Marriage & Family Chp. 10-12

Divorce is LEAST common among people with which of the following levels of education?
A. less than high school
B. high school
C. some college
D. college or advanced degrees

D

When discussing trends in divorce, sociologists focus primarily on heterosexual, formally married individuals because:
A. the outcomes are different for those who are not legally married.
B. sociologists do not consider nontraditional forms of family.
C. there is limited systematic research on other forms of family.
D. homosexuality is too recent to have been effectively studied.

C

Separation is a legal process that involves:
A. married spouses separating into different households.
B. the legal dissolution of a marriage.
C. the end of a marriage through divorce or separation.
D. declaring that a marriage was never legally binding.

A

The legal term that indicates a marriage is no longer binding is:
A. marital dissolution.
B. separation.
C. divorce.
D. annulment.

D

Which of the following groups did NOT permit divorce?
A. Ancient Jews
B. American Indians
C. Romans
D. Christians

D

The legal term that indicates a marriage was NEVER legally binding is:
A. marital dissolution.
B. separation.
C. divorce.
D. annulment.

D

Legal annulment is ________ in the United States.
A. very common
B. common
C. rare
D. very rare

D

Controversies over who controls marriage —the state or church—have arisen based on all of the following topics EXCEPT:
A. same-sex marriage.
B. marriage after divorce.
C. attending a remarriage.
D. marriage after death of a spouse.

D

Which of the following measures tells how many divorces there are in the United States, relative to the total size of the population?
A. crude divorce rate
B. refined divorce rate
C. divorce rate
D. divorce-marriage ratio

A

A better "divorce rate" measure that compares how many divorces occurred in a given year relative to the number of married people in that year is:
A. crude divorce rate.
B. refined divorce rate.
C. divorce rate
D. divorce-marriage ratio.

B

The most commonly used divorce rate statistic, which compares the number of divorces to the number of new marriages in a given year, is ________.
A. crude divorce rate
B. refined divorce rate
C. divorce rate
D. divorce-marriage ratio

D

According to the text, people who marry today have a ________ percent chance of getting divorced.
A. 31-40 C. 51-60
B. 41-50 D. 61-70

B

Prior to the 1970s and "no fault" divorce laws, the divorce rate was:
A. extremely low.
B. stagnant.
C. increasing.
D. steadily increasing.

C

After "no fault" divorce laws, there was a spike in divorces, and then the rate ________.
A. decreased sharply
B. decreased slightly
C. increased slightly
D. increased sharply

C

Since the 1980s, divorce rates have ________.
A. decreased sharply
B. decreased slightly
C. increased slightly
D. increased sharply

B

The change in divorce laws, which allowed either spouse to file for divorce, effectively increased the power of:
A. women.
B. men.
C. the state.
D. the church.

A

This generation has the highest divorce rate on record:
A. the "Greatest Generation"
B. Baby Boomers
C. Generation X
D. Millennials

B

Approximately ________ percent of Baby Boomers had divorced by the age of 40.
A. 25 C. 50
B. 33 D. 60

B

Christina's parents divorced when she was 12. According to statistics, how does this affect the likelihood that she will divorce?
A. She is less likely than average to divorce.
B. She is equally likely than average to divorce.
C. She is more likely than average to divorce.
D. Neither more nor less.

C

Which of the following couples is most likely to experience divorce?
A. Charles and Sue, who are White
B. Carlos and Juanita, who are Latino
C. Bill and Sandra, who are Black
D. Hakeem and Nazneen, who are Indian

C

Couples who cohabit are characterized by:
A. more traditional family views.
B. lower acceptance of divorce.
C. more stable work lives.
D. more moves and relocations.

D

Engaged couples who live together prior to marriage are ________ likely to divorce, compared to nonengaged couples who cohabit.
A. more C. less
B. equally D. much less

C

Those who marry at 20 are ________ times more likely to divorce than those who wait until 25.
A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five

A

On average, postponing marriage means couples are:
A. more financially secure.
B. less educated.
C. more unstable in their lives.
D. less emotionally developed.

A

Which of the following characteristics DECREASES a couple's chance of divorce?
A. arguing about household chores
B. discussing their marital unhappiness with friends
C. spending time alone together
D. avoiding having sex

C

Which of the following characteristics does NOT increase a couple's chance of divorce?
A. different religious beliefs
B. infertility problems
C. children's health problems
D. having young children

D

With regard to initiating divorce proceedings:
A. men and women are equally likely to file.
B. women are more likely to file.
C. men are more likely to file.
D. parents are more likely to file than nonparents, regardless of gender.

B

The independence effect has been noted to:
A. increase the likelihood to leave happy marriages.
B. increase the likelihood to leave unhappy marriages.
C. increase divorce as income increases.
D. decrease divorce as income increases.

B

The income effect has been noted to:
A. increase the likelihood to leave happy marriages.
B. increase the likelihood to leave unhappy marriages.
C. increase divorce as income increases.
D. decrease divorce as income increases.

D

When one partner loses a job, the marriage:
A. is often weakened, regardless of who lost their job.
B. is often weakened, if the woman lost her job.
C. is strengthened, as the couple works together to overcome difficulties.
D. is strengthened, if the woman stays home to help with family work.

A

One British study suggests that divorce outcomes for adults:
A. show higher levels of stress even after the divorce.
B. show lower levels of stress after the divorce is final.
C. show that they felt more depressed and anxious after the divorce.
D. show that they continued to have difficulty sleeping after the divorce.

A

After a divorce, women's income, on average:
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. is supplemented by child support.
D. is unaffected by divorce.

B

After a divorce, men's income, on average:
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. is supplemented by child support.
D. is unaffected by divorce.

D

Compared to men, after divorce, a woman and her children are ________ as likely to live in poverty.
A. twice
B. three times
C. four times
D. five times

A

The increased likelihood of women and children to live in poverty is known as:
A. the income effect.
B. the independence effect.
C. the poverty effect.
D. the feminization of poverty.

D

Which of these is NOT a potential factor affecting children's reaction to divorce, as discussed in the text?
A. the divorce process
B. protective factors and skills
C. the divorce outcomes
D. the legal proceedings

D

Father involvement generally:
A. improves children's happiness and well-being.
B. improves financial stability in the family.
C. increases children's risk of negative effects.
D. is important only for boys.

A

A family in which at least one member is not related to everyone else is defined as:
A. a stepfamily. C. a blended family.
B. a remarriage. D. a stepparent.

C

________ of Americans are likely to remarry.
A. One-third C. Two-thirds
B. One-half D. Three-quarters

C

________ women are most likely to remarry after divorce.
A. Asian C. Hispanic
B. Black D. White

C

________ women are LEAST likely to remarry after divorce.
A. Asian C. Hispanic
B. Black D. White

B

One out of ________ children live in a blended family.
A. three C. five
B. four D. six

D

The three institutional arenas in which we feed and care for children include
A. the family, the market, and the state.
B. the church, the school, and the home.
C. the government, the mall, and the Internet
D. the media, the nonprofits, and the banks.

A

In recent decades, the most important sociological change to families has been
A. the growing rates of divorce.
B. the movement of women's work from their families to the paid labor market.
C. children receiving the majority of their parenting from the media rather than their parents.
D. the shrinking role of religion on family life.

