Lifespan Final (ch 18-21)

Which of the following is NOT a type of attention?

focused

The term ________ refers to the ability to focus on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant to the task at hand while ignoring others that are irrelevant.

selective attention

Selective attention is _______, whereas divided attention is _______.

focusing on one thing; focusing on many things

Marsha, an adult in her 70s, can expect a decline in certain types of attention but not in:

sustained attention.

Zack is in a crowded restaurant, trying to pay attention to the waiter, who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because ________ attention declines as one ages.

selective

Competently driving a car demands _______.

divided attention

The retention of information about the when and where of life's happenings is called ________ memory.

episodic

A person's knowledge about the world is called ________ memory.

semantic

Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good ________ memory but poor ________ memory.

semantic; episodic

Working memory is also called ________ memory.

short-term

What is TRUE about the relationship between semantic memory and aging?

Older adults often take longer to retrieve semantic information, but they usually can retrieve it.

Shama, who is now 80 years old, will show a steady decline in:

working memory and perceptual speed.

Older adults have a harder time recognizing a street sign than younger adults, because they have:

slower perceptual speed.

________ memory refers to facts we consciously know, and ________ memory refers to memory without conscious recollection.

Explicit; implicit

Which type of memory is less likely to be adversely affected by aging?

implicit

________ is knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits practical judgment about important matters.

Wisdom

Which of the following persons is most likely to be "wise"?

Stanley, who is highly creative

In his studies on wisdom, Paul Baltes has found all of the following, EXCEPT:

wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence.

Jake is only 25 but wants to reduce his chance of cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?

do crossword puzzles

If cognitive training improves older adults' memory, then older adults must:

have greater memory capacity than is typically used.

Eighty-seven-year-old Miriam Hansen has amazed her friends and relatives by taking college classes. Not only does she enjoy them, but she does well. In fact, she actually seems to have become brighter since she began studying. How can we account for this?

Miriam has probably learned how to improve her reasoning skills.

Which of the following is NOT one of the brain imaging techniques that is used in cognitive neuroscience to examine the activity of the brain during certain cognitive activities?

CT scans

Martin has recently had a brain imaging test done, and it has revealed atrophy in the prefrontal lobe of his cerebral cortex. Which of the following types of memory would be most likely to be deficient as a result of this physiological decline?

working memory

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Widaman-Gibbs's sense of:

integrity.

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience ________ in later adulthood.

despair

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?

integrity versus despair

Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by:

wisdom.

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

life review.

Which theory holds the most positive view of the abilities of elderly adults?

activity

Which of the following is NOT one of the regrets that low-income older adults reported more as a result of their life review?

religion

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, the Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:

activity theory.

Now that Nastasya is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she will:

spend most of her time with familiar friends.

Which two theories are most opposite?

activity theory and socioemotional selectivity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotion-related and _______ -related.

knowledge

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

selection, optimization, and compensation.

According to some research, older adults (35 to 84 years of age) focus on ________ whereas the oldest adults (85 to 105 years of age) tend to focus on _______.

family; health

One research study examined the changes in the personality factor called conscientiousness. It found that as we age several facets of this factor increase. Which of the following was NOT one of those facets?

hostility

Which of the personality traits in the Big Five factors of personality are associated with mortality (an earlier death)?

high conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion

Which of the following has been found to be the most frequent form of ageism?

acting disrespectfully toward older adults

Although older adults (over the age of 65) make up only ____% of the U.S. population, some estimates suggest that ______ of the total health bills for the United States go to care for that group of citizens.

12; one-third

Lizeanne is a 67-year-old retired teacher. Under the current governmental programs, her health care costs will be paid, at least in part, by:

Medicare.

What percentage of older people live in poverty since 2008?

9.7

What double jeopardy do elderly women face?

ageism and sexism

Which activity results in less frailty in order adults?

volunteering

Which of the following groups of individuals is most likely to be satisfied with their marriage?

older adults

These days, approximately ____% of older adults are living in cohabiting situations for a wide variety of reasons.

3

Adult daughters are three times more likely than adult sons to provide older adults with assistance with:

activities of daily living.

According to Antonucci, Lansford, and Akiyama (2001), friendships in late adulthood:

are associated with lower levels of depression for women.

Social support is negatively correlated with:

disease.

Which factor appears to be highly associated with greater poverty in old age?

ethnicity

How do many African Americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist and ageist society?

they rely on family networks and often the church

Evidence offered by Turner suggests that as men reach late adulthood, they become more:

feminine.

What is the "triple jeopardy" faced by African-American and Latino women when it comes to income and financial levels of support in the elder years?

ageism, sexism, and racism

Who of the following is most likely to live in poverty during later adulthood?

an African-American female

The more ________ a society is, the more respect is accorded to its elderly adults.

collectivistic

In general, successful aging requires:

a commitment to be active

Twenty-five years ago, definitions of death centered on:

Breathing, blood pressure, and rigor mortis

Death occurs neurologically when ________ for a specified period of time.

one's brain shows no electrical activity

The ________ portions of the brain often die sooner than the ________ portions.

higher; lower

Defining death as nonfunction of the higher cortex implies that:

human life depends on characteristics such as intelligence and personality which are controlled in that brain area.

If the cortical death definition were adopted, then physicians could claim a person is dead when his or her ________ is no longer functioning.

higher brain

A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brain function. Her parents decide to take her off the life-support machines but are shocked when she continues to breathe on her own. Is the young woman dead?

It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

If legal definitions of death were modified to mean death of the higher brain but not necessarily the lower brain, which of the following could become a legal practice?

no life support to patients with no cortical function

Which of the following refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?

living will or advance directive

Germain has signed an advance directive. This means that:

his physician will not use means to prolong his life when death is imminent.

Which of the following statements about a living will is FALSE?

Only the terminally ill can write one.

An advance directive/living will must be signed when:

an individual is still able to think clearly.

Levi sustained severe and irreversible brain damage in an auto accident. His wife and his parents decided to remove the life-support system, and Levi subsequently died. This is an example of:

passive euthanasia.

Mieka was in a major car accident and, as a result, cannot live without being hooked up to a respirator. After several months of living in a coma attached to this machine, Mieka's parents decided to have the respirator turned off and Mieka died two days later. This is an example of:

passive euthanasia.

Damon placed a pillow over his terminally ill wife and smothered her to end her suffering. This is an example of:

active euthanasia.

Which of the following is a main issue in the controversy over euthanasia?

quality of life

In the United States, ________ euthanasia is generally more accepted than ________ euthanasia.

passive; active

Jack Kevorkian, a Michigan physician, has assisted a number of terminally ill patients in ending their lives. After a series of legal trials, Dr. Kevorkian was:

convicted of second-degree murder and given a long prison sentence.

Active euthanasia is a crime in __________ states (in the United States).

49

Your text reported that active euthanasia is legal in:

the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Uruguay.

Recent scientific advances in the United States have led to more people:

suffering more and in pain longer before they die.

The hospice was developed with the goal of:

making the final stage of dying as pain free as possible.

Hospices are a relatively recent approach developed to:

make the end of life as free from pain and anxiety as possible.

The main purpose of a hospice is to:

make death more peaceful and less taxing on the dying individual and their family members.

Which of the following medical interventions would most likely be found in a hospice?

morphine

Two hundred years ago, what percentage of children died before their 10th birthday?

50

A person born in 1900 would most likely live until about age:

47.

A person born today will most likely live until about age:

78.

An individual is most likely to die:

in a hospital.

In contrast to those of many other cultures, people in the United States:

have less direct experience associated with death.

In the Gond culture of India, death is believed to be caused by:

magic and demons.

One way in which most societies are alike regarding death is that:

biological death is not equated with spiritual death.

An emphasis in our culture on using all life-prolonging methods possible, even in the face of certain death, is a sign of our culture's:

denial of death.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?

denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the first stage of dying is:

denial and isolation.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the second stage of dying is:

anger.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the third stage of dying is:

bargaining.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that when a person is dying, depression is:

part of the normal process of disconnecting oneself from love objects.

Ada knows that she has liver cancer and will not live much longer. In her prayers, she asks God to let her live one more year, and she will promise to set everything right with her family and loved ones. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that this type of reaction to death tends to occur:

in the middle of the process of adjusting to death.

Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kübler-Ross' stages of dying?

bargaining

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that, as one proceeds through the stages of death, the person tends to move from:

denial to acceptance.

All but one of the following statements reflect Elisabeth Kübler-Ross' stages of dying. Which one is NOT true?

Family and friends should attempt to cheer up patients in the depression stage of dying.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, when a dying person finally accepts the fact of impending death and becomes depressed about it, which of the following would be most appropriate?

Allow the person to experience and work through the depression.

The stage of death during which a person may wish to be alone is:

acceptance.

Which of the following statements is an accurate criticism of Kübler-Ross' theory of dying?

Neither she nor independent research have demonstrated that the five stages actually exist.

Which two factors may work together as an adaptive strategy for some older adults who face death?

denial and perceived control

For a terminally ill person, which of the following can be the most useful benefit of denying one's imminent death?

Denial can lead the dying person to a perception of control over his or her circumstances.

Luka has just found out that she has cancer. She has told her daughter that she knows that she has the disease but is not really worried about dying from it, because she is convinced that her treatments will be completely effective. Luka may be engaging in:

denial.

In what ways can denial of death be a positive response?

Denial can soften the emotional impact of impending death.

Most psychologists believe that it is best for dying individuals to:

be aware that they are dying.

"I really have to go see Mr. Milhauser," Marla says, "but I have no idea what to say to someone who is dying." What should Marla do?

Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and about internal growth.

A view that grief proceeds in stages would not address:

the idea that some aspects of grief persist while others fade away.

Grief is most like:

a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.

Marie's sister died 3 years ago. Marie is consistently bothered by sleeping problems, restlessness, and irritability. She often finds herself weeping uncontrollably because she misses her sister so much. Which of the following is probably TRUE of Marie?

She is experiencing an unusually long grief period and should seek help.

Approximately __________ of survivors experience normal or uncomplicated grief reactions.

80 to 90%

Approximately __________ of survivors experience complicated grief reactions.

10 to 20%

Which of the following deaths would probably be most difficult for the surviving family members to cope with?

Maurice, a 44-year-old father of two who was killed suddenly in a car accident.

Three family members are discussing their mother's last days a few days after her funeral. They talk in detail about the symptoms the mother had and her day-to-day decline. Such conversation indicates:

an effort to use grief to understand the death better.

There are roughly ________ times more widows than widowers over the age of 85 years in the United States.

five

The key feature of a successful program that helps widows adjust to the deaths of their spouses is:

involvement of volunteer widows as counselors.

The crux of the recent controversy surrounding the funeral industry is whether:

funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.

1. One way in which most societies are alike regarding death is that:

biological death is not equated with spiritual death.

2. For women and men, the role of grandparent is seen differently. For women, grandparenting is ________, whereas for men, it is ________.

a responsibility; voluntary

3. Which of the following biological theories of aging states that people age because their cells' normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules?

free-radical theory

4. A view that grief proceeds in stages would not address:

the invariant order in which grief proceeds.

5. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that, as one proceeds through the stages of death, the person tends to move from:

denial to shock

6. Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good ________ memory but poor ________ memory.

semantic; episodic

7. A major health concern for middle-aged adults is:

being overweight

8. The seventh stage of Erikson's life-span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did Erikson give this stage?

generativity versus stagnation

9. In the social _______ model of social relations, individuals go through life embedded in a personal network of individuals to whom they give, and from whom they receive, social support.

convoy

10. Traditional Amish and Jewish cultures are similar in how they cope with death in that they both:

have important roles of the family during and after the loss.

11. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotion-related and ________-related.

knowledge

12. An advance directive/living will must be signed when:

an individual is still able to think clearly.

13. In middle adulthood, __________ intelligence continues to increase.

multiple

14. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that when a person is dying, depression is:

part of the normal process of disconnecting oneself from love objects.

15. What do Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease have in common?

both are chronic and progressive

16. In general, the argument that middle adulthood has advantages for women in nonindustrialized cultures is based on the idea that women in these cultures typically:

gain respect in the community as they age

17. If the cortical death definition were adopted, then physicians could claim a person is dead when his or her ________ is no longer functioning.

higher brain

18. Which of the following is NOT one of the big five personality traits identified by Costa and McCrae?

adaptability

1. In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following characteristics generally changed across time for the adult?

nurturance or hostility

20. Which of the following strategies would be most helpful in improving memory in middle age?

Use organization and imagery to assist the remembering of specific information.

21. The stage of death during which a person may wish to be alone is:

acceptance.

22. According to Antonucci, Lansford, and Akiyama (2001), friendships in late adulthood:

are associated with lower levels of depression for women.

23. Jack Kevorkian, a Michigan physician, has assisted a number of terminally ill patients in ending their lives. After a series of legal trials, Dr. Kevorkian was:

convicted of second-degree murder and given a long prison sentence.

24. The more ________ a society is, the more respect is accorded to its elderly adults.

collectivistic

25. Germain has signed an advance directive. This means that:

his physician will not use means to prolong his life when death is imminent.

26. Older adults have a harder time recognizing a street sign than younger adults, because they have:

slower perceptual speed.

