Mastering A&P Chapter 7 - The Skeleton

Identify the major weight bearing part of a vertebra.

Transverse process
Lamina
Vertebral foramen
Body

Body Correct. The disk shaped bodies of vertebrae are stable and stackable. Most weight is distributed in this region.

Name the vertebral projection found in a median plane.

Inferior articular process
Spinous process
Transverse process
Superior articular process

Spinous process The spinous process extends posteriorly in a median plane. It serves as a site of muscle and ligament attachment.

Individual vertebrae articulate with each other forming the vertebral column. Identify the part of a vertebra that articulates immediately with the vertebra below it.

Transverse processes
Spinous process
Inferior articular processes
Superior articular processes

Inferior articular processes Correct. The inferior articular processes contact the superior articular process of the vertebra below it, forming a moveable synovial joint.

Which of the following structures would not be found within a vertebral foramen?

Spinal cord
Intervertebral discs
Dura mater
Spinal nerve roots

Intervertebral discs The intervertebral discs are located in between the vertebral bodies. They form a symphysis with the bodies and act as a shock absorber.

Identify a lateral projection of a vertebra.

Lamina
Superior articular process
Transverse process
Spinous process

Transverse process Correct. The transverse processes of a vertebra project laterally from the junction of the lamina and pedicle.

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?

Occipital condyles
Atlas
Superior articular process
Axis

Atlas Correct. The atlas is essentially a ring of bone. Its structure is highly specialized to articulate with the skull.

What is the name of the second cervical vertebra?

Axis
Dens
Atlas
Vertebra prominens

Axis Correct. C2 is known as the axis. It has a bony projection called the odontoid process that articulates with C1. C1 can pivot around C2, allowing us to rotate our head/shake head "no".

Identify the articulation site that allows us to nod our head "yes".

Atlas - axis
Occipital bone - axis
Occipital bone - C2
Occipital bone - atlas

Occipital bone - atlas Correct. The padlike occipital condyles found on both sides of foramen magnum sit on top of the plate like superior articular processes of the atlas, forming the atlanto-occipital joint. The articular surfaces permit nodding of the head in a "yes" motion (flexion and extension).

Identify the articulation site that allows us to rotate our head, e.g. shaking the head "no".

Axis - C3
Occipital bone - atlas
Occipital bone - axis
Atlas - axis

Atlas - axis Correct. The prominent projection known as dens on the axis forms a pivot joint with the atlas, allowing the atlas to rotate around the axis. The axis is a very sensible name for C2 since it serves as a central axis for rotation of the atlas.

Identify the region of the skull that articulates with the atlas.

Foramen magnum
Occipital condyles
Superior articular facets
Mastoid processes

Occipital condyles Correct. The occipital condyles found on both sides of foramen magnum sit on top of the atlas, forming the atlanto-occipital joint.

Which of the following landmarks is found on the posterior surface of the scapula?

Spine
Glenoid cavity
Coracoid process
Lateral border

Spine Correct. The spine of the scapula is on the back of the bone and can easily be palpated.

Identify the socket of the shoulder joint.

Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity
Lateral border
Spine

Glenoid cavity Correct. The glenoid cavity is a round flat surface that serves as the socket of the shoulder joint. Because of its flat nature, the joint is highly moveable. It is stabilized by the rotator cuff muscles.

Identify the region of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle.

Acromion process
Spine
Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity

Acromion process Correct. The acromion process is the knoblike ending at the lateral end of the scapular spine. It articulates with the clavicle forming the acromioclavicular joint.

Which region of the scapula does articulate with another bone?

Suprascapular notch
Lateral border
Acromion process
Medial border

Acromion process The acromium articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle, forming the acromioclavicular joint.

The scapula is the site of origin of a group of muscles that stabilize the shoulder joint. Identify this muscle group.
.
Upper arm extensor
Upper arm flexor
Upper arm abductor
Rotator cuff

Rotator cuff Correct. The 4 muscles that make up the rotator cuff originate on the scapula and insert on the proximal humerus. These muscles work to stabilize the shoulder joint, working to prevent the head of the humerus from dislocating out of the glenoid fossa.

Identify the process on the scapula that does not articulate with another bone.

Acromion process
Glenoid cavity
Coracoid process
Coronoid process

Correct. The coracoid process of the scapula is found on the lateral side of the bone projecting anteriorly and laterally. Pectoralis minor inserts on the coracoid process.