B

The sociological perspective on work and family is different from common notions in that it
A. pays attention to both the content and social context of work.
B. looks primarily at gender and work.
C. sees rich people as the enemy.
D. attempts to understand the workplace from a functionalist framework.

A

Care work is defined as
A. the labor of attempting to make people feel better about themselves.
B. work that is performed face-to-face for the purpose of enhancing the capabilities of another person.
C. work that people do that they really care about.
D. the act of caring for someone less fortunate than oneself.

B

The quintessential care work, which is usually hands-on, intimate work to provide children with the material, intellectual, and emotional support they need, is
A. teaching C. child care
B. pediatrics D. counseling

C

The work to maintain a household's function is
A. housework C. care work
B. market work D. women's work

A

When Shawna picks up her kids from soccer practice, sociologists would say she is engaging in what?
A. housework C. care work
B. market work D. women's work

C

Care work and housework are increasingly performed as what?
A. unpaid work C. market work
B. overpaid work D. illegal work

C

The term "system of care" is used to describe what?
A. the central coordinating system for completing housework
B. how a society accomplishes the necessary care work and housework
C. the master plan that families create in order to accomplish all of their care work
D. state-implemented Social Security and elder-care programs

B

One decision that modern families must face is how to divide the housework and care work within the family. This is often a contentious issue for couples, showing that
A. most couples establish clear communication about who performs which task.
B. it is not really "families" that make decisions, but individuals within them.
C. both men and women are taking on more and more care work.
D. men and women tend to split care work evenly.

B

Which of the following examples illustrates how the state redistributes much of the product of our labor?
A. Apple outsourcing much of its labor to non-U.S. countries
B. private hospitals hiring low-wage immigrant workers
C. income taxes used to pay for Social Security plans
D. student groups sending care packages to disaster areas overseas

C

In the last half-century or so, the main story in the realm of work and family has been
A. women opting out of paid work to stay at home with their children.
B. the growth of the organized labor movement.
C. men's loss of power both at work and at home.
D. the growth of market work in the system of care.

D

The most rapid period of change in the gender composition of the workforce occurred in the three decades after 1960 as the proportion of women in the labor force
A. increased from about one-third to three-quarters.
B. decreased from about one-half to one-third.
C. increased from about one-fourth to nine-tenths.
D. decreased from about five-eighths to three-eighths.

A

In what order did women historically enter the workplace?
A. first women under 20 years old, then women between 20 and 40 years old, then women over 40 years old
B. first single women, then married women without children, and eventually most married women with young children
C. first married women who were only children, then women with one sibling, then women with two or more siblings
D. first women in the northeastern United States, then women in the southern United States, then women in the midwestern United States

B

In historical terms, women's employment patterns have evolved extremely quickly—so quickly that
A. women have faced no struggles in the workplace.
B. there is a growing crisis around lack of child care.
C. women are earning more than men.
D. the expectations people have for work and family are unclear.

D

In the 25- to 54-year-old age range, employment for men has remained at or above
A. 10 percent C. 70 percent
B. 30 percent D. 90 percent

D

Kyle and Lorena are married with two children. What is one reason that sociologists might not expect Kyle to stay home with their children?
A. Kyle, like most other men his age, is employed.
B. Kyle, like most other men his age, is a misogynist.
C. Lorena, like most other women her age, is unemployed.
D. Lorena, like most other women her age, enjoys care work more than her husband.

A

Women's employment rapidly became acceptable within the cultural mainstream, in part because of the kinds of paid work women did. Sociologists call this
A. the glass ceiling C. occupational gender segregation
B. pink-collar work D. second-wave feminism

C

The gender division of labor means that
A. women do the lion's share of housework and care work, and they are concentrated in certain paid occupational areas.
B. men and women tend to split labor equally, whether at home or at work.
C. women are naturally more capable of performing housework and care work, and they enter those occupations in which they are naturally more talented.
D. women have learned to perform tasks traditionally done by men in the workplace, but they continue to perform most housework and care work.

A

In the late 1970s, only one-third of Americans thought that mothers' employment was not harmful for their preschool-aged children; 30 years later, that proportion rose to two-thirds, illustrating
A. that women have become better mothers, able to juggle both paid work and child rearing.
B. that popular attitudes toward the appropriate divisions between men and women have gradually shifted.
C. that Americans tend to value the Protestant work ethic, encouraging everyone, despite their social status, to engage in paid labor.
D. the limits of the feminist movement, which failed to make care work a waged occupation.

B

The phenomenon in which women have seemingly endless housework and child care on top of hours of paid work is referred to by sociologist Arlie Hochschild as
A. second shift
B. occupational segregation
C. multitasking
D. feminism

A

One of the advantages of time-use studies, in which researchers investigate how people fill their days with activities, is that they
A. take account of care work that often seems invisible.
B. see how much men lie about the amount of work they do in the home.
C. help mothers speed up their care-giving tasks.
D. encourage parents to spend more time with their children.

A

According to data collected from the American Time Use Survey in 2010, men and women spend an average of how much time working per day?
A. 8 hours and 20 minutes for men; 3 hours and 35 minutes for women
B. 7 hours and 30 minutes for men; 10 hours and 50 minutes for women
C. 3 hours and 50 minutes for men; 2 hours and 30 minutes for women
D. 6 hours and 40 minutes for men; 6 hours and 51 minutes for women

D

The greater number of hours of paid work for men are, on average, balanced out by
A. men paying for more things at home.
B. the greater hours of unpaid work for women.
C. men having more decision-making power at home.
D. women having more free time.

B

Mr. Johnson works a paid job and Mrs. Johnson primarily performs unpaid labor, such as taking care of the home and the children. What is one consequence of this situation?
A. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have an egalitarian relationship.
B. Mr. Johnson is more likely to help out at home.
C. Mrs. Johnson's work is not recognized because it has no direct dollar value.
D. Mrs. Johnson gains the skills to take care of herself in the case of divorce.

C

The 1970s Wages for Housework campaign attempted to
A. demand housewives be paid wages for their labor.
B. unionize maids, domestic workers, and nannies.
C. push women out of the home and into the paid workplace.
D. elect a feminist-friendly state senator in New York.

A

Time-use data show that married women have cut their housework time roughly in half over the last half-century, while men have
A. reduced theirs by two hours
B. remained about the same
C. added about an hour
D. doubled theirs

D

One reason that gender difference in housework has eroded over the last half-century is because
A. the balance between men and women has not shifted.
B. the total amount of time spent on housework has declined.
C. technology has reduced the time it takes to perform household tasks.
D. children have taken on more housework tasks.

B

What trend in child care does the American Time Use Survey find in the last half-century?
A. Men and women have both increased their time with children.
B. Men and women have not changed their time with children.
C. Men have increased their time with children while women have decreased their time with children.
D. Men have decreased their time with children while women have increased their time with children.

A

There are three main factors within couples' relationships that seem to account for the fact that women perform so much more unpaid work in the home
A. food, entertainment, and health
B. sexuality, race, and class
C. age, sex, and location
D. time, resources, and gender

D

In most couples, the partner with greater obligations away from home tends to do less housework and child care because that person
A. thinks they are better than the other person.
B. is able to pay for others to perform housework for them.
C. has less time available.
D. is naturally less capable of doing housework and child care.