27. According to Levinson the transition from the teens to early adulthood was marked by two tasks. They are:

exploring possibilities of adult living and developing a stable life structure.

28. One research study examined the changes in the personality factor called conscientiousness. It found that as we age several facets of this factor increase. Which of the following was NOT one of those facets?

hostility

29. In what ways can denial of death be a positive response?

Denial can soften the emotional impact of impending death.

30. Stage theories of development emphasize ________, whereas the life-events approach focuses on ________.

similarities; differences

31. Evidence offered by Turner suggests that as men reach late adulthood, they become more:

feminine

32. Alzheimer disease involves a deficiency in the neurotransmitter:

acetylcholine.

33. An assumption that underlies the contemporary life-events approach to adult development is that adult development is:

c. development is a result of life events, our adaptation to those events, and the life-stage context that encapsulates those events.

34. The life-events approach to understanding adult development has been criticized because it:

focuses on major life events but not on daily experiences as stressors

35. Which of the following refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?

living will or advance directive

36. Research has attempted to identify physiological markers of Alzheimer disease. Which of the following is NOT one of the physical changes that has been identified in these patients?

degeneration of the superior tissue of the amygdala

37. Of Costa and McCrae's Big Five personality traits, which one is most likely to increase in early and middle adulthood?

conscientiousness

38. According to Costa and McCrae's study on adult personality development, the superfactor called extraversion was complex for older adults until it was divided into two sub-traits. They are:

social dominance and social vitality

39. Which of the following statements about a living will is FALSE?

Only the terminally ill can write one

40. According to the research of Vaillant, which of the following characteristics in middle age was the best predictor of having an enduring and happy marriage between the ages of 75 and 80?

generativity

41. Middle-aged Americans agree that a major component of their well-being involves:

positive relationships.

42. Which of the following describes a biological component to the difference in life expectancies between men and women?

existence versus absence of an X chromosome

43. Dr. LaRossa has spent her career studying the causes of aging. She hypothesizes that as we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing. Dr. LaRossa espouses the ________ theory of aging.

cellular clock

44. Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?

socioemotional selectivity theory

Deterioration of part of the retina is called:

macular degeneration.

46. Older women are more likely to have ________ but less likely to have ________ than are older men.

visual problems; hearing problems

47. In his studies on wisdom, Paul Baltes has found all of the following, EXCEPT:

wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence.

Loss of bone mass is associated with:

osteoporosis.

49. Since 2004, many women and their doctors are concerned that the hormonal treatments available for menopause may have the side effect of being associated with:

stroke and breast cancer

50. Although there are differences in the quality of care in nursing homes in the United States, about __________ are considered to be seriously deficient.

one-third

51. The term ________ refers to the ability to focus on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant to the task at hand while ignoring others that are irrelevant.

selective attention

52. Which "cohort" represents the largest single age group in the United States?

d. The "baby boomers."

53. Why is the social clock an important consideration when understanding development?

It may differ for different generations and indicate different age ranges for completing developmental tasks.

54. The retention of information about the when and where of life's happenings is called ________ memory.

episodic

Fluid intelligence is the ability to:

reason abstractly.

56. Shama, who is now 80 years old, will show a steady decline in:

working memory and perceptual speed.

57. ________ is knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits practical judgment about important matters.

Wisdom

58. Uncle Harry has been "losing his memory" for over a year. He also has developed some fantastic ideas about aliens taking over the government, and on some occasions he requires visitors to "give the password" before letting them into his apartment. Uncle Harry appears to have:

dementia.

59. Greta is 55 years old. If she had been born a century earlier and destined to turn 55 in the year 1900, by that year she would probably have been:

deceased.

60. Rhonda and Lewis are taking care of their elderly mother while she lives in Rhonda's home. Research on the care of the elderly shows that their mother will benefit the most if Rhonda and Lewis:

take care of her needs, but let her do what she can for herself.

61. Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

life review.

62. Which theory holds the most positive view of the abilities of elderly adults?

activity

63. Stages of adulthood in the Gusii culture of Kenya are defined by:

events in a person's life.

64. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding middle-aged people's appearances?

Middle-aged people focus less on facial attractiveness than do older or younger people.

65. In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following characteristics was generally stable across time for the adult?

nurturance or hostility

66. The crux of the recent controversy surrounding the funeral industry is whether:

funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.

67. ________ memory refers to facts we consciously know, and ________ memory refers to memory without conscious recollection.

Explicit; implicit

68. Three family members are discussing their mother's last days a few days after her funeral. They talk in detail about the symptoms the mother had and her day-to-day decline. Such conversation indicates:

an effort to use grief to understand the death better.

69. Tran wants to live a long and healthy life. The most important thing he can do to improve longevity is:

quit smoking.

70. Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

selection, optimization, and compensation.

71. More than for previous generations, the baby boom generation in the United States places ___________ maintaining a youthful physical appearance.

great emphasis on

72. According to Baltes and his colleagues, successful aging is based on selection, optimization, and:

flexibility.

73. A reasonable explanation for why 40-year-olds and 60-year-olds show differences in intelligence test scores is:

cohort effects.

74. The model of selective optimization with compensation proposes that successful aging is related to three main factors. Which of these factors is based on the concept that, in old age, there are reduced capacity and loss of functioning which mandate a reduction of performance in most domains of life?

selection

75. Defining death as nonfunction of the higher cortex implies that:

human life depends on characteristics such as intelligence and personality which are controlled in that brain area.

76. Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing ________ for her aunt

eldercare

77. Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?

socioemotional selectivity theory

78. Which of the following individuals who live alone is most likely to live in poverty?

an African-American woman

79. Sandra's mother is concerned about Sandra's lack of interest in marrying and having children. She told Sandra, "When I was your age, I had already found a good husband and settled down." Sandra and her mother:

social clocks.

80. According to Levinson, the change to middle adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these conflicts?

being attractive versus being unattractive

81. According to Victor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and:

spirituality.

82. The Seattle Longitudinal Study concluded that middle age is a time of:

peak performance for verbal abilities and verbal memory.

83. The empty nest syndrome implies that parents:

have few interests and activities other than their children.

84. Mieka was in a major car accident and, as a result, cannot live without being hooked up to a respirator. After several months of living in a coma attached to this machine, Mieka's parents decided to have the respirator turned off and Mieka died two days later. This is an example of:

passive euthanasia.

85. A person's knowledge about the world is called ________ memory.

semantic

86. Mrs. Hernandez has considerable pain and stiffness in her wrists, fingers, and knees. It is becoming very difficult for her to maintain her usual routines as her stiffness increases. Mrs. Hernandez has:

arthritis.

87. The vision of older adults can be affected by age-related changes. One of these changes, which can make steps and curbs difficult to manage, is a decline in:

depth perception.

88. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the third stage of dying is:

bargaining.

89. Dr. Lone Dove has begun studying the effects of a newly discovered hormone on aging. He hypothesizes that the new hormone protects the body's cells from deterioration by strengthening the cell wall against detrimental substances. Dr. Lone Dove is finding evidence for the ________ theory of aging.

hormonal stress

90. As he looks back over his life, Chris realizes that his work was not as important to him as he believed, and that he lost too much valuable time with his children. If he could do it over again, he would work less and spend more time with his children. According to Erik Erikson, Chris is experiencing some degree of:

stagnation

Manuel has just reached middle age as defined by the text. This means he is at least __________ years old.

40

92. Which of the following groups of individuals is most likely to be satisfied with their marriage?

older adults

93. Hospices are a relatively recent approach developed to:

make the end of life as free from pain and anxiety as possible.

94. Marsha, an adult in her 70s, can expect a decline in certain types of attention but not in:
a. selective attention.

sustained attention.

Competently driving a car demands ________.

divided attention

96. For a terminally ill person, which of the following can be the most useful benefit of denying one's imminent death?

Denial can lead the dying person to a perception of control over his or her circumstances.

97. Which of the following factors combine to form the "double jeopardy" that is noted in this chapter?

ageism and racism

98. During middle age, the visual system begins to change. Which of the following is NOT one of those changes?

The size of the retinal blind spot diminishes.

99. Cohabitation is increasing among ________ and is expected to continue to increase. Cohabitation for this age group may be based on a need for companionship and a legal sharing of resources without finances being legally joined.

older adults

100. Evidence suggests that male menopause is:

psychological rather than physical

a. immortality

In Erik Erikson's theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of _____. a. immortality b. recognition c. achievement d. omniscience

d. stagnation

As he looks back over his life, Chris realizes that his work was not as important to him as he believed, and that he lost too much valuable time with his children. If he could do it over again, he would work less and spend more time with his children. According to Erikson, Chris is experiencing some degree of _____. a. social rejection b. apathy c. generativity d. stagnation

b. being attractive versus being unattractive

According to Levinson, the changes to middle-adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these major conflicts? a. being young versus being old b. being attractive versus being unattractive c. being masculine versus being feminine d. being destructive versus being constructive

b. a daily hassle.

Mr. Chang gets very angry when he discovers his newspaper in the mud underneath the bushes once again. He begins throwing things and yelling loudly. Mr. Chang is experiencing the stress of: a. a major life event. b. a daily hassle. c. a middle-age development crisis. d. psychological generativity.

c. concerns about weight

Which of the following is a daily hassle for adults in middle age? a. concerns about being lonely b. concerns about meeting high standards c. concerns about weight d. wasting time

c. It varies more now.

What changes in the social clock has taken place in recent years? a. It is much more rigid now than in the past. b. Males are much more likely to follow it. c. It varies more now. d. It is much less important than cohorts' effects in understanding behavior

a. have different social clocks.

Sandra's mother is concerned about Sandra's lack of interest in marrying and having children. She told Sandra, "When I was your age, I had already found a good husband and settled down." Sandra and her mother: a. have different social clocks. b. have different coping styles. c. have different burnout levels. d. are in different developmental stages.

c. engage in mutual activities.

Middle-age partners are more likely to view their marriage as positive if they: a. have a satisfying sexual relationship. b. have financial security. c. engage in mutual activities. d. are religious.

d. For most parents, marital satisfaction increases after the transition to an empty nest.

Which of the following is TRUE about the empty nest syndrome? a. Parents who live vicariously with their children do not experience it. b. It is more common for middle-aged men than for middle-aged women. c. It is a common, though minor, problem for most middle-aged adults. d. For most parents, marital satisfaction increases after the transition to an empty nest.

b. chronic

A disease that starts out slowly but lasts a long time is called _____. a. acute b. chronic c. terminal d. pervasive

a. an increase in illness and disease

Which of the following is usually considered the reason for the decline in alcohol intake of 65-year-olds? a. an increase in illness and disease b. expert elder care in nursing homes c. improved education about health and fitness d. alternate programs for de-addiction

b. health professionals expect their symptoms to be associated with age-related disease.

Substance abuse often goes undetected in older adults because: a. older adults know how to disguise it. b. health professionals expect their symptoms to be associated with age-related disease. c. caregivers do not report symptoms. d. their symptoms are different than for younger adults.

c. Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking.

Your 90-year-old uncle complains that he cannot get around the way he used to. He has trouble getting up out of chairs and difficulty walking across the room when he does get up. Can you help him? a. Yes, you could have him take estrogen to improve his bone structure. b. No, this sort of physical decline is irreversible. c. Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking. d. No, physical exercise only tends to make the physical declines of old age worse.

a. selective

Zack is in a crowded restaurant trying to pay attention to the waiter who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because _____ attention declines as one ages. a. selective b. divided c. focused d. sustained

b. Aging of the brain's prefrontal cortex does not affect working memory.

Which of the following statements about cognitive functioning is NOT true? a. Cognitive interventions may increase these neural connections. b. Aging of the brain's prefrontal cortex does not affect working memory. c. Changes in cognitive functioning can influence the brain. d. Changes in the brain can influence cognitive functioning.

c. Many workers count on benefits that will not be there for them when they retire.

Which of the following statements about retirement is TRUE? a. Men spend less time planning for retirement than women do. b. Older adults with a long work history adjust to retirement more easily than those who have been in the workforce for a shorter period of time. c. Many workers count on benefits that will not be there for them when they retire. d. People who consider just the financial aspect of being retired do better than those who consider other areas of their lives as well.

a. It is often left untreated.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning depression in older adults? a. It is often left untreated. b. It is a very common though temporary problem. c. It is a very rare problem. d. It is usually diagnosed and treated.

c. 25 percent

What percentage of suicides involves older adults 65 years of age or older? a. less than 2 percent b. 10 percent c. 25 percent d. 40 percent

c. 5.3 million

In 2009, an estimated _____ adults in the United States had Alzheimer disease. a. 1 million b. 2.6 million c. 5.3 million d. 8.5 million

c. depression.

Martha cares for her elderly mother, Marjorie, who has Alzheimer disease. Although Marjorie goes to a program at the senior center a few hours each week, the majority of her care falls to Martha. According to research on family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer disease, Martha is at risk for developing: a. an ulcer. b. migraine headaches. c. depression. d. obsessions.

b. integrity versus despair

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson? a. death versus dying b. integrity versus despair c. immortality versus death d. independence versus dependence

a. despair

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience _____ in later adulthood. a. despair b. inferiority c. shame and doubt d. identity diffusion

c. wisdom

Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by _____. a. care b. fidelity c. wisdom d. hope

c. integrity

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of _____. a. identity b. intimacy c. integrity d. autonomy

a. life review.

