Linux 101

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One of the jobs of the kernel is to:

Load the operating system after the computer is turned on **Manage the system’s resources Turn source code into machine code Transfer mail from one machine to another

Unix is:
(choose two)

A text editor A type of hardware **A trademark **An operating system A distribution of Linux

Linux is written in:

Java .NET **C C++ Perl

Source code refers to:

**A human readable version of computer software The license that dictates how you may use and share the software The interface that software uses to talk to the kernel The version of a program that the computer runs on the CPU

Open source means:
(choose two)

You must share your changes You must support the software you share You cannot charge anything for the software **You can modify the software’s source code **You can view the software’s source code

Most of the tools that are part of Linux systems come from:

Google Red Hat and Debian **The GNU project The Open Source Initiative The Linux foundation

The Linux platform that runs on mobile phones is called:

Linux can’t run on phones MicroLinux Teldroid LinuxMobile IOS **Android

What does a distribution provide to add and remove software from the system?

Application Programming Interface (API) Bash **Package manager Compiler Partitioning tool

The bootloader’s job is to:

Perform the initial installation of the kernel to hard drive Assign initial settings such as network address Install software from the Internet or removable media Load the application into memory **Load the kernel after the computer is powered on

Unix was originally invented at:

**AT&T Bell Labs Xerox PARC Stanford University Berkeley University Bangalore University

A license where you don’t have access to the source code is called:

**Closed source Impaired source Open source Sourceless

Which distributions are made by, or clones of, Red Hat?
(choose two)

**CentOS Ubuntu Debian **Fedora Slackware

Ubuntu is derived from which distribution?

Fedora Scientific Linux Slackware Red Hat Enterprise Linux **Debian

Open source licenses differ, but generally agree that:
(choose two)

**You should have access to the source code of software You are not allowed to sell the software You must redistribute your changes **You should be able modify the software as you wish

Applications make requests to the kernel and receive resources, such as memory, CPU, and disk in return.
True or False?

**True False Shell script Disk controller Kernel

The most important consideration when choosing an operating system is:

The licensing model of the operating system **What the computer will do How much performance is needed Whether or not it is cloud-friendly The operating system’s mascot

Linux is not Unix because:

**It hasn’t undergone certification It’s not made by the Open Group There are too many distributions It’s not good enough It’s free

A release cycle:

Describes how long the software will be supported for **Describes how often updates to the software come out Is always 6 months Only applies to software you pay for Doesn’t matter in an Open Source environment

A maintenance cycle:

Only has meaning for paid software Should be short so you always have the freshest releases Should be long so that you have time before you need to upgrade **Describes how long a version of software will be supported Describes how often updates for software come out

If a software release is in a state in that it has many new features that have not been rigorously tested, it is typically referred to as beta software.
True or False?

True **False Is intended to solicit feedback Is production quality Has been fully tested

Software is backward compatible if:

**It still supports old file formats or applications It can be upgraded without downtime It works across Linux/Mac/Windows People still use old versions If the next version still works the same way

Apple’s OS X is:

(choose three) **Certified as UNIX compatible **Derived from FreeBSD Able to natively run Windows binaries **Only compatible with Apple hardware Derived from Linux

Microsoft Windows:
(choose three)

**Comes in desktop and server variants **Has powerful scripting capabilities Has a Linux compatibility mode Has a short maintenance cycle **Has built in virtualization

Other commercial Unixes:
(choose two)

Use completely different commands than Linux Do not run the GNU tools **Are tied to their vendor’s hardware **Are UNIX certified Are almost obsolete

When choosing a distribution of Linux, you should consider: (Choose five)
**Which distributions are supported by the software you need to run
**The maintenance cycle of the distribution
**Which management tools are provided by the distribution
**Whether or not the distribution is under active development
**If you need support on the distribution itself
Popularity on social media.

The Samba application is a:

**File Server Security Server Web Server Mail Server

Which of the following are examples of desktop software? (choose two)

File share **Web browser Compiler **Music player Web server

If you wanted to set up a blog, which software would be most helpful?