C

Although some people enjoy housework and child care, most prefer to avoid at least the more onerous aspects of those responsibilities. Therefore, when couples negotiate over who does what work, the partner who has a higher-paying job
A. sometimes has more decision-making power and sometimes has less.
B. has the same amount of decision-making power as their partner.
C. has more decision-making power.
D. has less decision-making power.

C

Wives significantly outearn their husbands in how many marriages?
A. 1 in 5 C. 3 in 5
B. 2 in 5 D. 4 in 5

...

Socialization means that the lessons learned in childhood are applied to the situations in which people find themselves as adults. This means that boys who grow up with an employed mother
A. hire someone to clean their homes for them when they grow up.
B. have their mothers do their housework their entire lives.
C. do more housework when they grow up.
D. do less housework when they grow up.

...

Which group has been identified by sociologists as having more traditional gendered divisions of labor?
A. Lesbian and gay
B. White
C. Black
D. Christian

...

When asked why 25-year-old Joy does more housework than her 28-year-old husband Jim, Joy said that Jim works longer hours and she therefore doesn't mind doing some extra work around the house. Joy's explanation is an example of what phenomenon?
A. Women are usually submissive to their husbands.
B. Spouses commonly rationalize unequal divisions of labor.
C. Women tend to have low self-esteem.
D. Younger couples tend to have a more uneven division of labor.

...

Although much of the gendered division of labor takes place within the home, there are also a number of institutional settings surrounding families that are crucial as well, including
A. a labor market where men usually earn less than women.
B. a relatively high-wage (and therefore high-cost) service economy.
C. religious institutions that reinforce the ideal of women as the head of and primary provider for the family.
D. a pattern of gender socialization—primarily through families, schools, and the media.

...

What percentage of American parents report that they would like to have more time with their families?
A. 30 percent C. 70 percent
B. 50 percent D. 90 percent

...

When the time demands, strains, or obligations of work or family roles make it difficult for people to fulfill their obligations in either role, they experience
A. work-family conflict
B. stress
C. hypertension disorder
D. higher rates of divorce

...

In the last half-century, the growth of women's employment contributed to conflicts between family and paid work obligations for various reasons, including the fact that
A. the system did not work for single parents, who could not combine the paid and unpaid work of two spouses.
B. married couples, who spent more time and energy away from home, spent even more time getting housework and child care done.
C. employers attempted to provide more flexible work policies for employees, leading to employees working less.
D. parents and couples tended to opt out of jobs that demanded a lot of time, leading to financial troubles.

...

Women lead what percentage of poor, single-parent households?
A. 48 C. 84
B. 67 D. 98

...

When the welfare system was reformed in 1996, policy makers abandoned the assumption that
A. poor women are not fit to care for their own children.
B. men, not the state, should care for single women.
C. no single mothers should have to work if they do not want to.
D. the government would provide income support instead of full-time work.

...

In 2012, what percentage of single mothers were employed?
A. 12 C. 62
B. 40 D. 87

...

The "motherhood penalty" is
A. the stereotype that mothers are hypersexual.
B. the weight that women gain during pregnancy.
C. the loss of earnings women experience after they have children.
D. post-partum depression often experienced by new mothers.

...

American workers have long aspired to balance which three things?
A. sports, study, and movies
B. work, rest, and leisure
C. shopping, eating, and crafting
D. school, parties, and family

...

Which of the following is one of the work-based reforms that could help reduce work-family conflict?
A. Work hours could be reduced.
B. Work hours could be less flexible across the day or week.
C. People could take better care of their own children.
D. Mothers could opt to stay at home with their children instead of working.

...

As sociologist Judith Lorber puts it, "Workplace pressures are thought to be unchangeable, so the burden of innovation falls on the _____________."
A. state C. individual
B. family D. market

...

The Family and Medical Leave Act made workers entitled to unpaid leave if they become too sick to perform on the job or if they need to care for family members in the event of birth, adoption, or illness. However, only which group of workers is covered by this policy?
A. government workers C. executives
B. women D. new employees

...

In the United States, care work is much more _____________ than it is in many other countries, which tend to have more _____________ solutions.
A. family-based; bureaucratic
B. public; private
C. affordable; expensive
D. market-based; state-based

...

Which country offers the most total annual unpaid parental leave for two-parent families?
A. Switzerland C. United States
B. France D. Japan

...

What percentage of women with a high school education quit their jobs when they have their first child compared with those who have a college degree?
A. 1 in 2; 1 in 8
B. 1 in 12; 1 in 3
C. 3 in 5; 2 in 3
D. 1 in 8; 1 in 3

...

Which factor tends to play a large role in the options available for balancing work and family?
A. one's level of education C. one's gender
B. quality of one's job D. one's intelligence

...

What has been one of the consequences of wealthier families reducing their work-family conflict by employing service workers?
A. exacerbating work-family conflict for low-wage workers
B. freeing up time for all families
C. establishing meaningful connections with service workers
D. children scoring lower on standardized tests

...

What concept does sociologist Judith Lorber propose as a way to gradually erase gender differences in the responsibilities of men and women?
A. Protestant family ethic
B. degendering families
C. divorce
D. marriage counseling

...

Families that practice what Francine Deutsch calls "equally shared parenting" have succeeded best by
A. focusing on the early childbearing years, when the division of labor tends to be the most strongly marked by gender.
B. having stay-at-home mothers develop their own hobbies so they don't feel inferior to husbands with full-time jobs.
C. letting one parent focus their attention on one child or set of children while another parent focuses their attention on another child or set of children.
D. outsourcing as much of the parenting responsibilities as possible so as to create more free time for parents.

...

What is one of the consequences of current trends in time use among men and women?
A. Because women earn more money, they are more likely to control family finances.
B. Because men get out of the house more, they are more likely to have a fulfilling social life.
C. Because women's careers stagnate, they are less at risk in case of a divorce.
D. Men and women average about the same number of hours of both paid and unpaid work.

...

The most common reason for families to adopt an at-home father arrangement is because
A. the couple is homosexual.
B. the woman can make money more easily.
C. the father has lost his job or is unable to work.
D. studies have proven that children develop better with a stay-at-home father.

...

When Pravit decided to stay at home to take care of his children while his wife Sumaya worked full time, it might have been likely for the couple to
A. easily adapt to their new situation.
B. become even more committed to traditional gender roles.
C. encourage gender bending among their children.
D. go out on dates more regularly.

...

One solution to work-family conflict that people choose reluctantly is
A. reducing the role of family in their lives.
B. taking higher-status jobs that allow for more leisure time.
C. going back to school to get better-paying jobs.
D. taking children out of extracurricular activities.

...

According to a survey by the Pew Research Center, a large and growing majority of mothers would prefer not to work a full-time job. What percentage of those mothers without jobs think that no job is the ideal work situation?
A. 12 % C. 48%
B. 25% D. 82%

...

While parents with professional careers often have to work extra-long workweeks, working-class parents often
A. have little motivation to have a professional career.
B. string together a series of overlapping part-time or temporary jobs.
C. work multiple full-time jobs.
D. make most of their earnings from government handouts and subsidies.

...

The theory that the state can jump-start change in both the workplace and the family arises from the belief that government can create incentives for reform that are more universal, and more equalizing, than either _____________ or _____________ can achieve on their own.
A. families; the market C. men; women
B. individuals; parents D. employers; employees

...