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call: a. life review. b. identity resolution. c. integrity formation. d. retrospective spirit.

a. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.

Which of the following statements about life review is NOT true? a. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets. b. Life reviews can include sociocultural dimensions. c. Life reviews lead to revision or expanded understanding of experiences. d. Life reviews include interpersonal, relationship dimensions.

b. socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family? a. activity theory b. socioemotional selectivity theory c. social discontinuity theory d. disengagement theory

a. socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation? a. socioemotional selectivity theory b. activity theory c. disengagement theory d. social breakdown theory

d. knowledge-related.

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotional and: a. spiritual. b. practical. c. relational. d. knowledge-related.

d. activity theory.

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying: a. disengagement theory. b. socioemotional selectivity theory. c. evangelical theory. d. activity theory.

c. selection, optimization, and compensation.

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors: a. assortment, enhancement, and remuneration. b. reorganization, compensation, and optimization. c. selection, optimization, and compensation. d. remuneration, selection, and enhancement.

a. selection

The late Arthur Rubinstein, during his old age, maintained his status as an admired pianist by few simple strategies. One of those was reducing the scope of his performances and playing fewer pieces. Which aspect of Baltes theory does this reflect? a. selection b. organization c. optimization d. compensation

b. ageism.

Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost effective are examples of: a. eldercare. b. ageism. c. generational inequity. d. age incongruity.

a. ageism.

Don is 68 years old and would like to work part time during his retirement. All his applications have been turned down, however, even though Don has many years' experience, has an excellent work record, and is appropriate for the job. Don may be experiencing: a. ageism. b. disengagement. c. generational inequity. d. eldercare discrimination.

c. disrespect for older adults

Which of the following is the most common consequence of ageism? a. assumptions about frailty of older adults b. assumptions about ailments caused by age c. disrespect for older adults d. older adults being edged out of their family life

a. Approximately one-half of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults > 65 years.

Which of the following statements about the health care of older adults in the U.S. is NOT true? a. Approximately one-half of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults > 65 years. b. Medicare pays for some of the health care costs for people over age 65. c. Older adults themselves pay about one-third of their total health care costs. d. United States is the only industrialized nation that provides health insurance specifically for older adults.

c. The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model.

Considering the fact that many of the health problems of older adults are chronic rather than acute, which of the following is a concern regarding the medical system? a. Medicare does not have special provisions for chronic illnesses. b. Costs of prescription drugs are still not subsidized for the elderly. c. The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model. d. Home-visits are not emphasized over hospital stays.

c. eldercare

Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing _____ for her aunt. a. home care service b. emergency care c. eldercare d. hospice

b. generational inequity

The _____ issue raises questions about whether the young should be required to pay for the old, and whether the population is using resources that should go to younger people. a. eldercare b. generational inequity c. ageism d. age-incongruity

a. 9.6%

According to 2006 data, the percentage of older people living in poverty is _____. a. 9.6% b. 12.5% c. 23.3% d. 24.0%

a. 11.5%

According to 2006 data, what percentage of elderly women live alone live in poverty? a. 11.5% b. 18.4% c. 22.7% d. 44%

d. 60%

What percentage of elderly African American women live alone live in poverty? a. 30% b. 40% c. 50% d. 60%

c. 50%

What percentage of elderly Latina American women live alone live in poverty? a. 30% b. 40% c. 50% d. 60%

a. Fifty

_____ percent of women 75 years and older live alone. a. Fifty b. Fifty-five c. Seventy d. Seventy-five

b. wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members.

After losing her husband, Ebony does not want to move into her daughter's home. "I want to be like most other people my age," she said. "Put me in a nursing home or just let me live alone in my own home." Statistics show that Ebony is: a. right; most elderly adults live in nursing homes or alone in their homes. b. wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members. c. partly wrong; most elderly adults continue to live in their own homes when they lose their spouses. d. wrong; most elderly adults live in a community group arrangement rather than with family or in a nursing home.

b. communicate with relatives.

Older adults use the Internet most often to: a. buy products online. b. communicate with relatives. c. meet a potential mate. d. take up further education.

d. Sarah will become uneasy having Kent around the house all day.

Sarah and Kent have always been a very traditional couple, in that he has worked outside the home, and she has been a homemaker. When Kent retires, which of the following situations is MOST likely to arise? a. Sarah will have difficulty keeping up with housework. b. Sarah will help more with yard work. c. Sarah will be delighted to have someone help her, so she can spend increasing amounts of time away from home. d. Sarah will become uneasy having Kent around the house all day.

c. 3%

Currently, approximately _____ of older American adults cohabit ("live together") (not married). a. 4% b. 1% c. 3% d. 10%

a. her daughter

Who is the most likely caregiver for Mrs. Downes, an 84-year-old frail elder? a. her daughter b. her sister c. her son d. her daughter-in-law

b. ambivalence

In most cases, researchers have found that relationships between aging parents and their children are characterized by _____. a. anger b. ambivalence c. apathy d. abuse

d. disease.

Social support is negatively correlated with: a. happiness. b. socioeconomic status. c. longevity. d. disease.

d. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults.

Which of the following statements about social support for older adults is NOT true? a. Social support for older adults may vary across cultures. b. Friends play a vital role in social support. c. Married people need less formal social support than single people. d. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults.

d. Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults? a. Younger adults tend to perceive time differently, influencing their definition of loneliness. b. Most of the older adults are in community homes; thus reducing loneliness. c. Most of the older adults tend to re-employ themselves thus reducing loneliness. d. Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

d. whether older people have had a large number of children

Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture? a. whether older people control key community resources b. whether the extended family is a common family arrangement c. whether older people are permitted to engage in useful functions d. whether older people have had a large number of children

c. collectivistic; individualistic

It is observed that respect for older adults is greater in _____ cultures than in _____ cultures. a. socialistic; capitalistic b. spiritualistic; competitive c. collectivistic; individualistic d. religious; materialistic

c. pessimism; optimistic

Older adults characterized by _____ don't live as long as those who are _____. a. empathy; sympathetic b. materialism; spiritualist c. pessimism; optimistic d. generosity; frugal

This Austrian psychiatrist, a concentration camp survivor, wrote the book Man's Search for
Meaning, where he proposed that the human qualities of spirituality, freedom, and responsibility were key in finding one's true meaning in life (and death).

Viktor E. Frankl

Identify three of the physical changes that take place during middle adulthood.

Visible signs, Height and weight, Vision and hearing

Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs believe that a meaningful life can be understood in terms of four main needs. Which of the following is NOT one of those needs?
a. the need for financial security
b. the need for purpose
c. the need for values
d. the need for self-worth

a. the need for financial security

Today the average life expectancy in the United States is:
a. 72 years.
b. 74 years.
c. 78 years.
d. 80 years.

c. 78 years.

Which of the following is a sign of aging for the average adult in middle adulthood?
a. Increase in height
b. Decrease in weight
c. Fingernails become brittle
d. Loss of memory

c. Fingernails become brittle

The average adult in middle adulthood _____ height and _____ weight.
a. loses; loses
b. loses; gains
c. gains; gains
d. gains; loses

b. loses; gains

Which of the following statements about bone and joint functioning is TRUE?
a. Peak functioning of the body's joints usually occurs in the thirties.
b. Women experience about twice the rate of bone loss as men.
c. Maximum bone density occurs by the mid‐ to late twenties.
d. The rate of bone loss decelerates in the fifties.

b. Women experience about twice the rate of bone loss as men.

Which of the following is an outcome of the reduced blood supply to the eye during late middleage?
a. decrease in the visual field's size
b. decrease in the eye's blind spot
c. formation of wrinkles and under the eyes
d. increase in the size of the pupil

a. decrease in the visual field's size

Which of the following is MOST likely to cause difficulty for a middle aged adult without glasses?
a. reading a newspaper
b. watching TV
c. reading an eye chart 20 feet away
d. reading a road sign during the day

a. reading a newspaper

Which of the following are the MOST common chronic disorders for men during middle age?
a. cancer, heart disease, stroke
b. arthritis, bursitis, varicose veins
c. hearing impairments, vision impairments
d. sinus problems, respiratory problems

a. cancer, heart disease, stroke

What is the leading chronic disorder for women during middle age?
a. arthritis
b. hypertension
c. sinus problems
d. hearing impairment

a. arthritis

Which of the following statements regarding the immune system is TRUE?
a. Its machinery consists of billions of red blood cells.
b. When a person is under stress, the levels of bacteria and viruses drop dramatically.
c. Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of white blood cell.
d. Stress increases the number of natural killer (NK) cells in the body.

c. Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of white blood cell.

The main cause of death in middle adulthood in the United States is:
a. infectious diseases.
b. accidents.
c. chronic diseases.
d. homicide.

c. chronic diseases.

What is the notable finding of Schaie's assessment of intellectual abilities of parents and their children?
a. The second generation scored higher on numerical abilities.
b. The second generation showed higher levels of cognitive functioning in inductive reasoning.
c. The offspring generation showed cognitive decline from 60 to 67 years of age.
d. The parent generation showed modest increase in cognitive functioning from 60 to 67 years of age.

b. The second generation showed higher levels of cognitive functioning in inductive reasoning.

Which of the following strategies would be MOST helpful in improving memory in middle age?
a. Avoid using vivid imagery to keep from becoming distracted.
b. Use a recall rather than recognition strategy whenever possible.
c. Use an organization strategy to categorize information to be remembered.
d. Avoid using the information to be remembered so that it does not become confused with other
information.

c. Use an organization strategy to categorize information to be remembered.

The seventh stage of Erikson's life‐span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did
Erikson give this stage?
a. intimacy versus isolation
b. integrity versus despair
c. generativity versus stagnation
d. keeping the meaning versus rigidity

c. generativity versus stagnation

According to Levinson, the changes to middle‐adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these major conflicts?
a. being young versus being old
b. being attractive versus being unattractive
c. being masculine versus being feminine
d. being destructive versus being constructive

b. being attractive versus being unattractive

Daniel Levinson's studies suggest that most adults feel that middle age is a time of:
a. crisis.
b. reconsolidation.
c. peace and tranquility.
d. intimacy and social closeness.

a. crisis.

What did Levinson's research conclude about women in midlife transition?
a. Women have significantly less distress during this process.
b. Women face the midlife transition earlier and with greater difficulty than do men.
c. Women who have had children have an easier time than those who have not.
d. Levinson's stages, transitions, and the crisis of middle age hold for females as well as males.

d. Levinson's stages, transitions, and the crisis of middle age hold for females as well as males.

Referring to studies from Chapter 15, which of the following abilities does not peak in midlife?
a. vocabulary
b. verbal memory
c. inductive reasoning
d. visual acuity

d. visual acuity

What is the difference between life events and hassles?
a. life events are minor; hassles are major
b. life events are within one's control; hassles are outside of one's control
c. life events are temporary; hassles are long‐lasting
d. life events lead to stress; hassles lead to boredom

c. life events are temporary; hassles are long‐lasting

Which of the following is likely to be a daily uplift for a middle aged adult?
a. entertainment
b. games or other physical activities
c. completing a task
d. relating well with a friend

d. relating well with a friend

Which of the following is NOT one of the three aspects of the contexts of life that influence
development during middle adulthood?
a. historical
b. gender
c. genetic
d. culture

c. genetic

Which of the following is true of middle aged and older adults who had poor sibling relationships in childhood?
a. Men were more likely to develop depression by age 50.
b. Women were more likely to develop depression by 40.
c. Both men and women tended to re‐bond with their siblings during middle‐age.
d. Women tended to move away from sibling relationships.

a. Men were more likely to develop depression by age 50.

Ron and his sister, Sarah, are both in their mid‐50s and have a close personal relationship. Most research on sibling relationships suggests that:
a. you cannot predict later relationships by looking at relationships earlier in life.
b. they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood too.
c. they probably had a tumultuous relationship in childhood that turned close as both matured.
d. they probably had a good childhood relationship that turned neutral in early adulthood then
recently returned to closeness.

b. they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood too.

Ben's parents have divorced and his mother has primary custody. If Ben's relationship with his father deteriorates as a result of the divorce, research has shown that his relationship with his paternal grandparents will likely:
a. become distant or negative.
b. remain the same as it was before the divorce.
c. become closer.
d. show a decline initially but improves as he grows older.

a. become distant or negative.

If born today, in what country would a person have the highest life expectancy?
a. United States
b. Japan
c. Soviet Union
d. Sweden

b. Japan

Why is life expectancy for women longer than for men?
a. Women engage in fewer high risk behaviors.
b. Women experience less stress than men do.
c. Women work harder and for more years than men do.
d. Men generally suffer greater financial hardship than women do.

a. Women engage in fewer high risk behaviors.

If men and women engaged in exactly the same health‐related behaviors, experienced the same amounts of stress, reacted to stress in the same ways, and had the same work habits and attitudes, which of the following would be expected?
a. Men and women would have the same life expectancies.
b. Women would have longer life expectancies than would men.
c. Men would have longer life expectancies than would women.
d. Men and women would both have shorter life expectancies.

b. Women would have longer life expectancies than would men.