Dovecot Postfix **WordPress Samba MySQL

Which of the following pieces of software deal with file sharing? (choose three)

**Samba PostgreSQL **Netatalk X-Windows **NFS

If you wanted to create and print an invoice, which software could you use?

**LibreOffice GNOME Compiz Evolution Firefox

POP and IMAP are related to:

Reading and writing music Letting users log in to multiple servers with 1 set of credentials Sharing files Serving web pages **Email

When a computer boots, it can get its network information through:


Which of the following are examples of text editors?(choose four)

**emacs **pico yum **vim **nano

A package manager: (choose two)

**Keeps track of which files belong to which packages Emails you when software is out of date Can optionally repartition your disk to make room for Linux Performs a fresh install of Linux **Downloads software from the Internet

An interpreted programming language: (choose two)

**Is converted into machine specific instructions as the program runs **Tends to offer more features than compiled languages Requires a linking step but no compilation step Requires a compilation step but no linking step Takes fewer resources to run than a compiled language

Which of the following are true about compiled programming languages?

**C is a compiled language Compiled languages are great for system administration tasks like scripting Ruby is a compiled language A programmer is usually more productive when using a compiled language Perl is a compiled language

Which package manager is used in Fedora, a Red Hat derived system?

tar **yum apt-get bash vim

The Linux shell: (choose three)

**Allows you to launch programs Has a built in text editor **Is customizable **Has a scripting language Is responsible for tracking the location of configuration files

Which application would you use to edit and piece together sound files to make podcast?

Audiolicious Bash **Audacity GIMP Thunderbird

The two main families of Linux shells are: (choose two)

**C Shell Korn shell Python Shell emacs **Bourne Shell

Which server software would you use to create a company directory that you could search and authenticate against?

ISC DHCP bind Netatalk Samba **OpenLDAP

A Mail Transfer Agent’s primary purpose is to:

Serve email to end clients Filter out spam Act as a gateway between faxes and email Manage the end user’s inbox **Deliver mail between servers

Which of the following are examples of a web server? (choose two)

WordPress **Nginx postfix **Apache NFS

If you wanted to let a Linux machine share files with Windows clients and servers, you would use:

NFS DNS **Samba Netatalk bind

Richard Stallman is associated with:

The Open Source Initiative The Apache foundation Microsoft **The Free Software Foundation BSD Unix

A "copyleft provision" in a software license means:

You must provide free copies of the software if you use it **You must distribute the source to any changes you make You may not link against third party closed source software You give up your copyright to the software You must provide support for your modifications

The largest difference between the GPLv2 and BSD licenses is:

GPLv2 is not approved by the OSI GPLv2 requires assigning copyright to the FSF Only BSD allows commercial use **BSD has no copyleft provision Nothing, they are virtually identical

The Free Software Foundation believes that:
(choose two)

money should ever change hands Software should not have copyright People should write software with no expectation of making money **Software should be free to share **Software should be free to modify

Which of the following licenses was made by the FSF?

**GPLv3 Apache BSD MIT Creative Commons

A permissive free software license:
(choose two)

**Places no restrictions on sharing modifications **Means you can use the software for anything you want Places the software in the public domain Does not allow the software to be locked to certain hardware Requires you share software changes but not binaries

Linux is distributed under which license?

GPLv3 MIT **GPLv2 Linux Foundation BSD

Who founded the Open Source Initiative?
(choose two)

**Bruce Perens **Eric Raymond Linus Torvalds Richard Stallman University of California at Berkeley

A generic term for Open Source and Free Software is:

**FLOSS OS/FS GPL Libre Software SLOFF

Which are examples of permissive software licenses?
(choose two)


What is the meaning of a public domain license?