Employers are reluctant to embrace a reduction in work hours by shortening the workweek, increasing the number of part-time workers, or offering more time off from work because
A. workers are less dedicated to the company.
B. employees have a more difficult time communicating with each other.
C. work tasks are harder to allocate.
D. they have to train and provide benefits for more workers.

...

People who support state-provided early child care argue that
A. most parents can already afford high-quality child care.
B. the cost of child care and the time required to manage it are major impediments to parents' careers.
C. most European countries do not offer early childhood education.
D. such schooling will not equalize opportunities for children as they grow up.

...

A sociological study of family violence should include a consideration of all of the following EXCEPT
A. legal expectation of privacy.
B. individual traits of abusers.
C. cultural expectations of secrecy.
D. systemic beliefs in society.

...

Feminists are concerned about power differentials built into the family system, including
A. the expectation that husbands should have power over wives.
B. children who are out of control and "running" the house.
C. parents making decisions for their children.
D. siblings protecting each other from abuse.

...

The state is becoming increasingly involved in the role of the family, as illustrated by all of the following EXCEPT
A. the public school system.
B. the provision of food stamps and public housing to poor families.
C. legal requirements for parents to discipline their children.
D. decreasing family reliance on religious authorities.

...

Jack and Jill live together and have a romantic relationship. Occasionally they get into screaming matches that escalate into pushing. This is considered
A. child abuse
B. elder abuse
C. intimate partner violence
D. poor communication, but not family violence

...

According to the text, family violence is usually characterized by
A. individuals with personality disorders.
B. power differentials between abuser and victim.
C. religious convictions on the role of men and women.
D. intimacy where the individuals interact in private.

...

If George's parents fail to take him to school on a consistent basis, they
A. may be guilty of neglect. C. may be bad parents, but not legally so.
B. may be guilty of abuse. D. may be within their rights as parents.

...

Parents who cannot afford to provide adequate food and shelter for their children
A. may be guilty of neglect. C. may be bad parents, but not legally so.
B. may be guilty of abuse. D. may be within their rights as parents.

...

More cases of child abuse are perpetrated by _____________ than any other group.
A. mothers C. other family members
B. fathers D. strangers

...

Contrary to stereotypes, children are least likely to be abused _____________.
A. by mothers C. at day care
B. by fathers D. by a friend or neighbor

...

Of the reported child abuse cases, approximately _____________ percent happen at the hands of the child's parents.
A. 20 C. 60
B. 40 D. 80

...

Risk factors for children being abused include all of the following EXCEPT
A. poverty
B. mental health issues
C. single parenthood
D. lack of social network

...

The physical, sexual, or emotional abuse of a parent or older family member is defined as
A. intimate partner violence
B. child abuse
C. family violence
D. elder abuse

...

Elder abuse is reported by approximately _____________ percent of the population over 60.
A. 5 C. 15
B. 10 D. 20

...

The most common form of elder abuse is
A. emotional C. physical
B. sexual D. neglect

...

Most of the elderly who report abuse are abused by
A. paid caregivers
B. nursing or retirement homes
C. intimate partners
D. other family members

...

The current term used by the federal government for violence between partners who are in, or were in, a romantic relationship is
A. domestic violence
B. violence against women
C. intimate partner violence
D. family violence

...

According to national surveys, _____________ of men and _____________
of women report being victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking in their lifetime.
A. 10, 25 C. 21, 32
B. 14, 29 D. 29, 36

...

In one year, women are _____________ times as likely as men to be victims of intimate partner violence.
A. Three C. Five
B. Four D. Six

...

Most people who do not report intimate partner violence to the police fail to do so because
A. they handle it personally
B. they are afraid of the consequences
C. they believe the police won't help them
D. they feel it is not important

...

Erica is experiencing psychological abuse and fears her husband's violent outbursts are becoming more dangerous. Erica is most likely experiencing
A. mutual violent control
B. violent resistance
C. intimate terrorism
D. common couple violence

...

Dante and Nina have a tumultuous relationship, and occasionally there is some pushing or shoving between them during arguments. These interactions are best described as
A. mutual violent control
B. violent resistance
C. intimate terrorism
D. common couple violence

...

Lorena shot her husband after years of physical abuse at his hands. Her behavior is best classified as
A. mutual violent control
B. violent resistance
C. intimate terrorism
D. common couple violence

...

Sue and Larry are both hotheads and often physically battle for control in their relationship. They are likely engaged in
A. mutual violent control
B. violent resistance
C. intimate terrorism
D. common couple violence

...

_____________ percent of female homicide victims were murdered by an intimate partner.
A. 75 C. 26
B. 42 D. 5

...

_____________ percent of male homicide victims were murdered by an intimate partner.
A. 75 C. 26
B. 42 D. 5

...

The most likely victim of family violence is a woman of _____________ race/ethnicity.
A. American Indian
B. Asian
C. Hispanic
D. White

...

The LEAST likely victim of family violence is a woman of _____________ race/ethnicity.
A. American Indian
B. Asian
C. Hispanic
D. White

...

Jan was fondled by a stranger on her way to the bathroom when she was out with her friends. This meets the legal definition of
A. rape C. incest
B. sexual assault D. family violence

...

Kay's boyfriend had sex with her after she drank too much and passed out. This meets the legal definition of
A. rape C. incest
B. sexual assault D. family violence

...

John and Martha are in love and have a sexual relationship. Martha is also John's aunt. In most states, this meets the legal definition of:
A. rape C. incest
B. sexual assault D. family violence

...

For most of American history, rape could not legally occur in a marriage because wives did not have the right to say no to sex. This law began to change starting in
A. 1950 C. 1990
B. 1970 D. 2010

...

According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence survey, _____________ percent of women and _____________ percent of men have been raped during their life time.
A. 33, 5 C. 18, 1
B. 25, 5 D. 15, 1

...

According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence survey, _____________ percent of women are raped or experience an attempted rape while in college.
A. 25-30 C. 15-20
B. 20-25 D. 10-15

...

According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence survey, more women have been raped than
A. are on the pill
B. have gone to the beach
C. have smoked cigarettes
D. have taken a college course

...

Statistics on violence in same-sex partnerships are limited but indicate that
A. lesbian and straight women are equally likely to be victims.
B. lesbian women are less likely to be victims than straight women.
C. gay men are more likely to be victims than straight men.
D. lesbian women are more likely to be victims than straight women.

...

The homicide rate among children has decreased by _____________ percent.
A. 10 C. 20
B. 15 D. 25

...

The decrease in family violence has been attributed to
A. an increase in cohabitation.
B. a decrease in the availability of shelters.
C. improved public awareness.
D. an increase in working women.

...

The effects of child abuse are often first noted
A. when the child becomes an abuser
B. in their behavior
C. by a teacher
D. as signs of PTSD

...

Women who suffered sexual abuse in their past were most likely to
A. avoid relationships altogether
B. cohabit but not marry
C. rush into marriage
D. be sexually promiscuous

...

In countries were men have greater educational and occupational advantages
A. violence against women is more common
B. violence against women is less common
C. violence against men is more common
D. violence against men is less common

...

Rape occurs primarily
A. by strangers attacking women
B. among acquaintances, with physical violence
C. among acquaintances, with mild or threatened violence
D. in committed relationships

...