Which of the following biological reasons explains women's increased resistance to infections and degenerative diseases?
a. estrogen production and the additional X chromosome
b. lower cholesterol levels and improved lung function
c. postmenopausal hormone levels and increased body water
d. better osmoregulation and lower trans fat

a. estrogen production and the additional X chromosome

***Longevity is positively correlated with:
a. ability to cope.
b. lack of stressful events.
c. years of marriage.
d. socioeconomic status

b. lack of stressful events.

Uncle Roger tells you that he is a "member of the oldest old" club, when asked his age. Even
without knowing his exact age, you know that Uncle Roger is at least _____ years old.
a. 70
b. 75
c. 80
d. 85

d. 85

After the age of 80, the majority of elderly adults are:
a. living in a nursing home.
b. living an independent life in the community.
c. under the full‐time care of family or friends.
d. spending more time in the hospital than at home.

b. living an independent life in the community.

Dr. LaRossa has spent her career studying the causes of aging. She hypothesizes that as we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing. Dr. LaRossa espouses the _____ theory of aging.
a. telomerase‐injection
b. cellular clock
c. free‐radical
d. hormonal stress

b. cellular clock

DNA sequences that cap chromosomes and that are implicated in why cells die are known as:
a. free radicals.
b. polymers.
c. telomeres.
d. mitochondria

c. telomeres.

As part of aging, after about 70 or 80 replications, the cell no longer can reproduce and the
_____ are dramatically reduced.
a. mitochondria
b. telomeres
c. chromosomes
d. sperm cells

b. telomeres

According to recent study, a higher intake of which of the following vitamins were related to
incidence of longer telomeres in women?
a. vitamin C and E
b. vitamin B12 and D
c. vitamin A and K
d. vitamin B2 and D

a. vitamin C and E

The tiny bodies within cells that supply essential energy for function, growth, and repair are
known as:
a. Lewy bodies.
b. ribosomes.
c. chromosomes.
d. mitochondria

d. mitochondria

Defects in mitochondria have been linked with all of the following conditions EXCEPT:
a. cardiovascular disease.
b. arthritis.
c. decline in liver function.
d. dementia.

b. arthritis.

The hormonal stress theory DIFFERS from the cellular clock and the free‐radical theories of aging in that it:
a. focuses only on the processes of aging in the oldest‐old.
b. ignores changes at the cellular level.
c. discounts the role of genetics in aging.
d. deemphasizes external stressors as the cause of aging.

b. ignores changes at the cellular level.

What is the main difference between the way younger people and older people respond to
stress?
a. Younger people have a slower restorative process after a stressful episode.
b. Younger people have better coping strategies for dealing with stress.
c. The process of aging increases the pituitary gland's response to stress, making it work harder.
d. Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.

d. Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.

Prolonged, elevated levels of stress‐related hormones have been associated with all of the
following conditions EXCEPT _____.
a. hypertension
b. cancer
c. diabetes
d. arthritis

d. arthritis

With age:
a. brain weight decreases; brain volume does not decrease.
b. brain volume decreases; brain weight does not decrease.
c. both brain weight and brain volume decrease.
d. neither brain weight nor brain volume decrease.

c. both brain weight and brain volume decrease.

Which of the following areas of the brain shrinks more than the others?
a. prefrontal cortex
b. amygdala
c. hypothalamus
d. premotor cortex

a. prefrontal cortex

Paul, age 76, turns the television volume up so that it is at an uncomfortable level for the rest of the family. When his son suggests that he may have a hearing problem, Paul says that he does not and that the volume is "just right." Paul's reaction to having a decline in his ability to hear it is:
a. fairly common in older adults.
b. out of the ordinary; most older adults clearly recognize that they don't hear well.
c. a sign of depression.
d. a sign of hostility toward his family.

a. fairly common in older adults.

What percentage of 75‐ to 79‐year‐olds have hearing difficulties?
a. 15 percent
b. 25 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 75 percent

d. 75 percent

Speed and accuracy of the processes involved in sensory input, attention, visual and motor
memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization are components of:
a. cognitive perception.
b. cognitive pragmatics.
c. cognitive mechanics.
d. cognitive intelligence.

c. cognitive mechanics.

Cognitive pragmatics is defined as:
a. a component of mental processing.
b. abstract reasoning skills.
c. the nerve cells of the brain that are the basis of intelligence.
d. the mental skills and routines that one learns from one's culture.

d. the mental skills and routines that one learns from one's culture.

Whereas cognitive _____ appears to decline in old age, cognitive _____ appears to remain
constant or increase.
a. mechanics; pragmatics
b. pragmatics; mechanics
c. pragmatics; reasoning
d. learning; reasoning

a. mechanics; pragmatics

One study found that after 6 months of _____, older adults showed improvement on reaction
time tasks.
a. eating a macrobiotic diet
b. cognitive behavioral therapy
c. doing aerobic exercise
d. attending regular religious services

c. doing aerobic exercise

***Selective attention is _____, whereas divided attention is _____.
a. vigilance; focusing on a specific event
b. paying attention only occasionally; constantly paying attention
c. focusing on one thing; focusing on many things
d. paying attention to detail; paying attention to significant events

c. focusing on one thing; focusing on many things

***Competently driving a car demands _____; this includes search, selection, and switching.
a. divided attention
b. programmed attention
c. sequential attention
d. sustained attention

d. sustained attention

The most important factor in how well adults remember information from the past is:
a. how motivated they are to remember.
b. how long ago they learned the information.
c. how old they were when they learned the information.
d. how well they learned the information.

d. how well they learned the information.

Remembering where you went on vacation last summer is an example of _____ memory.
a. situational
b. semantic
c. procedural
d. episodic

d. episodic

Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good _____ memory but poor _____ memory.
a. episodic; procedural
b. procedural; semantic
c. semantic; episodic
d. explicit; implicit

c. semantic; episodic

Older adults have a harder time recognizing a street sign than younger adults, because they
have:
a. a decline in explicit memory.
b. slower perceptual speed.
c. inferior semantic memory.
d. lost the ability to use their working memory.

d. lost the ability to use their working memory.

Explicit memory is also called _____ memory.
a. collective
b. procedural
c. declarative
d. false

c. declarative

Eleanor, who is 75, believes that older people cannot remember new information very well.
Because of this, she has decided not to learn how to use a computer. In view of the research regarding memory and the elderly, what can you say to Eleanor?
a. It is probably best she does not learn to use a computer, as she would have a much more difficult time than a younger person.
b. Although she could learn to use a computer adequately, she will have a difficult time remembering what she learned days earlier.
c. She could learn computer skills, but her ability to type would be slightly impaired.
d. Her negative beliefs about her memory will have a negative influence on her ability to learn.

d. Her negative beliefs about her memory will have a negative influence on her ability to learn.

Which of the following persons is most likely to be "wise"?
a. Ida Mae, who is 72
b. Jerome, who is highly intelligent
c. Stanley, who is more concerned about the welfare of others than his own happiness
d. Kyoko, who is introverted

c. Stanley, who is more concerned about the welfare of others than his own happiness

Which of the following has been linked to lower cognitive performance, not only in older adults but also in young and middle‐aged adults?
a. hypertension
b. Alzheimer's disease
c. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
d. decreased inhibition

a. hypertension

***Which of the following has been associated with cognitive decline?
a. schizophrenia
b. depression
c. bipolar illness
d. obsessive‐compulsive disorder

b. depression

Jake is only 25 but wants to reduce his chance of losing cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?
a. eat foods low in fat
b. do crossword puzzles
c. take up a challenging job
d. quit smoking

b. do crossword puzzles

Senior Odyssey is a 20‐week program designed to:
a. improve problem‐solving skills in older adults.
b. improve motor‐skills and general physical health in older adults.
c. teach adults to multitask.
d. expose older adults to younger people through shared social activities.

a. improve problem‐solving skills in older adults.

According to Denise Park and Patricia Reuter‐Lorenz, neurocognitive _____ involves the use of complementary, neural circuits to protect cognitive functioning in an aging brain.
a. scaffolding
b. bypassing
c. extension
d. regeneration

a. scaffolding

A common memory problem for older adults is the _____ which individuals can't quite retrieve familiar information but have the feeling that they should be able to retrieve it.
a. dementia
b. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
c. temporary memory loss
d. mental block

b. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon

Which of the following is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
a. increased irritability and aggressiveness
b. word‐finding/generating difficulties
c. decrease in ability to produce well‐formed sentences
d. decreased eye‐hand coordination

b. word‐finding/generating difficulties

Which of the following statements about older workers is TRUE?
a. Older workers have more accidents than younger workers.
b. Older workers have higher rates of absenteeism than younger workers.
c. Older workers are of considerably less value to a company than younger workers.
d. Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.

d. Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.

Which of the following is likely the MOST probable reason for not hiring older adults?
a. rapid pace of technological advancement
b. negative ageist stereotyping
c. availability of vast young talent pool
d. lack of job‐types fitting older adult workers

b. negative ageist stereotyping

Which of the following is called the "common cold" of mental disorders?
a. schizophrenia
b. Alzheimer's disease
c. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
d. major depression

d. major depression

Common predictors of depression in older adults include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. poor health.
b. a history of depression in earlier years.
c. a history of obsessive compulsive disorder.
d. death of a spouse or other loss events.

c. a history of obsessive compulsive disorder.

What percentage of suicides involves older adults 65 years of age or older?
a. less than 2 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 25 percent
d. 40 percent

c. 25 percent

What do Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease have in common?
a. Both affect men at much higher rates than women.
b. Both are chronic and progressive.
c. Both affect only the elderly.
d. Both are easily managed with medication.

b. Both are chronic and progressive.

Martha cares for her elderly mother, Marjorie, who has Alzheimer disease. Although Marjorie
goes to a program at the senior center a few hours each week, the majority of her care falls to Martha.According to research on family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer disease, Martha is at risk for developing:
a. an ulcer.
b. migraine headaches.
c. depression.
d. obsessions.

c. depression.

Marcus is showing some signs of cognitive impairment. He has slurred speech and difficulty
writing. He most likely has:
a. dementia.
b. Alzheimer disease.
c. Parkinson disease.
d. multi‐infarct dementia.

d. multi‐infarct dementia.

Mr. Dalton has a disease that is characterized by muscle tremors, slow movement, and partial facial paralysis. The doctors have told his family that the disease is chronic and progressive in nature. Which of the following conditions does Mr. Martin most likely have?
a. Alzheimer disease
b. multi‐infarct syndrome
c. Lewey body dementia
d. Parkinson disease

d. Parkinson disease

Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by _____.
a. care
b. fidelity
c. wisdom
d. hope

c. wisdom

Mr. Widaman‐Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman‐Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but insteadwho my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of _____. ??? p. 594-595????
a. identity
b. intimacy
c. integrity
d. autonomy

...

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?
a. death versus dying
b. integrity versus despair
c. immortality versus death
d. independence versus dependence

b. integrity versus despair

Which of the following is a therapy clinicians use to resolve the regrets and lower the depression older adults face?
a. gestalt therapy
b. reminiscence therapy
c. schema therapy
d. drama therapy

b. reminiscence therapy

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and
family?
a. activity theory
b. socioemotional selectivity theory
c. social discontinuity theory
d. disengagement theory

b. socioemotional selectivity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of
goals—emotional and:
a. spiritual.
b. practical.
c. relational.
d. knowledge‐related.

d. knowledge-related.

The model of selective optimization with compensation is based on the idea that older adults
fare better when they:
a. ignore their increasing limitations as much as possible.
b. use technology to broaden and increase their daily activities and efforts.
c. develop positive and creative coping strategies to deal with their limitations.
d. limit the scope of their social networks and concentrate on only a few friendships.

a. ignore their increasing limitations as much as possible.

Which of the following, suggested by Baltes and colleagues, is a selection strategy for older
adults?
a. To achieve something, you may need to be patient until the right moment arrives.
b. Think about what you want in life and commit yourself to one or two major goals.
c. When things don't go the way they used to, search for other ways to achieve what you want.
d. Keep working on what you have planned until you are successful.

c. When things don't go the way they used to, search for other ways to achieve what you want.

According to the cross‐sectional study by Ursula Staudinger, which of the following is the MOST important investment for adults between 25 to 34 years of age?
a. work
b. family
c. friends
d. independence

a. work

Older adults focus on _____; the oldest‐old focus on _____.
a. family; thinking about life
b. friends; family
c. cognitive fitness; physical fitness
d. family; health

d. family; health

Older adults characterized by _____ don't live as long as those who are _____.
a. empathy; sympathetic
b. materialism; spiritualist
c. pessimism; optimistic
d. generosity; frugal

c. pessimism; optimistic

The status an elderly person is accorded in a culture depends on the degree to which he or she:
a. has power and autonomy.
b. has control over family resources, has valued knowledge, and is integrated into the family.
c. has autonomy, has useful skills, and contributes to family harmony.
d. has useful skills and does not interfere with family functioning.

b. has control over family resources, has valued knowledge, and is integrated into the family.