You must redistribute changes to the software The work was done by a government agency The author has died **The author has relinquished the copyright on the work You may not use the work for commercial purposes

Creative Commons licenses allow you to:
(choose three)

**Allow or disallow commercial use Get a veto on where the work is used **Specify whether or not people may distribute changes Receive royalties on the use of the work **Specify whether or not changes must be shared

If a podcast is licensed under the CC BY-ND license, you may:
(choose two)

**Post it to your website **Share it as long as you give credit to the author Add ads to it and post it to your website. Use an interview or song from it for your own podcast Sell it as part of a compilation

How can you make money from open source software?
(choose three)

**Provide paid consulting services for users **Take payments for fixing bugs Unlock premium features for people that pay Charge a yearly fee for the right to use the software **Sell hardware that’s built to work with the software

To place software under an open source license, you must give up your copyright.
True or False?

True **False

The difference between the GPL and LGPL licenses are:

LGPL applies to web services LGPL allows you to distribute the software in binary-only form LGPL is shorter than GPL **LGPL allows linking to non GPLed software LGPL was made by the OSI while GPL was made by the FSF

Permissive free software licenses:
(choose three)

**Are not approved by the FSF Are not approved by the OSI **Can allow software to be used inside closed source software **Don’t have a copyleft provision Include the GPLv2 and BSD

The Creative Commons version of Public Domain licensing is:

**No Rights Reserved Attribution Attribution-NonCommercial NoAttribution-ShareAlike Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike

Your company makes a hardware firewall that runs a custom Linux kernel. What are your obligations under GPLv2

**You must make the source to your kernel available There are no requirements You must ensure your custom kernel runs on a regular Intel machine You must make your hardware designs available You must make the source to your custom web interface available

Participating in open source projects can improve your technical skills, even if it is not your day job.
True or False?

**True False

Which of the following is true about graphical mode?
(choose three)

You cannot use your mouse **After login, you are provided with a desktop **You access this mode by logging into a graphical display After login, you are provided with a command prompt **You have menus and tools to help you find what you are looking for

Which of the following is provided by a graphical interface that isn’t normally provided to a non graphical interface?
(choose four)

**Windows **Menus Shell *Popups *Desktop

A server is likely to be running in graphical mode.
True or False?

True *False

In graphical mode, you can get to a shell by running which applications?
(choose two)

*xterm xconsole *terminal guiterm gbash

Which of the following are traits of a multiuser operating system?
(choose three)

An administrative user gets a dedicated CPU **Resources are shared between users **Users can protect their information from other users **Many users can log in simultaneously with a unique account Each user can only log in once per day

Virtualization means:

*A single host can be split up into multiple guests A machine can swap memory to disk Many users can share one hard drive Two users get different memory spaces on the same machine A user can connect to a server over the network and use a virtual console

In virtualization, what are the host and guest?
(choose two)

A host is a virtual machine *A guest is a virtual machine The terms can be used interchangeably *The host is the machine that runs the virtual machines The guest is the machine that runs the virtual machines

Which of the following are traits of cloud computing?
(choose two)

You own the hardware but pay for it over time You don’t have to worry about performance any more *You pay for what you use Only Linux works in cloud computing The resources are virtualized

If you wanted to write a report that was to be printed, you would probably use:

Chrome *LibreOffice Firefox A wiki Adobe Flash

If you want to store logins and passwords for different websites in a secure manner, you could use:

*KeePassX A LibreOffice Document A text file in your home directory A sticky note on your monitor Firefox

You can configure your computer to check for updates automatically.
True or False?

*True False

Two components that provide the ability to implement a firewall include:
(choose two)

ipfw *iptables *gufw Uncomplicated Firewall Cerberus

What are tradeoffs of increasing the level of privacy you have in your web browser?
(choose two)

*Sites may not work properly You may get viruses Images won’t load properly Websites may load slower *You may have to explicitly permit some cookies to be saved

Which of the following is a tool that helps you anonymize your Internet browsing?

*The onion router Web proxy CookieCleaner AnonFirefox iptables

Social network "like" buttons can track your activity across the Internet.
True or False?

*True False

Which of the following are properties of a strong password?
(choose three)

**At least 10 characters long **Includes symbols Based on easy to remember items like birthdays Long so that it can be reused on multiple sites **A mix of upper and lower case

What can be done to prevent remote people from running programs on your computer?
(choose two)

**Turn on a firewall Don’t use wireless networks – only wired Block all cookies **Use strong passwords on all user accounts

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