In the Catholic church child abuse scandal, ____________ percent of the victims were boys.
A. 20 C. 60
B. 40 D. 80

...

Marriage & Family Chp. 10-12 - Subjecto.com

Marriage & Family Chp. 10-12

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Divorce is LEAST common among people with which of the following levels of education?
A. less than high school
B. high school
C. some college
D. college or advanced degrees

D

When discussing trends in divorce, sociologists focus primarily on heterosexual, formally married individuals because:
A. the outcomes are different for those who are not legally married.
B. sociologists do not consider nontraditional forms of family.
C. there is limited systematic research on other forms of family.
D. homosexuality is too recent to have been effectively studied.

C

Separation is a legal process that involves:
A. married spouses separating into different households.
B. the legal dissolution of a marriage.
C. the end of a marriage through divorce or separation.
D. declaring that a marriage was never legally binding.

A

The legal term that indicates a marriage is no longer binding is:
A. marital dissolution.
B. separation.
C. divorce.
D. annulment.

D

Which of the following groups did NOT permit divorce?
A. Ancient Jews
B. American Indians
C. Romans
D. Christians

D

The legal term that indicates a marriage was NEVER legally binding is:
A. marital dissolution.
B. separation.
C. divorce.
D. annulment.

D

Legal annulment is ________ in the United States.
A. very common
B. common
C. rare
D. very rare

D

Controversies over who controls marriage —the state or church—have arisen based on all of the following topics EXCEPT:
A. same-sex marriage.
B. marriage after divorce.
C. attending a remarriage.
D. marriage after death of a spouse.

D

Which of the following measures tells how many divorces there are in the United States, relative to the total size of the population?
A. crude divorce rate
B. refined divorce rate
C. divorce rate
D. divorce-marriage ratio

A

A better "divorce rate" measure that compares how many divorces occurred in a given year relative to the number of married people in that year is:
A. crude divorce rate.
B. refined divorce rate.
C. divorce rate
D. divorce-marriage ratio.

B

The most commonly used divorce rate statistic, which compares the number of divorces to the number of new marriages in a given year, is ________.
A. crude divorce rate
B. refined divorce rate
C. divorce rate
D. divorce-marriage ratio

D

According to the text, people who marry today have a ________ percent chance of getting divorced.
A. 31-40 C. 51-60
B. 41-50 D. 61-70

B

Prior to the 1970s and "no fault" divorce laws, the divorce rate was:
A. extremely low.
B. stagnant.
C. increasing.
D. steadily increasing.

C

After "no fault" divorce laws, there was a spike in divorces, and then the rate ________.
A. decreased sharply
B. decreased slightly
C. increased slightly
D. increased sharply

C

Since the 1980s, divorce rates have ________.
A. decreased sharply
B. decreased slightly
C. increased slightly
D. increased sharply

B

The change in divorce laws, which allowed either spouse to file for divorce, effectively increased the power of:
A. women.
B. men.
C. the state.
D. the church.

A

This generation has the highest divorce rate on record:
A. the "Greatest Generation"
B. Baby Boomers
C. Generation X
D. Millennials

B

Approximately ________ percent of Baby Boomers had divorced by the age of 40.
A. 25 C. 50
B. 33 D. 60

B

Christina’s parents divorced when she was 12. According to statistics, how does this affect the likelihood that she will divorce?
A. She is less likely than average to divorce.
B. She is equally likely than average to divorce.
C. She is more likely than average to divorce.
D. Neither more nor less.

C

Which of the following couples is most likely to experience divorce?
A. Charles and Sue, who are White
B. Carlos and Juanita, who are Latino
C. Bill and Sandra, who are Black
D. Hakeem and Nazneen, who are Indian

C

Couples who cohabit are characterized by:
A. more traditional family views.
B. lower acceptance of divorce.
C. more stable work lives.
D. more moves and relocations.

D

Engaged couples who live together prior to marriage are ________ likely to divorce, compared to nonengaged couples who cohabit.
A. more C. less
B. equally D. much less

C

Those who marry at 20 are ________ times more likely to divorce than those who wait until 25.
A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five

A

On average, postponing marriage means couples are:
A. more financially secure.
B. less educated.
C. more unstable in their lives.
D. less emotionally developed.

A

Which of the following characteristics DECREASES a couple’s chance of divorce?
A. arguing about household chores
B. discussing their marital unhappiness with friends
C. spending time alone together
D. avoiding having sex

C

Which of the following characteristics does NOT increase a couple’s chance of divorce?
A. different religious beliefs
B. infertility problems
C. children’s health problems
D. having young children

D

With regard to initiating divorce proceedings:
A. men and women are equally likely to file.
B. women are more likely to file.
C. men are more likely to file.
D. parents are more likely to file than nonparents, regardless of gender.

B

The independence effect has been noted to:
A. increase the likelihood to leave happy marriages.
B. increase the likelihood to leave unhappy marriages.
C. increase divorce as income increases.
D. decrease divorce as income increases.

B

The income effect has been noted to:
A. increase the likelihood to leave happy marriages.
B. increase the likelihood to leave unhappy marriages.
C. increase divorce as income increases.
D. decrease divorce as income increases.

D

When one partner loses a job, the marriage:
A. is often weakened, regardless of who lost their job.
B. is often weakened, if the woman lost her job.
C. is strengthened, as the couple works together to overcome difficulties.
D. is strengthened, if the woman stays home to help with family work.

A

One British study suggests that divorce outcomes for adults:
A. show higher levels of stress even after the divorce.
B. show lower levels of stress after the divorce is final.
C. show that they felt more depressed and anxious after the divorce.
D. show that they continued to have difficulty sleeping after the divorce.

A

After a divorce, women’s income, on average:
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. is supplemented by child support.
D. is unaffected by divorce.

B

After a divorce, men’s income, on average:
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. is supplemented by child support.
D. is unaffected by divorce.

D

Compared to men, after divorce, a woman and her children are ________ as likely to live in poverty.
A. twice
B. three times
C. four times
D. five times

A

The increased likelihood of women and children to live in poverty is known as:
A. the income effect.
B. the independence effect.
C. the poverty effect.
D. the feminization of poverty.

D

Which of these is NOT a potential factor affecting children’s reaction to divorce, as discussed in the text?
A. the divorce process
B. protective factors and skills
C. the divorce outcomes
D. the legal proceedings

D

Father involvement generally:
A. improves children’s happiness and well-being.
B. improves financial stability in the family.
C. increases children’s risk of negative effects.
D. is important only for boys.

A

A family in which at least one member is not related to everyone else is defined as:
A. a stepfamily. C. a blended family.
B. a remarriage. D. a stepparent.

C

________ of Americans are likely to remarry.
A. One-third C. Two-thirds
B. One-half D. Three-quarters

C

________ women are most likely to remarry after divorce.
A. Asian C. Hispanic
B. Black D. White

C

________ women are LEAST likely to remarry after divorce.
A. Asian C. Hispanic
B. Black D. White

B

One out of ________ children live in a blended family.
A. three C. five
B. four D. six

D

The three institutional arenas in which we feed and care for children include
A. the family, the market, and the state.
B. the church, the school, and the home.
C. the government, the mall, and the Internet
D. the media, the nonprofits, and the banks.