The adult hip bone consists of _____ regions.

1
2
3
4

3 Correct. In childhood, the hip bone consists of 3 separate bones. The bones fuse together to become the adult hip bone.

Which region of the hip bone articulates with the sacrum?

Ischium
Coccyx
Ilium
Pubis

Ilium

Which landmark of the hip bone can be felt on a hard chair?

Pubic rami
Ischial body
Iliac crest
Ischial tuberosity

Ischial tuberosity Correct. The ischial tuberosity is the thickened inferior surface of the ischium. When we sit our weight is distributed to the chair through the ischial tuberosities.

What regions of the hip bones articulate to form a symphysis?

Right and left Iliac fossa
Right and left pubic bodies
Ischial tuberosities
Right and left pubic tubercles

Right and left pubic bodies Correct. The pubic bodies of the right and left hip bones articulate to form the pubic symphysis.

Which of the following is the largest region of the hip bone?

Ileum
Pubis
Ischium
Ilium

Ilium Correct. The ilium makes up the biggest region of the hip bone.

Identify the articulation site for the femur.

Fovea capitis
Acetabulum
Auricular surface
Obturator foramen

...

Identify the large hole found in this bone.

Greater sciatic notch
Foramen magnum
Obturator foramen
Lesser sciatic notch

Obturator foramen Correct. The obturator foramen is the large circular hole in the hip bone. A few blood vessels and nerves pass through the part of the obturator foramen that isn't sealed off by a fibrous membrane.

The ridge like superior edge of the ilium is known as the _____.

Anterior superior iliac spine
Ischial spine
Iliac crest
Anterior gluteal line

Iliac crest Correct. The iliac crest forms the large flaring superior border of the ilium that ends at the anterior superior iliac spine in the front of the hip bone and the posterior superior iliac spine in the back.

What region of the vertebral column does the hip bone articulate with?

Lumbar region
Thoracic region
Sacral region
Coccygeal region

Sacral region Correct. The hip bones articulate with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint.

Which bone articulates in the acetabulum?

Calcaneus
Femur
Tibia
Humerus

Femur Correct. The head of the femur articulates in the acetabulum of the hip bone, forming one of the largest ball and socket joints in the body.

The palpable hip bone projections in the front of the body felt when you put your hands on your hips are the posterior inferior iliac spines.

True
False

False The anterior superior iliac spines can be palpable with hands on the hips.

The projection at the inferior end of the greater sciatic notch is the ischial spine.

True
False

True The inferior portion of the greater sciatic notch is just superior to the ischial spine.

The hip bone is part of the axial skeleton.

True
False

False The axial skeleton consists of the skull, the vertebral column, and the rib cage.

Identify the bone that articulates with the distal end of the femur.

Tibia
Calcaneus
Fibula
Ulna

Tibia The tibia articulates with the distal end of the femur, distributing the weight of the body to the foot.

Identify the region of the femur that forms part of the hip joint.

Fovea capitis
Head
Medial condyle
Neck

Head The head of the femur is the ball portion of the hip joint, which articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone which forms the socket.

The condition known as a "fractured hip" is most often a break in the femur. Where is the femur particularly susceptible to a fracture?

Acetabulum
Greater trochanter
Head
Neck

Neck Many times the phrase "fractured hip" refers to a break in the neck of the femur. This type of fracture detaches the head of the femur leaving it in the socket (the acetabulum of the hip joint).

Identify the landmark that is unique to the femur.

Head
Condyle
Trochanter
Notch

Trochanter The greater and lesser trochanters are unique to the femur.

Identify the landmark found on the diaphysis of the femur.

Fovea capitis
Linea aspera
Greater trochanter
Deltoid tuberosity

Linea aspera The linea aspera is an elevated ridge found on the diaphysis of the femur. It serves as a site of muscle attachment.

Identify the best description for the location of the head of the femur.

Posterior and proximal
Lateral and proximal
Medial and proximal
Medial and distal

Medial and proximal In order for the head of the femur to articulate with the hip bones, it must make contact with the pelvic girdle (medial) at the top (proximal) portion of the femur.

The flat surface of the tibia that articulates with the femur is the superior surface of which landmark?

Medial malleolus
Patellar surface
Head
Medial and lateral condyles

Medial and lateral condyles The flat articular surfaces of the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia form the knee joint with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur.

Identify the bone found lateral to the tibia.

Fibula
Calcaneus
Fibularis
Femur

Fibula The tibia and fibula lie parallel to one another between the knee and ankle.