According to the text, which of the following could be the reason why many ethnic minority
workers never enjoy the Social Security and Medicare benefits to which their earnings contribute?
a. because most of them do not qualify for these benefits
b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits
c. because their contributions to the benefits are negligible and thus they might not get sufficient
benefits.
d. because most of the ethnic minority workers are illegal immigrants

b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits

According to the text, which of the following could be the reason why many ethnic minority
workers never enjoy the Social Security and Medicare benefits to which their earnings contribute?
a. because most of them do not qualify for these benefits
b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits
c. because their contributions to the benefits are negligible and thus they might not get sufficient
benefits.
d. because most of the ethnic minority workers are illegal immigrants

b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits

Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture?
a. whether older people control key community resources
b. whether the extended family is a common family arrangement
c. whether older people are permitted to engage in useful functions
d. whether older people have had a large number of children

d. whether older people have had a large number of children

A theory of aging suggests that older adults become more selective about their social networks, because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction in their relationships.

Socioemotional selectivity theory

The view that our aging society is being unfair to its younger members, because older adults receive inequitably large allocations of resources.

Generational inequity

What is the role of gender in relationships involving older adult parents and their children?

Adult daughters rather than sons are more likely to be involved in the lives of their aging parents.

Rory works in a laboratory analyzing the results of biopsies and other tests. Kastenbaum would say that Rory's function in the death system is that of:
a. preventing death.
b. warning and prediction.
c. making sense of death.
d. undertaking death ceremonies.

d. undertaking death ceremonies.

Which of the following is true of the American attitude toward death?
a. Americans are conditioned from early in life to live as mere mortals.
b. It is not uncommon for Americans to reach adulthood without having seen someone die.
c. To live a full life and die with glory is the prevailing goal of the Americans.
d. Americans do not use any symbols associated with death.

...

Why is it more difficult to determine whether someone is dead now than it was 100 years ago?
a. because fewer people die at home today
b. because medical technology has made it possible to live much longer today
c. because medical technology has made it possible to create differing definitions of death
d. because the development of different religions has given rise to different philosophies of the
meanings of life and death

c. because medical technology has made it possible to create differing definitions of death

A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brainfunction. Her parents decide to take her off the life‐support machines but are shocked when she continues to breathe on her own. Is the young woman dead?
a. No, because she continues to breathe on her own.
b. It is unclear, because we do not know how long she will breathe on her own.
c. Yes, because she is no longer capable of thinking or showing personality characteristics.
d. It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

d. It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

Germaine has signed an advance directive. This means that:
a. his physician can disconnect him from life‐sustaining equipment.
b. he has given his immediate family legal control over his care.
c. he has authorized his family to engage in active euthanasia.
d. he has ordered his physician to do everything possible to keep him alive.

a. his physician can disconnect him from life‐sustaining equipment.

Recent scientific advances in the United States have led to more people:
a. dying a painless and easy death in their own home.
b. living a better‐quality life in their final stages of dying.
c. dying a painless and easy death in the hospital.
d. suffering more and in pain longer before they die.

...

An advanced directive/living will must be signed when:
a. at least two medical professionals are present.
b. a doctor and a lawyer are present.
c. when an individual is told he or she has a life‐threatening condition.
d. when an individual is able to think clearly.

d. when an individual is able to think clearly.

_____ is a program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and
depression as possible.
a. Terminal care
b. End‐of‐life care
c. Hospice
d. Palliative care

c. Hospice

Currently in the United States, 90% of hospice care is provided:
a. in special units in hospitals.
b. in nursing homes.
c. in the patients' homes.
d. in free‐standing hospice facilities in the community.

c. in the patients' homes.

What is the leading cause of infant death in the United States?
a. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
b. accidents
c. child abuse
d. cancer

a. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Allen is 8 years old. Which of the following presents the greatest risk of death for Allen?
a. cancer
b. suicide
c. respiratory illness
d. accidents

d. accidents

Most deaths that occur during adolescence are caused by:
a. illnesses.
b. automobile accidents.
c. heart disease.
d. genetic disorders.

b. automobile accidents.

Older adults are more likely to die from:
a. autoimmune diseases.
b. genetic disorders.
c. accidents.
d. chronic diseases.

d. chronic diseases.

When explaining death to younger children (around preschool age), the most important point for parents to stress is that:
a. death is final and irreversible.
b. all things die.
c. death is a physical and biological process.
d. the child is loved and will not be abandoned.

d. the child is loved and will not be abandoned.

Compared to young children, which of the following is likely to be a differentiating aspect of
adolescents' view of death?
a. They tend to get angry at death.
b. They develop more abstract conceptions of death.
c. They need more reassurance that they will be loved even after a caregiver dies.
d. They generally do not get upset at the sight of death.

b. They develop more abstract conceptions of death.

What is the main difference between the feelings of terminally ill younger adults and those of terminally ill older adults?
a. Younger adults feel more anger.
b. Older adults feel more guilt.
c. Younger adults feel cheated.
d. Older adults feel more resigned.

c. Younger adults feel cheated.

Elisabeth Kübler‐Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?
a. denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
b. denial and isolation, bargaining, anger, depression, acceptance
c. denial and isolation, anger, grief, bargaining, acceptance
d. anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance, grief

a. denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kübler‐Ross' stages of dying?
a. denial
b. hope
c. bargaining
d. acceptance

c. bargaining

Which of the following observations is true regarding finding meaning and purpose in lives in the event of death?
a. Studies have found that educating dying people about Kübler‐Ross' stages help them overcome depression.
b. Only people with terminal illnesses are benefited by disconnecting the self from love objects.
c. Studies have found that spirituality helps to buffer dying individuals from severe depression.
d. Involvement of community organizations helps minimize the pain and depression faced by dying individuals.

c. Studies have found that spirituality helps to buffer dying individuals from severe depression.

Which of the following is an advantage of a dying individual knowing that he or she is dying?
a. The person can seek more aggressive medical interventions.
b. The person can move through the stages of dying more quickly.
c. The person can construct more effective means of denying death.
d. The person has time to reflect on his or her life and make decisions about dying.

d. The person has time to reflect on his or her life and make decisions about dying.

"I really have to go see Mr. Milhauser," Marla says, "but I have no idea what to say to someone who is dying." What should Marla do?
a. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about her own health problems.
b. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about the type of treatment he is receiving.
c. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and foster internal growth.
d. Send a message rather than going to see Mr. Milhauser so that she will not tire him.

c. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and foster internal growth.

Allison's grandmother is dying and she is very frail and weak. Which of the following would be good advice for Allison?
a. "Limit the length of your visit so that your grandmother does not get too tired."
b. "Don't touch your grandmother; dying people don't want to be touched."
c. "Change the subject if your grandmother talks about dying."
d. "Don't bring up your memories of growing up with your grandmother; she will get depressed."

d. "Don't bring up your memories of growing up with your grandmother; she will get depressed."

The type of grief which describes an individual's grief involving a deceased person whose loss cannot be openly mourned.

Disenfranchised Grief

In the Jewish community, the members of a grieving family all walk together for a short distance to symbolize their:
a. common loss.
b. unity in grief.
c. return to society.
d. community unity.

c. return to society.

Traditional Amish and Jewish cultures are similar in how they cope with death in that they both:
a. provide a lot of community support for the family over several months.
b. have elaborate funeral ceremonies in church to symbolize the last passage from Earth.
c. believe that grief is stronger for the whole community than for the individual family.
d. expect families to unite and cope together with only minimal support or interference from the rest of the community.

a. provide a lot of community support for the family over several months.

The Women's Health Initiative Study of Widowhood was a 3‐year longitudinal study designed to examine the all of the aspects of widows EXCEPT:
a. physical health.
b. mental health.
c. health outcomes.
d. community relations.

d. community relations.

Why do women have an easier time with the loss of their spouse than do men?
a. Women receive larger insurance payouts.
b. Women have better social networks.
c. Women experience less loneliness in general.
d. Women are more likely to remarry quickly.

b. Women have better social networks.

According to 2008 data, In the United States, _____ percent of men and _____ percent of
women 65 years of age and older were widowed.
a. 25; 66
b. 14; 42
c. 44; 32
d. 10; 23

b. 14; 42

Other than pining for the lost person, which of the following is another dimension of grief over death?
a. depression
b. insomnia
c. separation anxiety
d. death wish

c. separation anxiety

The view that grief proceeds in stages does NOT address:
a. the idea that grief is a unitary concept.
b. the invariant order in which grief proceeds.
c. the idea that grief gradually decreases across time.
d. the idea that some aspects of grief persist while others fade away.

...

Grief is most like:
a. an emotional volcano that erupts then slowly dies out.
b. a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.
c. a sequence of stages, each with a specific length of time.
d. a flood that gradually swells to an emotional pitch.

b. a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.

Approximately _____ of survivors experience complicated grief reactions.
a. 10 to 20%
b. 20 to 30%
c. 30 to 40%
d. 40 to 50%

a. 10 to 20%

Maciejewski & others advocate use of the term _____ to describe the type of grief that involves enduring despair and is still unresolved over an extended period of time.
a. depressive grief
c. extended grief
c. abnormal grief
d. prolonged grief

d. prolonged grief

Delilah lost her husband Hendricks to a bloody highway accident. Being just three years into marriage, she was devastated. Four months later, she was hassled by problems such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbance, problems in concentrating. Delilah is probably experiencing _____.
a. post‐traumatic stress disorder symptoms
b. restoration‐oriented stress
c. disenfranchised grief
d. separation anxiety

a. post‐traumatic stress disorder symptoms

Studies of the diversity of grieving patterns within and between cultures indicate that:
a. it is best to break bonds with the dead person.
b. prolonged contemplation of a close person's death leads to the best adjustment.
c. belief in an afterlife affords the most effective comfort in dealing with a loved person's death.
d. there is no one, best way to grieve another person's death.

d. there is no one, best way to grieve another person's death.

Approximately _____ of corpses are disposed of by cremation.
a. two‐thirds
b. one‐third
c. half
d. 90 percent

b. one-third

The crux of the recent controversy surrounding the funeral industry is whether:
a. cremation is prohibitively expensive.
b. closed caskets truly allow mourners to grieve in a healing way.
c. funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.
d. funeral arrangements can be made in advance of death.

c. funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?

integrity versus despair

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience _____ in later adulthood.

a. despair

Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by _____.

c. wisdom

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of _____.

c. integrity

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

a. life review.

Which of the following statements about life review is NOT true?

a. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?

socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?

socioemotional selectivity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotional and:

d. knowledge-related.

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:

activity theory.

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

c. selection, optimization, and compensation.

The late Arthur Rubinstein, during his old age, maintained his status as an admired pianist by few simple strategies. One of those was reducing the scope of his performances and playing fewer pieces. Which aspect of Baltes theory does this reflect?

a. selection

Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost effective are examples of:

b. ageism.

Don is 68 years old and would like to work part time during his retirement. All his applications have been turned down, however, even though Don has many years' experience, has an excellent work record, and is appropriate for the job. Don may be experiencing:

a. ageism.

Which of the following is the most common consequence of ageism?

c. disrespect for older adults

Considering the fact that many of the health problems of older adults are chronic rather than acute, which of the following is a concern regarding the medical system?

c. The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model.

Which of the following statements about the health care of older adults in the U.S. is NOT true?

a. Approximately one-half of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults > 65 years.

Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing _____ for her aunt.

c. eldercare

The _____ issue raises questions about whether the young should be required to pay for the old, and whether the population is using resources that should go to younger people.

b. generational inequity

According to 2006 data, the percentage of older people living in poverty is _____.

a. 9.6%

According to 2006 data, what percentage of elderly women live alone live in poverty?

a. 11.5%

What percentage of elderly African American women live alone live in poverty?

d. 60%

What percentage of elderly Latina American women live alone live in poverty?

c. 50%

_____ percent of women 75 years and older live alone.

a. Fifty

After losing her husband, Ebony does not want to move into her daughter's home. "I want to be like most other people my age," she said. "Put me in a nursing home or just let me live alone in my own home." Statistics show that Ebony is:

b. wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members.

Older adults use the Internet most often to:

b. communicate with relatives.

Sarah and Kent have always been a very traditional couple, in that he has worked outside the home, and she has been a homemaker. When Kent retires, which of the following situations is MOST likely to arise?

d. Sarah will become uneasy having Kent around the house all day.

Currently, approximately _____ of older American adults cohabit ("live together").

c. 3%

Who is the most likely caregiver for Mrs. Downes, an 84-year-old frail elder?

a. her daughter

In most cases, researchers have found that relationships between aging parents and their children are characterized by _____.

b. ambivalence

Social support is negatively correlated with:

d. disease.

Which of the following statements about social support for older adults is NOT true?

d. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults

Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults?

d. Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture?

d. whether older people have had a large number of children

It is observed that respect for older adults is greater in _____ cultures than in _____ cultures.

c. collectivistic; individualistic

Older adults characterized by _____ don't live as long as those who are _____.

c. pessimism; optimistic

What is brain death?

Neurological definition of death stating that a person is brain dead when all electrical activity of the brain has ceased for a specified period of time (recorded using EEG)

What is Euthanasia?

The act of painlessly ending the lives of individuals who are suffering from an incurable disease or severe disability. AKA mercy killing

What is passive Euthanasia?