A

In recent decades, the most important sociological change to families has been
A. the growing rates of divorce.
B. the movement of women’s work from their families to the paid labor market.
C. children receiving the majority of their parenting from the media rather than their parents.
D. the shrinking role of religion on family life.

B

The sociological perspective on work and family is different from common notions in that it
A. pays attention to both the content and social context of work.
B. looks primarily at gender and work.
C. sees rich people as the enemy.
D. attempts to understand the workplace from a functionalist framework.

A

Care work is defined as
A. the labor of attempting to make people feel better about themselves.
B. work that is performed face-to-face for the purpose of enhancing the capabilities of another person.
C. work that people do that they really care about.
D. the act of caring for someone less fortunate than oneself.

B

The quintessential care work, which is usually hands-on, intimate work to provide children with the material, intellectual, and emotional support they need, is
A. teaching C. child care
B. pediatrics D. counseling

C

The work to maintain a household’s function is
A. housework C. care work
B. market work D. women’s work

A

When Shawna picks up her kids from soccer practice, sociologists would say she is engaging in what?
A. housework C. care work
B. market work D. women’s work

C

Care work and housework are increasingly performed as what?
A. unpaid work C. market work
B. overpaid work D. illegal work

C

The term "system of care" is used to describe what?
A. the central coordinating system for completing housework
B. how a society accomplishes the necessary care work and housework
C. the master plan that families create in order to accomplish all of their care work
D. state-implemented Social Security and elder-care programs

B

One decision that modern families must face is how to divide the housework and care work within the family. This is often a contentious issue for couples, showing that
A. most couples establish clear communication about who performs which task.
B. it is not really "families" that make decisions, but individuals within them.
C. both men and women are taking on more and more care work.
D. men and women tend to split care work evenly.

B

Which of the following examples illustrates how the state redistributes much of the product of our labor?
A. Apple outsourcing much of its labor to non-U.S. countries
B. private hospitals hiring low-wage immigrant workers
C. income taxes used to pay for Social Security plans
D. student groups sending care packages to disaster areas overseas

C

In the last half-century or so, the main story in the realm of work and family has been
A. women opting out of paid work to stay at home with their children.
B. the growth of the organized labor movement.
C. men’s loss of power both at work and at home.
D. the growth of market work in the system of care.

D

The most rapid period of change in the gender composition of the workforce occurred in the three decades after 1960 as the proportion of women in the labor force
A. increased from about one-third to three-quarters.
B. decreased from about one-half to one-third.
C. increased from about one-fourth to nine-tenths.
D. decreased from about five-eighths to three-eighths.

A

In what order did women historically enter the workplace?
A. first women under 20 years old, then women between 20 and 40 years old, then women over 40 years old
B. first single women, then married women without children, and eventually most married women with young children
C. first married women who were only children, then women with one sibling, then women with two or more siblings
D. first women in the northeastern United States, then women in the southern United States, then women in the midwestern United States

B

In historical terms, women’s employment patterns have evolved extremely quickly—so quickly that
A. women have faced no struggles in the workplace.
B. there is a growing crisis around lack of child care.
C. women are earning more than men.
D. the expectations people have for work and family are unclear.

D

In the 25- to 54-year-old age range, employment for men has remained at or above
A. 10 percent C. 70 percent
B. 30 percent D. 90 percent

D

Kyle and Lorena are married with two children. What is one reason that sociologists might not expect Kyle to stay home with their children?
A. Kyle, like most other men his age, is employed.
B. Kyle, like most other men his age, is a misogynist.
C. Lorena, like most other women her age, is unemployed.
D. Lorena, like most other women her age, enjoys care work more than her husband.

A

Women’s employment rapidly became acceptable within the cultural mainstream, in part because of the kinds of paid work women did. Sociologists call this
A. the glass ceiling C. occupational gender segregation
B. pink-collar work D. second-wave feminism

C

The gender division of labor means that
A. women do the lion’s share of housework and care work, and they are concentrated in certain paid occupational areas.
B. men and women tend to split labor equally, whether at home or at work.
C. women are naturally more capable of performing housework and care work, and they enter those occupations in which they are naturally more talented.
D. women have learned to perform tasks traditionally done by men in the workplace, but they continue to perform most housework and care work.

A

In the late 1970s, only one-third of Americans thought that mothers’ employment was not harmful for their preschool-aged children; 30 years later, that proportion rose to two-thirds, illustrating
A. that women have become better mothers, able to juggle both paid work and child rearing.
B. that popular attitudes toward the appropriate divisions between men and women have gradually shifted.
C. that Americans tend to value the Protestant work ethic, encouraging everyone, despite their social status, to engage in paid labor.
D. the limits of the feminist movement, which failed to make care work a waged occupation.

B

The phenomenon in which women have seemingly endless housework and child care on top of hours of paid work is referred to by sociologist Arlie Hochschild as
A. second shift
B. occupational segregation
C. multitasking
D. feminism

A

One of the advantages of time-use studies, in which researchers investigate how people fill their days with activities, is that they
A. take account of care work that often seems invisible.
B. see how much men lie about the amount of work they do in the home.
C. help mothers speed up their care-giving tasks.
D. encourage parents to spend more time with their children.

A

According to data collected from the American Time Use Survey in 2010, men and women spend an average of how much time working per day?
A. 8 hours and 20 minutes for men; 3 hours and 35 minutes for women
B. 7 hours and 30 minutes for men; 10 hours and 50 minutes for women
C. 3 hours and 50 minutes for men; 2 hours and 30 minutes for women
D. 6 hours and 40 minutes for men; 6 hours and 51 minutes for women

D

The greater number of hours of paid work for men are, on average, balanced out by
A. men paying for more things at home.
B. the greater hours of unpaid work for women.
C. men having more decision-making power at home.
D. women having more free time.

B

Mr. Johnson works a paid job and Mrs. Johnson primarily performs unpaid labor, such as taking care of the home and the children. What is one consequence of this situation?
A. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have an egalitarian relationship.
B. Mr. Johnson is more likely to help out at home.
C. Mrs. Johnson’s work is not recognized because it has no direct dollar value.
D. Mrs. Johnson gains the skills to take care of herself in the case of divorce.

C

The 1970s Wages for Housework campaign attempted to
A. demand housewives be paid wages for their labor.
B. unionize maids, domestic workers, and nannies.
C. push women out of the home and into the paid workplace.
D. elect a feminist-friendly state senator in New York.

A

Time-use data show that married women have cut their housework time roughly in half over the last half-century, while men have
A. reduced theirs by two hours
B. remained about the same
C. added about an hour
D. doubled theirs

D

One reason that gender difference in housework has eroded over the last half-century is because
A. the balance between men and women has not shifted.
B. the total amount of time spent on housework has declined.
C. technology has reduced the time it takes to perform household tasks.
D. children have taken on more housework tasks.

B

What trend in child care does the American Time Use Survey find in the last half-century?
A. Men and women have both increased their time with children.
B. Men and women have not changed their time with children.
C. Men have increased their time with children while women have decreased their time with children.
D. Men have decreased their time with children while women have increased their time with children.

A

There are three main factors within couples’ relationships that seem to account for the fact that women perform so much more unpaid work in the home
A. food, entertainment, and health
B. sexuality, race, and class
C. age, sex, and location
D. time, resources, and gender

D

In most couples, the partner with greater obligations away from home tends to do less housework and child care because that person
A. thinks they are better than the other person.
B. is able to pay for others to perform housework for them.
C. has less time available.
D. is naturally less capable of doing housework and child care.

