Mastering Biology, Test 2

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Where does translation take place?

a) Golgi apparatus
b) Ribosome
c) Nucleus
d) Endoplasmic reticulum

b) Ribosome

Which nucleic acid is translated to make a protein?

a) tRNA
b) mRNA
c) DNA
d) rRNA

b) mRNA

Which of the following processes is an example of a post-translational modification?

a) Elongation
b) Initiation
c) Phosphorylation
d) Peptide bond formation

c) Phosphorylation

Which of the following steps occurs last in the initiation phase of translation?

a) A peptide bond is formed between two adjacent amino acids.
b) The small subunit of the ribosome binds to the 5′ cap on the mRNA.
c) The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex.
d) An aminoacyl tRNA binds to the start codon.

c) The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex.

At which site do new aminoacyl tRNAs enter the ribosome during elongation?

a) B-site
b) A-site
c) P-site
d) E-site

b) A-site

What is meant by translocation?

a) The ribosome slides one codon down the mRNA.
b) The completed polypeptide is released from the ribosome.
c) The two ribosomal subunits are joined in a complex.
d) The polypeptide chain grows by one amino acid.

a) The ribosome slides one codon down the mRNA.

True or false. A tRNA with an anticodon complementary to the stop codon catalyzes the reaction by which translation is terminated.

a) True
b) False

b) False

Which of these is a tRNA? (http://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1100614/4/1716q.jpg)

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

b) B

What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA?

a) Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase
b) Rubisco
c) Dextrinase
d) Argininosuccinate Lyase
e) Nuclease

a) Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase

The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____.

a) CAG
b) CTG
c) GAC
d) CUG
e) TCG

d) CUG

What is the name of the process shown in the diagram? (http://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1100614/4/Part_D_translation.jpg)

a) Initiation (of transcription)
b) RNA Processing
c) Initiation (of translation)
d) Elongation
e) Termination (of translation)

c) Initiation (of translation)

The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome’s _____ site.

a) A
b) translocation
c) E
d) P
e) Q

d) P

What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?

a) Translation
b) Transcription
c) Translocation
d) Replication

b) Transcription

DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?

a) Organelles
b) Proteins
c) Messenger RNA
d) DNA

a) Organelles

Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?

a) A site found on the RNA polymerase
b) A site where many different proteins will bind
c) A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase
d) Part of the RNA molecule itself

c) A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase

Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?

a) The promoter is a site found on RNA polymerase.
b) The promoter is part of the RNA molecule itself.
c) The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.
d) The promoter is a site at which only RNA polymerase will bind.

c) The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.

What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?

a) The previous base
b) The order of the chemical groups in the backbone of the RNA molecule
c) Base pairing between the two DNA strands
d) Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides

d) Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides

Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?

a) Identical
b) Covalently bound
c) Complementary
d) Permanently base-paired

c) Complementary

What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?

a) It begins transcribing the next gene on the chromosome.
b) It is degraded.
c) It joins with another RNA polymerase to carry out transcription.
d) It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.

d) It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.

In the diagram below, the gray unit represents _____. (http://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1100612/4/Part_ABC.jpg)

a) RNA
b) DNA
c) transcription factors
d) RNA polymerase
e) the promoter

d) RNA polymerase

In the diagram below, the green unit represents _____. (http://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1100612/4/Part_ABC.jpg)

a) RNA
b) DNA
c) transcription factors
d) RNA polymerase
e) the promoter

e) the promoter

In the diagram below, the two blue strands represent _____. (http://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1100612/4/Part_ABC.jpg)

a) RNA
b) DNA
c) transcription factors
d) RNA polymerase
e) the promoter

b) DNA

Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?

a)GTTACG
CAATCG
b)GTTACG
CAAUGC
c)GTTACG
GTTACG
d)GTTACG
ACCGTA
e)GTTACG
UAACAU

b)GTTACG CAAUGC

The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.

a) 1′ —> 5′
b) 5′ —> 3′
c) 1′ —> 3′
d) 3′ —> 5′
e) 2′ —> 4′

b) 5′ —> 3′

How would this molecule have to be altered, to be used in RNA transcription? (http://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1323180/5/NA-Transcription-A.jpg)

a) Add another OH to the sugar.
b) Remove a CH3 group from the base.
c) Remove two phosphates.
d) Both (a) and (b).
e) Both (a) and (c).

d) Both (a) and (b).

You can tell this diagram is showing transcription rather than replication because… (http://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1323180/5/NA-Transcription-B.jpg)

a) an enzyme is doing it. Replication doesn’t need an enzyme.
b) only one strand is being used as template.
c) the product contains U.
d) Both (b) and (c).
e) (a), (b), and (c).

d) Both (b) and (c).

What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA?

a) RNA processing
b) gene expression
c) polypeptide formation
d) transcription
e) translation

d) transcription

What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?

a) RNA processing
b) gene expression
c) polypeptide formation
d) transcription
e) translation

e) translation

What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?

a) RNA processing
b) gene expression
c) polypeptide formation
d) transcription
e) translation

a) RNA processing

Polypeptides are assembled from _____.

a) hexoses
b) glycerol
c) nucleotides
d) proteins
e) amino acids

e) amino acids

RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____.

a) a protein
b) DNA
c) a eukaryotic cell
d) mRNA
e) a polypeptide

d) mRNA

During transcription in eukaryotes, a type of RNA polymerase called RNA polymerase II moves along the template strand of the DNA in the 3’→5′ direction. However, for any given gene, either strand of the double-stranded DNA may function as the template strand.
For any given gene, what ultimately determines which DNA strand serves as the template strand?

a) the base sequence of the gene’s promoter
b) the location of specific proteins (transcription factors) that bind to the DNA
c) which of the two strands of DNA carries the RNA primer
d) the location along the chromosome where the double-stranded DNA unwinds

a) the base sequence of the gene’s promoter

After transcription begins, several steps must be completed before the fully processed mRNA is ready to be used as a template for protein synthesis on the ribosomes.
Which three statements correctly describe the processing that takes place before a mature mRNA exits the nucleus?

a) Noncoding sequences called introns are spliced out by molecular complexes called spliceosomes.
b) Coding sequences called exons are spliced out by ribosomes.
c) A translation stop codon is added at the 3′ end of the pre-mRNA.
d) A cap consisting of a modified guanine nucleotide is added to the 5′ end of the pre-mRNA.
e) A poly-A tail (50-250 adenine nucleotides) is added to the 3′ end of the pre-mRNA.

a, d and e

Beginning within the nucleus, the first step leading to the synthesis of a polypeptide is _____.

a) translation of an RNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acids
b) removal of introns from RNA and the stitching together of exons
c) linking of nucleotides to form a polypeptide
d) translation of a DNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acids
e) transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA

e) transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA

True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid.

a) True
b) False

b) False

Which of the following statements about mutations is false?

a) An addition mutation results in an added base in the DNA sequence.
b) A deletion mutation results in the loss of a base in the DNA sequence.
c) A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein.
d) Addition and deletion mutations disrupt the primary structure of proteins.

c) A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein.

If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has occurred?

a) Deletion.
b) Addition.
c) None.
d) Both addition and deletion.

a) Deletion.

Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)?

a) One deletion mutation.
b) One addition and one deletion mutation.
c) One addition and two deletion mutations.
d) One addition mutation.

b) One addition and one deletion mutation.

If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein?

a) One.
b) Three.
c) None.
d) Two.

d) Two.

If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein, which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred?

a) An addition mutation
b) An addition mutation and a deletion mutation.
c) A deletion mutation.
d) None.

b) An addition mutation and a deletion mutation.

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