Passive- person allowed to die by withholding available treatment (taking off life support).

What is Active Euthanasia?

Active- death is deliberately induced such as injected with lethal dose of a drug.

Hospice?

Program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety and depression as possible. Emphasis placed on palliative care

Define palliative care:

reducing pain and suffering and helping individuals die with dignity

What are the Kubler-Ross stages of dying?

Denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

What is grief?

The emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness and loneliness that accompany the loss of someone we love.

Define prolonged grief:

grief that involves enduring despair and is unresolved over an extended period of time, usually has negative consequences on physical and mental health.

Define disenfranchised grief:

an individual's grief over a deceased person that is a socially ambiguous loss that cant be openly mourned or supported. Grieg about something that can't be publicly acknowledged. Ex, an ex-spouse, abortion, HIV caused death.

What is the dual process model of coping with bereavement?

Made of loss oriented stressors and restoration- oriented stressors

What is Kastenbaum's view of culture and death?

Every culture has a death system which involves components including: People, places, time, objects and symbols. Most cultures belief spiritual life continues after death.

According to Kastenbaum the U.S. is a ......?

Death denying and death avoiding culture

How have our exposures to death been minimized?

> 80% of deaths occur in the hospital/ institution, usually older adults, exposure to death in the family minimized

Which age group is most likely to die due to accidents or illness? Which age group is more likely to die due to chronic disease?

1. Children and young adults, 2. Elderly

What is the best way to talk about death with children?

Honesty, and remember children tend to blame themselves when people die

True or false: Denial can be adaptive or maladaptive

True denial can be both depending on the circumstance

Would people rather die at home or in the hospital? What worries people about dying at home?

1. At home, 2. That they will be a burden on their family

Where should emphasis be placed when working with the dying?

Open communication that doesn't dwell on pathology but emphasizes the dying person's strengths

What does the death of an intimate partner lead to?

Profound grief & risk for health problems. Social support benefits widows & widowers

What fraction of corpses are buried vs. cremated?

2/3 buried, 1/3 cremated, many cultures the funeral or meal afterward are important aspects.

At what age do children begin to veiw death as universal and irreversible?

Age 9

What type of deaths are likely to have more intense and prolonged effects on surviving individuals?

Sudden deaths

Aging

BEINGS AT CONCEPTION

Cognitive neuroscience

discipline that studies links between the brain and cognitive functioning; Changes in the brain can influence cognitive functioning, and changes in cognitive functioning can influence the brain

Cognitive Mechanics

"Hardware" of the mind; reflects neuropsychological architecture of the brain. Involves speed and accuracy of processes involving sensory input, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization. Declines with age.

Cognitive Pragmatics

culture-based; "software". Includes: reading and writing skills, language comprehension, educational qualifications, professional skills, and knowledge of "self" and the life skills that help us to master or cope with life. Plateaus with age.

Which of the following statements about cognitive functioning is NOT true?

a. Cognitive interventions may increase these neural connections. b. Aging of the brain's prefrontal cortex does not affect working memory. c. Changes in cognitive functioning can influence the brain. d. Changes in the brain can influence cognitive functioning.

Selective Attention

focusing on a specific aspect of an experience that is relevant, while ignoring everything is is irrelevant. (ie only paying attention to what is necessary)

Divided Attention

concentrating on more than one activity at the same time. (ie multitasking)

Sustained Attention

Focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment. (think: the opposite of ADHD)

Memory

Memory changes during aging, but not all memory changes in the same way; affected by beliefs and expectancies; influenced by health, education, and SES

Working memory and perceptual speed

decline during the late adulthood years

Episodic Memory

retention of info about where and when things happened in life. "I remember my first beer" (older ppl have more difficulty recalling things like this, not because they were drunk (maybe) but because they are old!)

Semantic Memory

knowledge about the world - including person's field of expertise, general academic knowledge learned in school and "everyday knowledge". Older adults can typically recall this information, but it can take them a longer time to recall. Ability to recall specific info (ie names) declines with age

Explicit Memory

also called declarative memory; memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state. (ie remembering what is on your list for the grocery store)

Implicit Memory

Memory without conscious recollection; involves skills, routine procedures that are automatically performed; (ie driving, typing, brushing teeth)

Source Memory

the ability to remember where one learned something. declines with age. Example: forgetting who told you a joke, and telling the person who told it to you

Prospective Memory

Remembering to do something in the future (remembering to take medication); declines with age, but can be specific in regard to what the task is....it's complicated

Decision Making

preserved rather well in older adults

Wisdom

Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgement about important matters; acknowledging multiple perspectives, recognizing one's own limits, compromising....being a wizard.

Major Depression

mood disorder; individual is deeply unhappy, demoralized, self-derogatory, and bored. Tires easily, poor appetite, listless and unmotivated. SO common it is called the "common cold" of mental disorders....what does this say about society...hmmmmm

Processing Speed

Often due to a decline in brain and CNS functioning

Dementia

global term, any neurological disorder in which the primary symptoms involve a deterioration of mental functioning. 20% of individuals over the age of 80 have dementia

Alzheimer Disease

progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory (Acetylcholine), language, and eventually physical fxn; Physiologically --> amyloid plaques (proteins that build up in blood) and neurofibrillary tangles (twisted fibers that build up in neurons); link to gene "ApoE"; # of ppl w/ WD doubles every 5 yrs after age 65

Multi-infarct Dementia

sporadic and progressive loss of intellectual fxn caused by repeated temporary obstruction of blood flow in cerebral arteries; results from "mini strokes"; also called vascular dementia. Characterized by: numbness on side of face/arm/leg, confusion, slurring speech. It is reversible if you treat the underlying cause. In untreated, progressively get worse and will have a major stroke

Parkinson Disease

Chronic, progressive disease characterized by muscle tremors, slowing of movement and partial facial paralysis. (ppl w/ PD = Muhammad Ali, Michael J Fox). Caused by degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons. The actual cause of degeneration is not known. Treated by dopamine enhancing drugs, and later by drugs that are converted to dopamine; also treated with DBS (deep brain stimulation...involves electrodes)

Successful Aging

.......

Zack is in a crowded restaurant trying to pay attention to the waiter who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because _____ attention declines as one ages.

*A. selective b. divided c. focused d. sustained

Education, Work, and Health

Level of education, cognitive abilities associated with work, and overall health have increased in the 20th century and in successive generations

Use It or Lose It

Use your brain or it will turn into mush. Your brain needs to be trained and maintained just like a healthy, sexy bod.

Language and Aging

"Tip of the tongue" phenomenon, difficulty in understanding speech. Older adults often speak lower, slower, less precise, and less fluent

Cognitive Ability

best predictor of job performance in older adults

Retirement

On average, workers will spend 10%-15% of their lives in retirement (USA) 7 million retired Americans return to work after they retire An increasing number of adults are beginning to reject the early retirement option

Adjusting to Retirement

Best results when: Healthy; Active and have an adequate income; Are better educated; Have extended social networks and family; Were satisfied with their lives before retiring; Flexibility and planning are key factors in whether individuals adjust well to retirement

Which of the following statements about retirement is TRUE?

a. Men spend less time planning for retirement than women do. b. Older adults with a long work history adjust to retirement more easily than those who have been in the workforce for a shorter period of time. *C. Many workers count on benefits that will not be there for them when they retire. d. People who consider just the financial aspect of being retired do better than those who consider other areas of their lives as well.

Common Predictors of Depression

Earlier depressive symptoms Poor health or disability Loss events Low social support

Which of the following is TRUE concerning depression in older adults?

*A. It is often left untreated. b. It is a very common though temporary problem. c. It is a very rare problem. d. It is usually diagnosed and treated.

What percentage of suicides involves older adults 65 years of age or older?

a. less than 2 percent b. 10 percent *C. 25 percent d. 40 percent

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

a transitional state between the cognitive changes of normal aging and very early disease

In 2009, an estimated _____ adults in the United States had Alzheimer disease.

a. 1 million b. 2.6 million *C. 5.3 million d. 8.5 million

Martha cares for her elderly mother, Marjorie, who has Alzheimer disease. Although Marjorie goes to a program at the senior center a few hours each week, the majority of her care falls to Martha. According to research on family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer disease, Martha is at risk for developing:

a. an ulcer. b. migraine headaches. *C. depression. d. obsessions.

Victimization, Crime, and Elder Mistreatment

sense of fear and vulnerability in older adults because of their physical decline and limitations; Crimes against older adults are likely to be serious; Elder maltreatment is primarily committed by family members; can also be institutional abuse

Religion and Old Peeps

Older adults are spiritual leaders in many societies around the world; Many derive a sense of meaning in life from religion have higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism; can provide important psychological needs

Death system

According to Kastenbaum, people, places/contexts, times, objects, and symbols are all part of this

Brain death

A neurological definition of death. This is defined as when the brain activity has ceased for a specified period of time. A flat EEG recording is on criterion.

Euthanasia

The act of painlessly ending the lives of persons who are suffering from incurable diseases or severe disabilities; sometimes called "mercy killing"

Passive euthanasia

The withholding of available treatments, such as life-sustaining devices, allowing the person to die

Active euthanasia

Death induced deliberately, as by injecting a lethal dose of a drug

Hospice

A program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and depression as possible. The goals of this contrast with those of a hospital, which are to cure disease and prolong life

Palliative

This type of care is emphasized in hospice care. It involves reducing pain and suffering and helping individuals die with dignity.

Denial

Kubler-Ross' first stage of dying, in which the dying person denies that she or he is really going to die

Anger

Kubler-Ross' second stage of dying, in which the dying person's denial gives way to resentment, rage, and envy

Bargaining

Kubler-Ross' third stage of dying, in which the dying person develops the hope that death can somehow be postponed

Depression

Kubler-Ross' fourth stage of dying, in which the dying person comes to accept that certainty of his/her death and preparatory grief may appear

Acceptance

Kubler-Ross' fifth (and final) stage of dying, in which the dying person develops a sense of peace, and, in many cases, a desire to be left alone

Grief

The emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness, and loneliness that accompany the loss of someone we love

Prolonged grief

Grief that involves enduring despair and is still unresolved over an extended period of time

Dual-process model

A model of coping with bereavement that emphasizes oscillation between two dimensions: 1. loss-oriented stressors, and 2. restoration-oriented stressors

Living will

A document about heroic measures to sustain life

Durable power of attorney

This specifies a surrogate person as legally designated to make health decisions

80

____% of deaths occur in institutions

Separation anxiety

More than anything, infants and young children experience this when dealing with the death of someone close

9

Around the age of ____, children view death as more universal and irreversible as opposed to viewing it as unlikely and reversible

(John) Bowlby

This theorist created a model that included the following stages of death: Numbing, Yearning and Searching, Disorganizing and Depression, and Reorganizing

Parkes

This theorist's model of grief involves: shock/disbelief/numbness, painful longing (memories, sadness, yearning, depression), and acceptance

Lifespan Final (ch 18-21) - Subjecto.com

Lifespan Final (ch 18-21)

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Which of the following is NOT a type of attention?

focused

The term ________ refers to the ability to focus on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant to the task at hand while ignoring others that are irrelevant.

selective attention

Selective attention is _______, whereas divided attention is _______.

focusing on one thing; focusing on many things

Marsha, an adult in her 70s, can expect a decline in certain types of attention but not in:

sustained attention.

Zack is in a crowded restaurant, trying to pay attention to the waiter, who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because ________ attention declines as one ages.

selective

Competently driving a car demands _______.

divided attention

The retention of information about the when and where of life’s happenings is called ________ memory.

episodic

A person’s knowledge about the world is called ________ memory.

semantic

Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good ________ memory but poor ________ memory.

semantic; episodic

Working memory is also called ________ memory.

short-term

What is TRUE about the relationship between semantic memory and aging?

Older adults often take longer to retrieve semantic information, but they usually can retrieve it.

Shama, who is now 80 years old, will show a steady decline in:

working memory and perceptual speed.

Older adults have a harder time recognizing a street sign than younger adults, because they have:

slower perceptual speed.

________ memory refers to facts we consciously know, and ________ memory refers to memory without conscious recollection.

Explicit; implicit

Which type of memory is less likely to be adversely affected by aging?

implicit

________ is knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits practical judgment about important matters.

Wisdom

Which of the following persons is most likely to be "wise"?

Stanley, who is highly creative

In his studies on wisdom, Paul Baltes has found all of the following, EXCEPT:

wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence.

Jake is only 25 but wants to reduce his chance of cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?

do crossword puzzles

If cognitive training improves older adults’ memory, then older adults must:

have greater memory capacity than is typically used.

Eighty-seven-year-old Miriam Hansen has amazed her friends and relatives by taking college classes. Not only does she enjoy them, but she does well. In fact, she actually seems to have become brighter since she began studying. How can we account for this?

Miriam has probably learned how to improve her reasoning skills.

Which of the following is NOT one of the brain imaging techniques that is used in cognitive neuroscience to examine the activity of the brain during certain cognitive activities?

CT scans

Martin has recently had a brain imaging test done, and it has revealed atrophy in the prefrontal lobe of his cerebral cortex. Which of the following types of memory would be most likely to be deficient as a result of this physiological decline?

working memory

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Widaman-Gibbs’s sense of:

integrity.