Identify the anatomical landmark resulting in a noticeable bump found on the medial surface of the ankle.

Medial condyle
Lateral malleolus
Medial malleolus
Styloid process

Medial malleolus The medial malleolus of the tibia forms the easily visible and palpable bump inside the ankle.

Name the bone that articulates with the distal end of the femur.

Calcaneus
Fibula
Tibia
Fibularis

Tibia The medial and lateral condyles of the tibia articulate with landmarks of the same name on the femur.

Identify the blunt elevation found on the anterior surface of the tibia between the lateral and medial condyles.

Tibial tuberosity
Articular surface of the medial condyle
Medial malleolus
Intercondylar eminence

Tibial tuberosity The tibial tuberosity is found on the anterior surface of the proximal part of the tibia. The patellar ligament attaches to the tibial tuberosity.

Which of the following landmarks can be found on both the tibia and fibula?

Malleoli
Tuberosity
Condyles
Head

Malleoli Both the tibia and the fibula have malleoli, which form the palpable bumps found on the inside and outside of the ankle.

Since mastoid infections may spread to the brain, surgical removal of the mastoid process was once considered to be the best way to prevent brain inflammation. Unfortunately, this also had the side-effect of causing ____________.

deafness in the adjacent ear
impaired head and neck movements
difficulties in maintaining body balance
swallowing problems

Impaired head and neck movements This region of the temporal bone is the origin for the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which, unilaterally, draws the head toward the ipsilateral shoulder and rotates head to the opposite side and, bilaterally, flexes the neck.

Fetal vertebrae develop through endochondral ossification from a preexisting __________ model. Fracture repair of these same bones involves the formation of __________ callus.

dense irregular connective tissue; a fibrocartilage
hyaline cartilage; a fibrocartilage
areolar connective tissue; an elastic cartilage
dense regular connective tissue; a hyaline cartilage

Hyaline cartilage; a fibrocartilage

A cleft palate arises when the right and left _____________ bones fail to fuse medially during fetal development.

maxillae
mandibles
inferior nasal conchae
middle nasal conchae

Maxillae The palatine processes of the maxillae form the anterior two-thirds of the hard palate.

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Mastering A&P Chapter 7 – The Skeleton

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Identify the major weight bearing part of a vertebra.

Transverse process
Lamina
Vertebral foramen
Body

Body Correct. The disk shaped bodies of vertebrae are stable and stackable. Most weight is distributed in this region.

Name the vertebral projection found in a median plane.

Inferior articular process
Spinous process
Transverse process
Superior articular process

Spinous process The spinous process extends posteriorly in a median plane. It serves as a site of muscle and ligament attachment.

Individual vertebrae articulate with each other forming the vertebral column. Identify the part of a vertebra that articulates immediately with the vertebra below it.

Transverse processes
Spinous process
Inferior articular processes
Superior articular processes

Inferior articular processes Correct. The inferior articular processes contact the superior articular process of the vertebra below it, forming a moveable synovial joint.

Which of the following structures would not be found within a vertebral foramen?

Spinal cord
Intervertebral discs
Dura mater
Spinal nerve roots

Intervertebral discs The intervertebral discs are located in between the vertebral bodies. They form a symphysis with the bodies and act as a shock absorber.

Identify a lateral projection of a vertebra.

Lamina
Superior articular process
Transverse process
Spinous process

Transverse process Correct. The transverse processes of a vertebra project laterally from the junction of the lamina and pedicle.

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?

Occipital condyles
Atlas
Superior articular process
Axis

Atlas Correct. The atlas is essentially a ring of bone. Its structure is highly specialized to articulate with the skull.

What is the name of the second cervical vertebra?

Axis
Dens
Atlas
Vertebra prominens

Axis Correct. C2 is known as the axis. It has a bony projection called the odontoid process that articulates with C1. C1 can pivot around C2, allowing us to rotate our head/shake head "no".

Identify the articulation site that allows us to nod our head "yes".

Atlas – axis
Occipital bone – axis
Occipital bone – C2
Occipital bone – atlas

Occipital bone – atlas Correct. The padlike occipital condyles found on both sides of foramen magnum sit on top of the plate like superior articular processes of the atlas, forming the atlanto-occipital joint. The articular surfaces permit nodding of the head in a "yes" motion (flexion and extension).

Identify the articulation site that allows us to rotate our head, e.g. shaking the head "no".

