training workout. How long should he wait before his next weight training workout to allow his muscles to rebuild and recover?

24 to 48 hours

30) The FITT principle for muscular endurance and strength includes resistance training

2 to 3 days per week.

31) Thea is a swimmer. To improve her stroke performance, she concentrates mainly on her upper body when weight training. Her training method is an example of

specificity.

32) Carlos uses barbells for strength training; the barbells create which type of resistance?

Fixed

33) Which type of stretching slowly and gradually lengthens muscles and tendons?

Static stretching

34) Which of the following forms of exercise includes a component specifically designed to increase strength?

Pilates

35) The body’s core muscles are the foundation for all movement and include

deep back, abdominal, and hip muscles.

36) Strong core muscles can

improve posture and prevent back pain.

37) Performance-enhancing drugs that are synthetic versions of the hormone testosterone are

anabolic steroids.

38) A potentially fatal dilution of sodium concentration in the blood that results from overconsumption of water is

hyponatremia.

39) Walt broke his leg during a football game. Which type of injury is this?

Traumatic

40) The best fluid to drink during a 45-minute exercise session is

plain water.

41) Which of the following best describes a way to prevent overuse injuries?

Vary your fitness activities throughout the week.

42) An acronym for the standard first-aid treatment for fitness-related injuries is

RICE

43) Nellie just sprained her ankle playing basketball. How often should she ice her injury?

20 minutes every hour for the first 24 to 72 hours

44) Which of the following would be an example of using the "C" component in the RICE principle for injury treatment?

Wearing a compression bandage

45) A pain in the front part of the lower leg that can be due to more than 20 different medical conditions is commonly known as

shin splints.

46) The least serious heat-related problem that can be prevented by adequate fluid intake is

heat cramps.

47) Ryan has been working in his yard on a very hot summer day. He is experiencing nausea, headache, dizziness, faintness, and the chills. Ryan is most likely suffering from

heat exhaustion.

48) A potentially fatal condition resulting from abnormally low body core temperature is

hypothermia.

49) Why is ice applied to an exercise injury?

To relieve pain and reduce bleeding

50) How is regular exercise beneficial for joints?

It increases range of motion

51) T/F? Most Americans are sufficiently active for optimal health.

FALSE

52) T/F? Exercise will improve the quality of your life but will not increase the duration of your life.

FALSE

53) T/F? Exercise is a type of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive.

TRUE

54) T/F? Intensity as part of the FITT principle refers to the duration of a workout or activity.

FALSE

55) T/F? Research suggests that exercising 120 minutes per week while eating fewer calories and less fat could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

FALSE

56) T/F? The amount of reduction in breast cancer risk due to exercise depends on the longevity of exercise habits.

TRUE

57) T/F? Regular physical activity reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome.

TRUE

58) T/F? A person’s metabolic rate is elevated for several hours after a vigorous workout.

TRUE

59) T/F? Regular physical activity has been noted to increase stress, resulting in a negative impact on mental health.

FALSE

60) T/F? Aerobic capacity determines the functional status of the cardiorespiratory system.

TRUE

61) T/F? Target heart rate refers to the maximum heart rate you can achieve during exercise.

FALSE

62) T/F? The amount of rest between exercise sessions is not important in regard to effective strength-training.

FALSE

63) T/F? The effects of strength training are specific to the muscles exercised.

TRUE

64) T/F? Flexibility refers to the ability to move rapidly on demand.

FALSE

65) T/F? The safest exercises for improving flexibility involve stretch-and-bounce movements.

FALSE

66) T/F? The array of stretching exercises associated with yoga are called asanas, or postures.

TRUE

67) T/F? At least five minutes of your workout should be devoted to warming up; cooling down and stretching at the end of your workout are optional.

FALSE

68) T/F? Traumatic injuries occur because of cumulative, day-after-day stresses placed on body parts.

FALSE

69) T/F? If pain is felt on the ball of the foot, at the heel, or both, the problem might be plantar fasciitis.

TRUE

70) T/F? If you strain a muscle during exercise, you should put a heat pack on it when you get home to ease the pain and promote healing.

FALSE

71) T/F? Elevation of an injured limb means to raise the affected area to a level above the heart.

TRUE

72) T/F? To become accustomed to working out in heat more quickly, you should wear extra layers of clothing and exercise during the hottest part of the day.

FALSE

73) T/F? Hypothermia only occurs if you are exposed to temperatures below freezing.

FALSE

74) T/F? It is equally important to consume sufficient amounts of fluids in both hot and cold environments.

TRUE

75) T/F? The ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity on a regular basis without excessive fatigue constitutes physical fitness.

TRUE

76) T/F? Physical activity incorporates all body movements produced by the skeletal and cardiac muscles that result in increased energy expenditure.

FALSE

77) T/F? Flexibility is the range of motion possible at a particular joint or series of joints.

TRUE

78) T/F? Body composition is the relative proportions and distribution of fat and lean tissue in the body.

TRUE

79) T/F? An elliptical trainer (also called an elliptical machine) is a stationary exercise machine that permits walking or running on a moving surface.

FALSE

80) T/F? An inflatable ball made of burst-resistant vinyl that can be used for strengthening core muscles or to improve flexibility is called a medicine ball.

FALSE

81) T/F? A pedometer is a battery-operated device that measures the number of steps a person takes.

TRUE

82) T/F? Heat exhaustion is a deadly heat stress illness that occurs when the body’s heat production significantly exceeds its cooling capacities and core body temperature rises to dangerous levels.

FALSE

83) T/F? Involuntary muscle contractions that occur during or following exercise in hot and/or humid weather are called heat cramps.

TRUE

84) T/F? The term adaptability means that if you stop exercising, the body responds by deconditioning.

FALSE

85) T/F? Regular exercise increases the level of LDL or "good" cholesterol.

FALSE

86) T/F? Tai chi is a system of exercise that originated in China that involves performing a series of flowing movements and positions known as forms.

TRUE

87) T/F? Injuries that occur as a result of cumulative, repeated stresses on tendons, muscles, and joints are overuse injuries.

TRUE

88) T/F? Yoga is a system of exercise that originated in India that includes movements that improve flexibility, strength, and posture; all of its various forms include time spent in meditation.

FALSE

89) T/F? Pilates is a system of exercise developed in the 1920s that combines stretching with movement against resistance provided by devices and equipment using tension springs, bands, and pulleys.

TRUE

90) T/F? After a large meal, it is best to wait at least 2 hours before exercising to avoid stomach upset, cramping, or diarrhea.

FALSE

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