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience ________ in later adulthood.

despair

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?

integrity versus despair

Erikson’s last stage of development is characterized by:

wisdom.

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

life review.

Which theory holds the most positive view of the abilities of elderly adults?

activity

Which of the following is NOT one of the regrets that low-income older adults reported more as a result of their life review?

religion

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, the Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:

activity theory.

Now that Nastasya is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she will:

spend most of her time with familiar friends.

Which two theories are most opposite?

activity theory and socioemotional selectivity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotion-related and _______ -related.

knowledge

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

selection, optimization, and compensation.

According to some research, older adults (35 to 84 years of age) focus on ________ whereas the oldest adults (85 to 105 years of age) tend to focus on _______.

family; health

One research study examined the changes in the personality factor called conscientiousness. It found that as we age several facets of this factor increase. Which of the following was NOT one of those facets?

hostility

Which of the personality traits in the Big Five factors of personality are associated with mortality (an earlier death)?

high conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion

Which of the following has been found to be the most frequent form of ageism?

acting disrespectfully toward older adults

Although older adults (over the age of 65) make up only ____% of the U.S. population, some estimates suggest that ______ of the total health bills for the United States go to care for that group of citizens.

12; one-third

Lizeanne is a 67-year-old retired teacher. Under the current governmental programs, her health care costs will be paid, at least in part, by:

Medicare.

What percentage of older people live in poverty since 2008?

9.7

What double jeopardy do elderly women face?

ageism and sexism

Which activity results in less frailty in order adults?

volunteering

Which of the following groups of individuals is most likely to be satisfied with their marriage?

older adults

These days, approximately ____% of older adults are living in cohabiting situations for a wide variety of reasons.

3

Adult daughters are three times more likely than adult sons to provide older adults with assistance with:

activities of daily living.

According to Antonucci, Lansford, and Akiyama (2001), friendships in late adulthood:

are associated with lower levels of depression for women.

Social support is negatively correlated with:

disease.

Which factor appears to be highly associated with greater poverty in old age?

ethnicity

How do many African Americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist and ageist society?

they rely on family networks and often the church

Evidence offered by Turner suggests that as men reach late adulthood, they become more:

feminine.

What is the "triple jeopardy" faced by African-American and Latino women when it comes to income and financial levels of support in the elder years?

ageism, sexism, and racism

Who of the following is most likely to live in poverty during later adulthood?

an African-American female

The more ________ a society is, the more respect is accorded to its elderly adults.

collectivistic

In general, successful aging requires:

a commitment to be active

Twenty-five years ago, definitions of death centered on:

Breathing, blood pressure, and rigor mortis

Death occurs neurologically when ________ for a specified period of time.

one’s brain shows no electrical activity

The ________ portions of the brain often die sooner than the ________ portions.

higher; lower

Defining death as nonfunction of the higher cortex implies that:

human life depends on characteristics such as intelligence and personality which are controlled in that brain area.

If the cortical death definition were adopted, then physicians could claim a person is dead when his or her ________ is no longer functioning.

higher brain

A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brain function. Her parents decide to take her off the life-support machines but are shocked when she continues to breathe on her own. Is the young woman dead?

It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

If legal definitions of death were modified to mean death of the higher brain but not necessarily the lower brain, which of the following could become a legal practice?

no life support to patients with no cortical function

Which of the following refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?

living will or advance directive

Germain has signed an advance directive. This means that:

his physician will not use means to prolong his life when death is imminent.

Which of the following statements about a living will is FALSE?

Only the terminally ill can write one.

An advance directive/living will must be signed when:

an individual is still able to think clearly.

Levi sustained severe and irreversible brain damage in an auto accident. His wife and his parents decided to remove the life-support system, and Levi subsequently died. This is an example of:

passive euthanasia.

Mieka was in a major car accident and, as a result, cannot live without being hooked up to a respirator. After several months of living in a coma attached to this machine, Mieka’s parents decided to have the respirator turned off and Mieka died two days later. This is an example of:

passive euthanasia.

Damon placed a pillow over his terminally ill wife and smothered her to end her suffering. This is an example of:

active euthanasia.

Which of the following is a main issue in the controversy over euthanasia?

quality of life

In the United States, ________ euthanasia is generally more accepted than ________ euthanasia.

passive; active

Jack Kevorkian, a Michigan physician, has assisted a number of terminally ill patients in ending their lives. After a series of legal trials, Dr. Kevorkian was:

convicted of second-degree murder and given a long prison sentence.

Active euthanasia is a crime in __________ states (in the United States).

49

Your text reported that active euthanasia is legal in:

the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Uruguay.

Recent scientific advances in the United States have led to more people:

suffering more and in pain longer before they die.

The hospice was developed with the goal of:

making the final stage of dying as pain free as possible.

Hospices are a relatively recent approach developed to:

make the end of life as free from pain and anxiety as possible.

The main purpose of a hospice is to:

make death more peaceful and less taxing on the dying individual and their family members.

Which of the following medical interventions would most likely be found in a hospice?

morphine

Two hundred years ago, what percentage of children died before their 10th birthday?

50

A person born in 1900 would most likely live until about age:

47.

A person born today will most likely live until about age:

78.

An individual is most likely to die:

in a hospital.

In contrast to those of many other cultures, people in the United States:

have less direct experience associated with death.

In the Gond culture of India, death is believed to be caused by:

magic and demons.

One way in which most societies are alike regarding death is that:

biological death is not equated with spiritual death.

An emphasis in our culture on using all life-prolonging methods possible, even in the face of certain death, is a sign of our culture’s:

denial of death.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?

denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the first stage of dying is:

denial and isolation.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the second stage of dying is:

anger.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the third stage of dying is:

bargaining.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that when a person is dying, depression is:

part of the normal process of disconnecting oneself from love objects.

Ada knows that she has liver cancer and will not live much longer. In her prayers, she asks God to let her live one more year, and she will promise to set everything right with her family and loved ones. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that this type of reaction to death tends to occur:

in the middle of the process of adjusting to death.

Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kübler-Ross’ stages of dying?

bargaining

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that, as one proceeds through the stages of death, the person tends to move from:

denial to acceptance.

All but one of the following statements reflect Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’ stages of dying. Which one is NOT true?

Family and friends should attempt to cheer up patients in the depression stage of dying.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, when a dying person finally accepts the fact of impending death and becomes depressed about it, which of the following would be most appropriate?

Allow the person to experience and work through the depression.

The stage of death during which a person may wish to be alone is:

acceptance.

Which of the following statements is an accurate criticism of Kübler-Ross’ theory of dying?

Neither she nor independent research have demonstrated that the five stages actually exist.

Which two factors may work together as an adaptive strategy for some older adults who face death?

denial and perceived control

For a terminally ill person, which of the following can be the most useful benefit of denying one’s imminent death?

Denial can lead the dying person to a perception of control over his or her circumstances.

Luka has just found out that she has cancer. She has told her daughter that she knows that she has the disease but is not really worried about dying from it, because she is convinced that her treatments will be completely effective. Luka may be engaging in:

denial.

In what ways can denial of death be a positive response?

Denial can soften the emotional impact of impending death.

Most psychologists believe that it is best for dying individuals to:

be aware that they are dying.

"I really have to go see Mr. Milhauser," Marla says, "but I have no idea what to say to someone who is dying." What should Marla do?

Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and about internal growth.

A view that grief proceeds in stages would not address:

the idea that some aspects of grief persist while others fade away.

Grief is most like:

a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.

Marie’s sister died 3 years ago. Marie is consistently bothered by sleeping problems, restlessness, and irritability. She often finds herself weeping uncontrollably because she misses her sister so much. Which of the following is probably TRUE of Marie?

She is experiencing an unusually long grief period and should seek help.

Approximately __________ of survivors experience normal or uncomplicated grief reactions.

80 to 90%

Approximately __________ of survivors experience complicated grief reactions.

10 to 20%

Which of the following deaths would probably be most difficult for the surviving family members to cope with?

Maurice, a 44-year-old father of two who was killed suddenly in a car accident.

Three family members are discussing their mother’s last days a few days after her funeral. They talk in detail about the symptoms the mother had and her day-to-day decline. Such conversation indicates:

an effort to use grief to understand the death better.

There are roughly ________ times more widows than widowers over the age of 85 years in the United States.

five

The key feature of a successful program that helps widows adjust to the deaths of their spouses is:

involvement of volunteer widows as counselors.

The crux of the recent controversy surrounding the funeral industry is whether:

funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.

1. One way in which most societies are alike regarding death is that:

biological death is not equated with spiritual death.

2. For women and men, the role of grandparent is seen differently. For women, grandparenting is ________, whereas for men, it is ________.

a responsibility; voluntary

3. Which of the following biological theories of aging states that people age because their cells’ normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules?

free-radical theory

4. A view that grief proceeds in stages would not address:

the invariant order in which grief proceeds.

5. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that, as one proceeds through the stages of death, the person tends to move from:

denial to shock

6. Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good ________ memory but poor ________ memory.

semantic; episodic

7. A major health concern for middle-aged adults is:

being overweight

8. The seventh stage of Erikson’s life-span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did Erikson give this stage?

generativity versus stagnation

9. In the social _______ model of social relations, individuals go through life embedded in a personal network of individuals to whom they give, and from whom they receive, social support.

convoy

10. Traditional Amish and Jewish cultures are similar in how they cope with death in that they both:

have important roles of the family during and after the loss.

11. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotion-related and ________-related.

knowledge

12. An advance directive/living will must be signed when:

an individual is still able to think clearly.

13. In middle adulthood, __________ intelligence continues to increase.

multiple

14. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross believed that when a person is dying, depression is:

part of the normal process of disconnecting oneself from love objects.

15. What do Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease have in common?

both are chronic and progressive

16. In general, the argument that middle adulthood has advantages for women in nonindustrialized cultures is based on the idea that women in these cultures typically:

gain respect in the community as they age

17. If the cortical death definition were adopted, then physicians could claim a person is dead when his or her ________ is no longer functioning.

higher brain

18. Which of the following is NOT one of the big five personality traits identified by Costa and McCrae?

adaptability

1. In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following characteristics generally changed across time for the adult?

nurturance or hostility

20. Which of the following strategies would be most helpful in improving memory in middle age?

Use organization and imagery to assist the remembering of specific information.

21. The stage of death during which a person may wish to be alone is:

acceptance.

22. According to Antonucci, Lansford, and Akiyama (2001), friendships in late adulthood:

are associated with lower levels of depression for women.

23. Jack Kevorkian, a Michigan physician, has assisted a number of terminally ill patients in ending their lives. After a series of legal trials, Dr. Kevorkian was:

convicted of second-degree murder and given a long prison sentence.

24. The more ________ a society is, the more respect is accorded to its elderly adults.

collectivistic

25. Germain has signed an advance directive. This means that:

his physician will not use means to prolong his life when death is imminent.

26. Older adults have a harder time recognizing a street sign than younger adults, because they have:

slower perceptual speed.

27. According to Levinson the transition from the teens to early adulthood was marked by two tasks. They are:

exploring possibilities of adult living and developing a stable life structure.

28. One research study examined the changes in the personality factor called conscientiousness. It found that as we age several facets of this factor increase. Which of the following was NOT one of those facets?

hostility

29. In what ways can denial of death be a positive response?

Denial can soften the emotional impact of impending death.

30. Stage theories of development emphasize ________, whereas the life-events approach focuses on ________.

similarities; differences

31. Evidence offered by Turner suggests that as men reach late adulthood, they become more:

feminine

32. Alzheimer disease involves a deficiency in the neurotransmitter:

acetylcholine.

33. An assumption that underlies the contemporary life-events approach to adult development is that adult development is:

c. development is a result of life events, our adaptation to those events, and the life-stage context that encapsulates those events.

34. The life-events approach to understanding adult development has been criticized because it:

focuses on major life events but not on daily experiences as stressors

35. Which of the following refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?

living will or advance directive

36. Research has attempted to identify physiological markers of Alzheimer disease. Which of the following is NOT one of the physical changes that has been identified in these patients?

degeneration of the superior tissue of the amygdala

37. Of Costa and McCrae’s Big Five personality traits, which one is most likely to increase in early and middle adulthood?

conscientiousness

38. According to Costa and McCrae’s study on adult personality development, the superfactor called extraversion was complex for older adults until it was divided into two sub-traits. They are:

social dominance and social vitality

39. Which of the following statements about a living will is FALSE?

Only the terminally ill can write one

40. According to the research of Vaillant, which of the following characteristics in middle age was the best predictor of having an enduring and happy marriage between the ages of 75 and 80?

generativity

41. Middle-aged Americans agree that a major component of their well-being involves:

positive relationships.

42. Which of the following describes a biological component to the difference in life expectancies between men and women?

existence versus absence of an X chromosome

43. Dr. LaRossa has spent her career studying the causes of aging. She hypothesizes that as we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing. Dr. LaRossa espouses the ________ theory of aging.

cellular clock

44. Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?

socioemotional selectivity theory

Deterioration of part of the retina is called:

macular degeneration.

