Mastering Biology Ch 7

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The ultimate energy source that supports most life on Earth is _____.


Plants are photosynthetic autotrophs. What does this mean?

They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules.

The photosynthetic membranes are found in the _____ in plant cells.


The end products of photosynthesis are _____ and _____.

glucose … oxygen

Which of the following includes some of the benefits of photosynthesis?

It is an oxygen source as well as a source of stored energy.

Which of the following is produced by the light reactions of photosynthesis and consumed by the Calvin cycle?


In the electromagnetic spectrum, the type of radiation that we call visible light occurs between __________.

UV radiation and infrared radiation

As a consequence of the work of the biologist, Theodor Engelmann, others showed that chloroplasts absorb light mainly in the _____ and _____ part of the spectrum.

blue-violet … red-orange

Which of the following is a pigment that participates directly in the light reactions by absorbing mainly blue-violet and red light?

chlorophyll a

When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by other electrons obtained by __________.

splitting water

The overall function of the Calvin cycle is __________.

making sugar

Which of the following provides a source of energy for the Calvin Cycle?


Forests are considered carbon storage sinks because __________.

carbon dioxide is used in the Calvin cycle to make sugar

Which of the following is a good reason for using fast-growing trees as fuel?

Vigorously growing plants remove a lot of carbon dioxide from the air.

Which of the following leaf types would be the most efficient at absorbing sunlight?

Large, broad leaves

Which of the following structures allows for gas exchange between the tissues of a leaf and the atmosphere?


True or false. Guard cells open during the day to allow gases to flow through the stomata.


Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?

6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.

water … NADPH

_____ has a longer wavelength than _____.

Red … green

Which of these types of organisms produce the biosphere’s food supply?


In a rosebush, chlorophyll is located in _____.

thylakoids, which are in chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of a leaf

How does carbon dioxide enter the leaf?

through the stomata

Chlorophyll molecules are in which part of the chloroplast?


You could distinguish a granum from a mitochondrial membrane because the granum, but not the mitochondrial membrane, would __________.

have photosynthetic pigments

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are similar in that both involve __________.

redox reactions

The photosynthetic event known as the Calvin cycle occurs in the _____.


The "photo-" part of the word "photosynthesis" refers to __________, whereas "-synthesis" refers to __________.

the light reactions that occur in the thylakoids … the incorporation of carbon dioxide

The wavelengths of light absorbed by pigments in the granum are mainly in which range?

blue-violet and red-orange

Which one of the following colors is most strongly reflected by chlorophyll?


Which of these wavelengths is least useful for photosynthesis?


The most important role of pigments in photosynthesis is to __________.

capture light energy

When chloroplast pigments absorb light, __________.

their electrons become excited

The synthesis of glucose by photosynthesis requires energy. The source of the energy for the excited electrons is _____.


The source of the oxygen produced by photosynthesis has been identified through experiments using radioactive tracers. The oxygen comes from _____.


The light reactions of photosynthesis generate high-energy electrons, which end up in _____. The light reactions also produce _____ and _____.

NADPH … ATP … oxygen

Where do the electrons needed by the water-splitting photosystem originate?


Which of the following occurs during the light reactions?

remove electrons from H2O

The _____ of photosynthesis performs a task similar to that of the _____ of cellular respiration.


Both mitochondria and chloroplasts __________.

use an H+ gradient to produce ATP

The energy used to produce ATP in the light reactions of photosynthesis comes from __________.

movement of H+ through a membrane

Why is NADP+ needed in photosynthesis?

It forms NADPH to be used in the Calvin cycle.

In photosynthesis, what is the fate of the oxygen atoms present in CO2? They end up __________.

in sugar molecules and in water

In photosynthesis, plants use carbon from _____ to make sugar and other organic molecules.

carbon dioxide

The Calvin cycle is a series of reactions that __________.

assemble sugar molecules by incorporating carbon

The reactions of the Calvin cycle are not directly dependent on light, but they usually do not occur at night. Why?

The Calvin cycle depends on products of the light reactions.

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