Mastering A&P chapter 6

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Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitaial. What is appositional growth?

The secretion of of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage.

The pubic symphysis connects the two hip bones anteriorly and provides a little movement during childbirth. Choose the most appropriate tissue for this structure that is subjected to both pressure and stretch.


Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth of cartilage?

Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

Hyaline Cartilage

cover the ends of bones


withstand pressure and stretch

Elastic Cartilage

withstand repetitive bending

Skeletal Cartilage

collection of cartilage in the body

When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called…

Interstitial growth

Interstitial growth

occurs when chondrocytes divide and form new matrix, which expands the cartilage tissue from within. This causes the cartilage to lengthen.

Bones do NOT have a role in

glycogen production

glycogen production

it takes place primarily in muscle and liver cells.

Skull bones

long bone flat bone short bone flat bone

The resilience of bone is thought to come from

sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

Choose the best location for obtaining a red bone marrow sample from a patient.


Choose which bone marking type would likely increase in size when a weight lifter repeatedly exercises muscles that attach to it.


An imbalance that activates these bone cells would lead to a loss of bone density.



the bone cells that break down bone. If they were activated more than normal, you should expect to see bone loss

In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.
True or False



an opening through a bone, not a muscle or ligament attachment site

What is a site for a muscle or ligament attachment?



a bone projection; projections often protrude from the bone because of the interaction forced upon them by muscle or ligaments

Which event has to precede all others during endochondral ossification?

a cartilage model is formed

Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through

interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

What is the weakest part of a developing, adolescent long bone?

Epiphyseal Plate

Epiphyseal plate

a weak point because of the lack of calcification

What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?


Endochondral ossification

refers to the formation of bone from a preexisting "cartilage model" but not from a model made of fibrocartilage

What is intramembranous ossification?

the formation of bone from fibrous membranes

Appositional growth

Growth in width involves the adding of layers of lamellar (compact) bone along the bone’s outer surface. This process of growth by "layering" is termed appositional growth and is distinct from growth by expansion of the interior matrix (interstitial growth).

Bone resorption

As the bone widens, the matrix at the endosteal surface is resorbed to maintain the proper thickness of the walls surrounding the medullary cavity.

In humans, the effect of the hormone calcitonin is to

temporarily decrease blood calcium levels when administered in large doses

How can a tooth be moved in a bony socket during orthodontic treatment?

By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

parathyroid hormone

Remodeling a kitchen to add additional cabinets to existing ones also means adding extra support. In a similar respect, bone remodeling alters bone structure without adversely affecting bone strength. What divalent cation is required to create additional bone matrix support?


Mechanical stress on weight-bearing bones plays a large part in bone remodeling. What single factor plays the largest role in maintaining adequate bone strength?


Hypercalcemia can be caused by

hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone

Parathyroid hormone

functions to stimulate the activity of osteoclasts in bone tissue.

Which of the following is UNLIKELY to affect bone remodeling?



main action is to increase blood glucose levels by triggering the breakdown of glycogen in the liver; it does not affect bone remodeling.

Greenstick Fracture

An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the parts. Common in children.

Comminuted Fracture

Bone fragments into many pieces.

Spiral Fracture

Common sports fracture resulting from a twisting force.

The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is

hematoma formation, soft callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling

Select the bone disorder in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones?


At what age do bones reach their peak density?

Early adult hood

Prevention of osteoporosis includes adequate intake of

calcium, Vitamin D

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