Axis – C3
Occipital bone – atlas
Occipital bone – axis
Atlas – axis

Atlas – axis Correct. The prominent projection known as dens on the axis forms a pivot joint with the atlas, allowing the atlas to rotate around the axis. The axis is a very sensible name for C2 since it serves as a central axis for rotation of the atlas.

Identify the region of the skull that articulates with the atlas.

Foramen magnum
Occipital condyles
Superior articular facets
Mastoid processes

Occipital condyles Correct. The occipital condyles found on both sides of foramen magnum sit on top of the atlas, forming the atlanto-occipital joint.

Which of the following landmarks is found on the posterior surface of the scapula?

Spine
Glenoid cavity
Coracoid process
Lateral border

Spine Correct. The spine of the scapula is on the back of the bone and can easily be palpated.

Identify the socket of the shoulder joint.

Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity
Lateral border
Spine

Glenoid cavity Correct. The glenoid cavity is a round flat surface that serves as the socket of the shoulder joint. Because of its flat nature, the joint is highly moveable. It is stabilized by the rotator cuff muscles.

Identify the region of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle.

Acromion process
Spine
Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity

Acromion process Correct. The acromion process is the knoblike ending at the lateral end of the scapular spine. It articulates with the clavicle forming the acromioclavicular joint.

Which region of the scapula does articulate with another bone?

Suprascapular notch
Lateral border
Acromion process
Medial border

Acromion process The acromium articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle, forming the acromioclavicular joint.

The scapula is the site of origin of a group of muscles that stabilize the shoulder joint. Identify this muscle group.
.
Upper arm extensor
Upper arm flexor
Upper arm abductor
Rotator cuff

Rotator cuff Correct. The 4 muscles that make up the rotator cuff originate on the scapula and insert on the proximal humerus. These muscles work to stabilize the shoulder joint, working to prevent the head of the humerus from dislocating out of the glenoid fossa.

Identify the process on the scapula that does not articulate with another bone.

Acromion process
Glenoid cavity
Coracoid process
Coronoid process

Correct. The coracoid process of the scapula is found on the lateral side of the bone projecting anteriorly and laterally. Pectoralis minor inserts on the coracoid process.

The adult hip bone consists of _____ regions.

1
2
3
4

3 Correct. In childhood, the hip bone consists of 3 separate bones. The bones fuse together to become the adult hip bone.

Which region of the hip bone articulates with the sacrum?

Ischium
Coccyx
Ilium
Pubis

Ilium

Which landmark of the hip bone can be felt on a hard chair?

Pubic rami
Ischial body
Iliac crest
Ischial tuberosity

Ischial tuberosity Correct. The ischial tuberosity is the thickened inferior surface of the ischium. When we sit our weight is distributed to the chair through the ischial tuberosities.

What regions of the hip bones articulate to form a symphysis?

Right and left Iliac fossa
Right and left pubic bodies
Ischial tuberosities
Right and left pubic tubercles

Right and left pubic bodies Correct. The pubic bodies of the right and left hip bones articulate to form the pubic symphysis.

Which of the following is the largest region of the hip bone?

Ileum
Pubis
Ischium
Ilium

Ilium Correct. The ilium makes up the biggest region of the hip bone.

Identify the articulation site for the femur.

Fovea capitis
Acetabulum
Auricular surface
Obturator foramen

Identify the large hole found in this bone.

Greater sciatic notch
Foramen magnum
Obturator foramen
Lesser sciatic notch

Obturator foramen Correct. The obturator foramen is the large circular hole in the hip bone. A few blood vessels and nerves pass through the part of the obturator foramen that isn’t sealed off by a fibrous membrane.

The ridge like superior edge of the ilium is known as the _____.

Anterior superior iliac spine
Ischial spine
Iliac crest
Anterior gluteal line

Iliac crest Correct. The iliac crest forms the large flaring superior border of the ilium that ends at the anterior superior iliac spine in the front of the hip bone and the posterior superior iliac spine in the back.

What region of the vertebral column does the hip bone articulate with?

Lumbar region
Thoracic region
Sacral region
Coccygeal region

Sacral region Correct. The hip bones articulate with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint.

Which bone articulates in the acetabulum?

Calcaneus
Femur
Tibia
Humerus

Femur Correct. The head of the femur articulates in the acetabulum of the hip bone, forming one of the largest ball and socket joints in the body.