C

Although some people enjoy housework and child care, most prefer to avoid at least the more onerous aspects of those responsibilities. Therefore, when couples negotiate over who does what work, the partner who has a higher-paying job
A. sometimes has more decision-making power and sometimes has less.
B. has the same amount of decision-making power as their partner.
C. has more decision-making power.
D. has less decision-making power.

C

Wives significantly outearn their husbands in how many marriages?
A. 1 in 5 C. 3 in 5
B. 2 in 5 D. 4 in 5

Socialization means that the lessons learned in childhood are applied to the situations in which people find themselves as adults. This means that boys who grow up with an employed mother
A. hire someone to clean their homes for them when they grow up.
B. have their mothers do their housework their entire lives.
C. do more housework when they grow up.
D. do less housework when they grow up.

Which group has been identified by sociologists as having more traditional gendered divisions of labor?
A. Lesbian and gay
B. White
C. Black
D. Christian

When asked why 25-year-old Joy does more housework than her 28-year-old husband Jim, Joy said that Jim works longer hours and she therefore doesn’t mind doing some extra work around the house. Joy’s explanation is an example of what phenomenon?
A. Women are usually submissive to their husbands.
B. Spouses commonly rationalize unequal divisions of labor.
C. Women tend to have low self-esteem.
D. Younger couples tend to have a more uneven division of labor.

Although much of the gendered division of labor takes place within the home, there are also a number of institutional settings surrounding families that are crucial as well, including
A. a labor market where men usually earn less than women.
B. a relatively high-wage (and therefore high-cost) service economy.
C. religious institutions that reinforce the ideal of women as the head of and primary provider for the family.
D. a pattern of gender socialization—primarily through families, schools, and the media.

What percentage of American parents report that they would like to have more time with their families?
A. 30 percent C. 70 percent
B. 50 percent D. 90 percent

When the time demands, strains, or obligations of work or family roles make it difficult for people to fulfill their obligations in either role, they experience
A. work-family conflict
B. stress
C. hypertension disorder
D. higher rates of divorce

In the last half-century, the growth of women’s employment contributed to conflicts between family and paid work obligations for various reasons, including the fact that
A. the system did not work for single parents, who could not combine the paid and unpaid work of two spouses.
B. married couples, who spent more time and energy away from home, spent even more time getting housework and child care done.
C. employers attempted to provide more flexible work policies for employees, leading to employees working less.
D. parents and couples tended to opt out of jobs that demanded a lot of time, leading to financial troubles.

Women lead what percentage of poor, single-parent households?
A. 48 C. 84
B. 67 D. 98

When the welfare system was reformed in 1996, policy makers abandoned the assumption that
A. poor women are not fit to care for their own children.
B. men, not the state, should care for single women.
C. no single mothers should have to work if they do not want to.
D. the government would provide income support instead of full-time work.

In 2012, what percentage of single mothers were employed?
A. 12 C. 62
B. 40 D. 87

The "motherhood penalty" is
A. the stereotype that mothers are hypersexual.
B. the weight that women gain during pregnancy.
C. the loss of earnings women experience after they have children.
D. post-partum depression often experienced by new mothers.

American workers have long aspired to balance which three things?
A. sports, study, and movies
B. work, rest, and leisure
C. shopping, eating, and crafting
D. school, parties, and family

Which of the following is one of the work-based reforms that could help reduce work-family conflict?
A. Work hours could be reduced.
B. Work hours could be less flexible across the day or week.
C. People could take better care of their own children.
D. Mothers could opt to stay at home with their children instead of working.

As sociologist Judith Lorber puts it, "Workplace pressures are thought to be unchangeable, so the burden of innovation falls on the _____________."
A. state C. individual
B. family D. market

The Family and Medical Leave Act made workers entitled to unpaid leave if they become too sick to perform on the job or if they need to care for family members in the event of birth, adoption, or illness. However, only which group of workers is covered by this policy?
A. government workers C. executives
B. women D. new employees

In the United States, care work is much more _____________ than it is in many other countries, which tend to have more _____________ solutions.
A. family-based; bureaucratic
B. public; private
C. affordable; expensive
D. market-based; state-based

Which country offers the most total annual unpaid parental leave for two-parent families?
A. Switzerland C. United States
B. France D. Japan

What percentage of women with a high school education quit their jobs when they have their first child compared with those who have a college degree?
A. 1 in 2; 1 in 8
B. 1 in 12; 1 in 3
C. 3 in 5; 2 in 3
D. 1 in 8; 1 in 3

Which factor tends to play a large role in the options available for balancing work and family?
A. one’s level of education C. one’s gender
B. quality of one’s job D. one’s intelligence

What has been one of the consequences of wealthier families reducing their work-family conflict by employing service workers?
A. exacerbating work-family conflict for low-wage workers
B. freeing up time for all families
C. establishing meaningful connections with service workers
D. children scoring lower on standardized tests

What concept does sociologist Judith Lorber propose as a way to gradually erase gender differences in the responsibilities of men and women?
A. Protestant family ethic
B. degendering families
C. divorce
D. marriage counseling

Families that practice what Francine Deutsch calls "equally shared parenting" have succeeded best by
A. focusing on the early childbearing years, when the division of labor tends to be the most strongly marked by gender.
B. having stay-at-home mothers develop their own hobbies so they don’t feel inferior to husbands with full-time jobs.
C. letting one parent focus their attention on one child or set of children while another parent focuses their attention on another child or set of children.
D. outsourcing as much of the parenting responsibilities as possible so as to create more free time for parents.

What is one of the consequences of current trends in time use among men and women?
A. Because women earn more money, they are more likely to control family finances.
B. Because men get out of the house more, they are more likely to have a fulfilling social life.
C. Because women’s careers stagnate, they are less at risk in case of a divorce.
D. Men and women average about the same number of hours of both paid and unpaid work.

The most common reason for families to adopt an at-home father arrangement is because
A. the couple is homosexual.
B. the woman can make money more easily.
C. the father has lost his job or is unable to work.
D. studies have proven that children develop better with a stay-at-home father.

When Pravit decided to stay at home to take care of his children while his wife Sumaya worked full time, it might have been likely for the couple to
A. easily adapt to their new situation.
B. become even more committed to traditional gender roles.
C. encourage gender bending among their children.
D. go out on dates more regularly.

One solution to work-family conflict that people choose reluctantly is
A. reducing the role of family in their lives.
B. taking higher-status jobs that allow for more leisure time.
C. going back to school to get better-paying jobs.
D. taking children out of extracurricular activities.

According to a survey by the Pew Research Center, a large and growing majority of mothers would prefer not to work a full-time job. What percentage of those mothers without jobs think that no job is the ideal work situation?
A. 12 % C. 48%
B. 25% D. 82%

While parents with professional careers often have to work extra-long workweeks, working-class parents often
A. have little motivation to have a professional career.
B. string together a series of overlapping part-time or temporary jobs.
C. work multiple full-time jobs.
D. make most of their earnings from government handouts and subsidies.