The palpable hip bone projections in the front of the body felt when you put your hands on your hips are the posterior inferior iliac spines.

True
False

False The anterior superior iliac spines can be palpable with hands on the hips.

The projection at the inferior end of the greater sciatic notch is the ischial spine.

True
False

True The inferior portion of the greater sciatic notch is just superior to the ischial spine.

The hip bone is part of the axial skeleton.

True
False

False The axial skeleton consists of the skull, the vertebral column, and the rib cage.

Identify the bone that articulates with the distal end of the femur.

Tibia
Calcaneus
Fibula
Ulna

Tibia The tibia articulates with the distal end of the femur, distributing the weight of the body to the foot.

Identify the region of the femur that forms part of the hip joint.

Fovea capitis
Head
Medial condyle
Neck

Head The head of the femur is the ball portion of the hip joint, which articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone which forms the socket.

The condition known as a "fractured hip" is most often a break in the femur. Where is the femur particularly susceptible to a fracture?

Acetabulum
Greater trochanter
Head
Neck

Neck Many times the phrase "fractured hip" refers to a break in the neck of the femur. This type of fracture detaches the head of the femur leaving it in the socket (the acetabulum of the hip joint).

Identify the landmark that is unique to the femur.

Head
Condyle
Trochanter
Notch

Trochanter The greater and lesser trochanters are unique to the femur.

Identify the landmark found on the diaphysis of the femur.

Fovea capitis
Linea aspera
Greater trochanter
Deltoid tuberosity

Linea aspera The linea aspera is an elevated ridge found on the diaphysis of the femur. It serves as a site of muscle attachment.

Identify the best description for the location of the head of the femur.

Posterior and proximal
Lateral and proximal
Medial and proximal
Medial and distal

Medial and proximal In order for the head of the femur to articulate with the hip bones, it must make contact with the pelvic girdle (medial) at the top (proximal) portion of the femur.

The flat surface of the tibia that articulates with the femur is the superior surface of which landmark?

Medial malleolus
Patellar surface
Head
Medial and lateral condyles

Medial and lateral condyles The flat articular surfaces of the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia form the knee joint with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur.

Identify the bone found lateral to the tibia.

Fibula
Calcaneus
Fibularis
Femur

Fibula The tibia and fibula lie parallel to one another between the knee and ankle.

Identify the anatomical landmark resulting in a noticeable bump found on the medial surface of the ankle.

Medial condyle
Lateral malleolus
Medial malleolus
Styloid process

Medial malleolus The medial malleolus of the tibia forms the easily visible and palpable bump inside the ankle.

Name the bone that articulates with the distal end of the femur.

Calcaneus
Fibula
Tibia
Fibularis

Tibia The medial and lateral condyles of the tibia articulate with landmarks of the same name on the femur.

Identify the blunt elevation found on the anterior surface of the tibia between the lateral and medial condyles.

Tibial tuberosity
Articular surface of the medial condyle
Medial malleolus
Intercondylar eminence

Tibial tuberosity The tibial tuberosity is found on the anterior surface of the proximal part of the tibia. The patellar ligament attaches to the tibial tuberosity.

Which of the following landmarks can be found on both the tibia and fibula?

Malleoli
Tuberosity
Condyles
Head

Malleoli Both the tibia and the fibula have malleoli, which form the palpable bumps found on the inside and outside of the ankle.

Since mastoid infections may spread to the brain, surgical removal of the mastoid process was once considered to be the best way to prevent brain inflammation. Unfortunately, this also had the side-effect of causing ____________.

deafness in the adjacent ear
impaired head and neck movements
difficulties in maintaining body balance
swallowing problems

Impaired head and neck movements This region of the temporal bone is the origin for the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which, unilaterally, draws the head toward the ipsilateral shoulder and rotates head to the opposite side and, bilaterally, flexes the neck.

Fetal vertebrae develop through endochondral ossification from a preexisting __________ model. Fracture repair of these same bones involves the formation of __________ callus.

dense irregular connective tissue; a fibrocartilage
hyaline cartilage; a fibrocartilage
areolar connective tissue; an elastic cartilage
dense regular connective tissue; a hyaline cartilage

Hyaline cartilage; a fibrocartilage

A cleft palate arises when the right and left _____________ bones fail to fuse medially during fetal development.

maxillae
mandibles
inferior nasal conchae
middle nasal conchae

Maxillae The palatine processes of the maxillae form the anterior two-thirds of the hard palate.

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