The theory that the state can jump-start change in both the workplace and the family arises from the belief that government can create incentives for reform that are more universal, and more equalizing, than either _____________ or _____________ can achieve on their own.
A. families; the market C. men; women
B. individuals; parents D. employers; employees

Employers are reluctant to embrace a reduction in work hours by shortening the workweek, increasing the number of part-time workers, or offering more time off from work because
A. workers are less dedicated to the company.
B. employees have a more difficult time communicating with each other.
C. work tasks are harder to allocate.
D. they have to train and provide benefits for more workers.

People who support state-provided early child care argue that
A. most parents can already afford high-quality child care.
B. the cost of child care and the time required to manage it are major impediments to parents’ careers.
C. most European countries do not offer early childhood education.
D. such schooling will not equalize opportunities for children as they grow up.

A sociological study of family violence should include a consideration of all of the following EXCEPT
A. legal expectation of privacy.
B. individual traits of abusers.
C. cultural expectations of secrecy.
D. systemic beliefs in society.

Feminists are concerned about power differentials built into the family system, including
A. the expectation that husbands should have power over wives.
B. children who are out of control and "running" the house.
C. parents making decisions for their children.
D. siblings protecting each other from abuse.

The state is becoming increasingly involved in the role of the family, as illustrated by all of the following EXCEPT
A. the public school system.
B. the provision of food stamps and public housing to poor families.
C. legal requirements for parents to discipline their children.
D. decreasing family reliance on religious authorities.

Jack and Jill live together and have a romantic relationship. Occasionally they get into screaming matches that escalate into pushing. This is considered
A. child abuse
B. elder abuse
C. intimate partner violence
D. poor communication, but not family violence

According to the text, family violence is usually characterized by
A. individuals with personality disorders.
B. power differentials between abuser and victim.
C. religious convictions on the role of men and women.
D. intimacy where the individuals interact in private.

If George’s parents fail to take him to school on a consistent basis, they
A. may be guilty of neglect. C. may be bad parents, but not legally so.
B. may be guilty of abuse. D. may be within their rights as parents.

Parents who cannot afford to provide adequate food and shelter for their children
A. may be guilty of neglect. C. may be bad parents, but not legally so.
B. may be guilty of abuse. D. may be within their rights as parents.

More cases of child abuse are perpetrated by _____________ than any other group.
A. mothers C. other family members
B. fathers D. strangers

Contrary to stereotypes, children are least likely to be abused _____________.
A. by mothers C. at day care
B. by fathers D. by a friend or neighbor

Of the reported child abuse cases, approximately _____________ percent happen at the hands of the child’s parents.
A. 20 C. 60
B. 40 D. 80

Risk factors for children being abused include all of the following EXCEPT
A. poverty
B. mental health issues
C. single parenthood
D. lack of social network

The physical, sexual, or emotional abuse of a parent or older family member is defined as
A. intimate partner violence
B. child abuse
C. family violence
D. elder abuse

Elder abuse is reported by approximately _____________ percent of the population over 60.
A. 5 C. 15
B. 10 D. 20

The most common form of elder abuse is
A. emotional C. physical
B. sexual D. neglect

Most of the elderly who report abuse are abused by
A. paid caregivers
B. nursing or retirement homes
C. intimate partners
D. other family members

The current term used by the federal government for violence between partners who are in, or were in, a romantic relationship is
A. domestic violence
B. violence against women
C. intimate partner violence
D. family violence

According to national surveys, _____________ of men and _____________
of women report being victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking in their lifetime.
A. 10, 25 C. 21, 32
B. 14, 29 D. 29, 36

In one year, women are _____________ times as likely as men to be victims of intimate partner violence.
A. Three C. Five
B. Four D. Six

Most people who do not report intimate partner violence to the police fail to do so because
A. they handle it personally
B. they are afraid of the consequences
C. they believe the police won’t help them
D. they feel it is not important

Erica is experiencing psychological abuse and fears her husband’s violent outbursts are becoming more dangerous. Erica is most likely experiencing
A. mutual violent control
B. violent resistance
C. intimate terrorism
D. common couple violence

Dante and Nina have a tumultuous relationship, and occasionally there is some pushing or shoving between them during arguments. These interactions are best described as
A. mutual violent control
B. violent resistance
C. intimate terrorism
D. common couple violence

Lorena shot her husband after years of physical abuse at his hands. Her behavior is best classified as
A. mutual violent control
B. violent resistance
C. intimate terrorism
D. common couple violence

Sue and Larry are both hotheads and often physically battle for control in their relationship. They are likely engaged in
A. mutual violent control
B. violent resistance
C. intimate terrorism
D. common couple violence

_____________ percent of female homicide victims were murdered by an intimate partner.
A. 75 C. 26
B. 42 D. 5

_____________ percent of male homicide victims were murdered by an intimate partner.
A. 75 C. 26
B. 42 D. 5

The most likely victim of family violence is a woman of _____________ race/ethnicity.
A. American Indian
B. Asian
C. Hispanic
D. White

The LEAST likely victim of family violence is a woman of _____________ race/ethnicity.
A. American Indian
B. Asian
C. Hispanic
D. White

Jan was fondled by a stranger on her way to the bathroom when she was out with her friends. This meets the legal definition of
A. rape C. incest
B. sexual assault D. family violence

Kay’s boyfriend had sex with her after she drank too much and passed out. This meets the legal definition of
A. rape C. incest
B. sexual assault D. family violence

John and Martha are in love and have a sexual relationship. Martha is also John’s aunt. In most states, this meets the legal definition of:
A. rape C. incest
B. sexual assault D. family violence

For most of American history, rape could not legally occur in a marriage because wives did not have the right to say no to sex. This law began to change starting in
A. 1950 C. 1990
B. 1970 D. 2010

According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence survey, _____________ percent of women and _____________ percent of men have been raped during their life time.
A. 33, 5 C. 18, 1
B. 25, 5 D. 15, 1

According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence survey, _____________ percent of women are raped or experience an attempted rape while in college.
A. 25-30 C. 15-20
B. 20-25 D. 10-15

According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence survey, more women have been raped than
A. are on the pill
B. have gone to the beach
C. have smoked cigarettes
D. have taken a college course

Statistics on violence in same-sex partnerships are limited but indicate that
A. lesbian and straight women are equally likely to be victims.
B. lesbian women are less likely to be victims than straight women.
C. gay men are more likely to be victims than straight men.
D. lesbian women are more likely to be victims than straight women.

The homicide rate among children has decreased by _____________ percent.
A. 10 C. 20
B. 15 D. 25

The decrease in family violence has been attributed to
A. an increase in cohabitation.
B. a decrease in the availability of shelters.
C. improved public awareness.
D. an increase in working women.

The effects of child abuse are often first noted
A. when the child becomes an abuser
B. in their behavior
C. by a teacher
D. as signs of PTSD

Women who suffered sexual abuse in their past were most likely to
A. avoid relationships altogether
B. cohabit but not marry
C. rush into marriage
D. be sexually promiscuous

In countries were men have greater educational and occupational advantages
A. violence against women is more common
B. violence against women is less common
C. violence against men is more common
D. violence against men is less common

Rape occurs primarily
A. by strangers attacking women
B. among acquaintances, with physical violence
C. among acquaintances, with mild or threatened violence
D. in committed relationships

In the Catholic church child abuse scandal, ____________ percent of the victims were boys.
A. 20 C. 60
B. 40 D. 80

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