46. Older women are more likely to have ________ but less likely to have ________ than are older men.

visual problems; hearing problems

47. In his studies on wisdom, Paul Baltes has found all of the following, EXCEPT:

wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence.

Loss of bone mass is associated with:

osteoporosis.

49. Since 2004, many women and their doctors are concerned that the hormonal treatments available for menopause may have the side effect of being associated with:

stroke and breast cancer

50. Although there are differences in the quality of care in nursing homes in the United States, about __________ are considered to be seriously deficient.

one-third

51. The term ________ refers to the ability to focus on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant to the task at hand while ignoring others that are irrelevant.

selective attention

52. Which "cohort" represents the largest single age group in the United States?

d. The "baby boomers."

53. Why is the social clock an important consideration when understanding development?

It may differ for different generations and indicate different age ranges for completing developmental tasks.

54. The retention of information about the when and where of life’s happenings is called ________ memory.

episodic

Fluid intelligence is the ability to:

reason abstractly.

56. Shama, who is now 80 years old, will show a steady decline in:

working memory and perceptual speed.

57. ________ is knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits practical judgment about important matters.

Wisdom

58. Uncle Harry has been "losing his memory" for over a year. He also has developed some fantastic ideas about aliens taking over the government, and on some occasions he requires visitors to "give the password" before letting them into his apartment. Uncle Harry appears to have:

dementia.

59. Greta is 55 years old. If she had been born a century earlier and destined to turn 55 in the year 1900, by that year she would probably have been:

deceased.

60. Rhonda and Lewis are taking care of their elderly mother while she lives in Rhonda’s home. Research on the care of the elderly shows that their mother will benefit the most if Rhonda and Lewis:

take care of her needs, but let her do what she can for herself.

61. Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

life review.

62. Which theory holds the most positive view of the abilities of elderly adults?

activity

63. Stages of adulthood in the Gusii culture of Kenya are defined by:

events in a person’s life.

64. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding middle-aged people’s appearances?

Middle-aged people focus less on facial attractiveness than do older or younger people.

65. In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following characteristics was generally stable across time for the adult?

nurturance or hostility

66. The crux of the recent controversy surrounding the funeral industry is whether:

funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.

67. ________ memory refers to facts we consciously know, and ________ memory refers to memory without conscious recollection.

Explicit; implicit

68. Three family members are discussing their mother’s last days a few days after her funeral. They talk in detail about the symptoms the mother had and her day-to-day decline. Such conversation indicates:

an effort to use grief to understand the death better.

69. Tran wants to live a long and healthy life. The most important thing he can do to improve longevity is:

quit smoking.

70. Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

selection, optimization, and compensation.

71. More than for previous generations, the baby boom generation in the United States places ___________ maintaining a youthful physical appearance.

great emphasis on

72. According to Baltes and his colleagues, successful aging is based on selection, optimization, and:

flexibility.

73. A reasonable explanation for why 40-year-olds and 60-year-olds show differences in intelligence test scores is:

cohort effects.

74. The model of selective optimization with compensation proposes that successful aging is related to three main factors. Which of these factors is based on the concept that, in old age, there are reduced capacity and loss of functioning which mandate a reduction of performance in most domains of life?

selection

75. Defining death as nonfunction of the higher cortex implies that:

human life depends on characteristics such as intelligence and personality which are controlled in that brain area.

76. Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing ________ for her aunt

eldercare

77. Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?

socioemotional selectivity theory

78. Which of the following individuals who live alone is most likely to live in poverty?

an African-American woman

79. Sandra’s mother is concerned about Sandra’s lack of interest in marrying and having children. She told Sandra, "When I was your age, I had already found a good husband and settled down." Sandra and her mother:

social clocks.

80. According to Levinson, the change to middle adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these conflicts?

being attractive versus being unattractive

81. According to Victor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and:

spirituality.

82. The Seattle Longitudinal Study concluded that middle age is a time of:

peak performance for verbal abilities and verbal memory.

83. The empty nest syndrome implies that parents:

have few interests and activities other than their children.

84. Mieka was in a major car accident and, as a result, cannot live without being hooked up to a respirator. After several months of living in a coma attached to this machine, Mieka’s parents decided to have the respirator turned off and Mieka died two days later. This is an example of:

passive euthanasia.

85. A person’s knowledge about the world is called ________ memory.

semantic

86. Mrs. Hernandez has considerable pain and stiffness in her wrists, fingers, and knees. It is becoming very difficult for her to maintain her usual routines as her stiffness increases. Mrs. Hernandez has:

arthritis.

87. The vision of older adults can be affected by age-related changes. One of these changes, which can make steps and curbs difficult to manage, is a decline in:

depth perception.

88. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the third stage of dying is:

bargaining.

89. Dr. Lone Dove has begun studying the effects of a newly discovered hormone on aging. He hypothesizes that the new hormone protects the body’s cells from deterioration by strengthening the cell wall against detrimental substances. Dr. Lone Dove is finding evidence for the ________ theory of aging.

hormonal stress

90. As he looks back over his life, Chris realizes that his work was not as important to him as he believed, and that he lost too much valuable time with his children. If he could do it over again, he would work less and spend more time with his children. According to Erik Erikson, Chris is experiencing some degree of:

stagnation

Manuel has just reached middle age as defined by the text. This means he is at least __________ years old.

40

92. Which of the following groups of individuals is most likely to be satisfied with their marriage?

older adults

93. Hospices are a relatively recent approach developed to:

make the end of life as free from pain and anxiety as possible.

94. Marsha, an adult in her 70s, can expect a decline in certain types of attention but not in:
a. selective attention.

sustained attention.

Competently driving a car demands ________.

divided attention

96. For a terminally ill person, which of the following can be the most useful benefit of denying one’s imminent death?

Denial can lead the dying person to a perception of control over his or her circumstances.

97. Which of the following factors combine to form the "double jeopardy" that is noted in this chapter?

ageism and racism

98. During middle age, the visual system begins to change. Which of the following is NOT one of those changes?

The size of the retinal blind spot diminishes.

99. Cohabitation is increasing among ________ and is expected to continue to increase. Cohabitation for this age group may be based on a need for companionship and a legal sharing of resources without finances being legally joined.

older adults

100. Evidence suggests that male menopause is:

psychological rather than physical

a. immortality

In Erik Erikson’s theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of _____. a. immortality b. recognition c. achievement d. omniscience

d. stagnation

As he looks back over his life, Chris realizes that his work was not as important to him as he believed, and that he lost too much valuable time with his children. If he could do it over again, he would work less and spend more time with his children. According to Erikson, Chris is experiencing some degree of _____. a. social rejection b. apathy c. generativity d. stagnation

b. being attractive versus being unattractive

According to Levinson, the changes to middle-adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these major conflicts? a. being young versus being old b. being attractive versus being unattractive c. being masculine versus being feminine d. being destructive versus being constructive

b. a daily hassle.

Mr. Chang gets very angry when he discovers his newspaper in the mud underneath the bushes once again. He begins throwing things and yelling loudly. Mr. Chang is experiencing the stress of: a. a major life event. b. a daily hassle. c. a middle-age development crisis. d. psychological generativity.

c. concerns about weight

Which of the following is a daily hassle for adults in middle age? a. concerns about being lonely b. concerns about meeting high standards c. concerns about weight d. wasting time

c. It varies more now.

What changes in the social clock has taken place in recent years? a. It is much more rigid now than in the past. b. Males are much more likely to follow it. c. It varies more now. d. It is much less important than cohorts’ effects in understanding behavior

a. have different social clocks.

Sandra’s mother is concerned about Sandra’s lack of interest in marrying and having children. She told Sandra, "When I was your age, I had already found a good husband and settled down." Sandra and her mother: a. have different social clocks. b. have different coping styles. c. have different burnout levels. d. are in different developmental stages.

c. engage in mutual activities.

Middle-age partners are more likely to view their marriage as positive if they: a. have a satisfying sexual relationship. b. have financial security. c. engage in mutual activities. d. are religious.

d. For most parents, marital satisfaction increases after the transition to an empty nest.

Which of the following is TRUE about the empty nest syndrome? a. Parents who live vicariously with their children do not experience it. b. It is more common for middle-aged men than for middle-aged women. c. It is a common, though minor, problem for most middle-aged adults. d. For most parents, marital satisfaction increases after the transition to an empty nest.

b. chronic

A disease that starts out slowly but lasts a long time is called _____. a. acute b. chronic c. terminal d. pervasive

a. an increase in illness and disease

Which of the following is usually considered the reason for the decline in alcohol intake of 65-year-olds? a. an increase in illness and disease b. expert elder care in nursing homes c. improved education about health and fitness d. alternate programs for de-addiction

b. health professionals expect their symptoms to be associated with age-related disease.

Substance abuse often goes undetected in older adults because: a. older adults know how to disguise it. b. health professionals expect their symptoms to be associated with age-related disease. c. caregivers do not report symptoms. d. their symptoms are different than for younger adults.

c. Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking.

Your 90-year-old uncle complains that he cannot get around the way he used to. He has trouble getting up out of chairs and difficulty walking across the room when he does get up. Can you help him? a. Yes, you could have him take estrogen to improve his bone structure. b. No, this sort of physical decline is irreversible. c. Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking. d. No, physical exercise only tends to make the physical declines of old age worse.

a. selective

Zack is in a crowded restaurant trying to pay attention to the waiter who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because _____ attention declines as one ages. a. selective b. divided c. focused d. sustained

b. Aging of the brain’s prefrontal cortex does not affect working memory.

Which of the following statements about cognitive functioning is NOT true? a. Cognitive interventions may increase these neural connections. b. Aging of the brain’s prefrontal cortex does not affect working memory. c. Changes in cognitive functioning can influence the brain. d. Changes in the brain can influence cognitive functioning.

c. Many workers count on benefits that will not be there for them when they retire.

Which of the following statements about retirement is TRUE? a. Men spend less time planning for retirement than women do. b. Older adults with a long work history adjust to retirement more easily than those who have been in the workforce for a shorter period of time. c. Many workers count on benefits that will not be there for them when they retire. d. People who consider just the financial aspect of being retired do better than those who consider other areas of their lives as well.

a. It is often left untreated.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning depression in older adults? a. It is often left untreated. b. It is a very common though temporary problem. c. It is a very rare problem. d. It is usually diagnosed and treated.

c. 25 percent

What percentage of suicides involves older adults 65 years of age or older? a. less than 2 percent b. 10 percent c. 25 percent d. 40 percent

c. 5.3 million

In 2009, an estimated _____ adults in the United States had Alzheimer disease. a. 1 million b. 2.6 million c. 5.3 million d. 8.5 million

c. depression.

Martha cares for her elderly mother, Marjorie, who has Alzheimer disease. Although Marjorie goes to a program at the senior center a few hours each week, the majority of her care falls to Martha. According to research on family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer disease, Martha is at risk for developing: a. an ulcer. b. migraine headaches. c. depression. d. obsessions.

b. integrity versus despair

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson? a. death versus dying b. integrity versus despair c. immortality versus death d. independence versus dependence

a. despair

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience _____ in later adulthood. a. despair b. inferiority c. shame and doubt d. identity diffusion

c. wisdom

Erikson’s last stage of development is characterized by _____. a. care b. fidelity c. wisdom d. hope

c. integrity

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson’s sense of _____. a. identity b. intimacy c. integrity d. autonomy

a. life review.

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call: a. life review. b. identity resolution. c. integrity formation. d. retrospective spirit.

a. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.

Which of the following statements about life review is NOT true? a. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets. b. Life reviews can include sociocultural dimensions. c. Life reviews lead to revision or expanded understanding of experiences. d. Life reviews include interpersonal, relationship dimensions.

b. socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family? a. activity theory b. socioemotional selectivity theory c. social discontinuity theory d. disengagement theory

a. socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation? a. socioemotional selectivity theory b. activity theory c. disengagement theory d. social breakdown theory

d. knowledge-related.

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotional and: a. spiritual. b. practical. c. relational. d. knowledge-related.

d. activity theory.

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying: a. disengagement theory. b. socioemotional selectivity theory. c. evangelical theory. d. activity theory.

c. selection, optimization, and compensation.

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors: a. assortment, enhancement, and remuneration. b. reorganization, compensation, and optimization. c. selection, optimization, and compensation. d. remuneration, selection, and enhancement.

a. selection

The late Arthur Rubinstein, during his old age, maintained his status as an admired pianist by few simple strategies. One of those was reducing the scope of his performances and playing fewer pieces. Which aspect of Baltes theory does this reflect? a. selection b. organization c. optimization d. compensation

b. ageism.

Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost effective are examples of: a. eldercare. b. ageism. c. generational inequity. d. age incongruity.

a. ageism.

Don is 68 years old and would like to work part time during his retirement. All his applications have been turned down, however, even though Don has many years’ experience, has an excellent work record, and is appropriate for the job. Don may be experiencing: a. ageism. b. disengagement. c. generational inequity. d. eldercare discrimination.

c. disrespect for older adults

Which of the following is the most common consequence of ageism? a. assumptions about frailty of older adults b. assumptions about ailments caused by age c. disrespect for older adults d. older adults being edged out of their family life

a. Approximately one-half of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults > 65 years.

Which of the following statements about the health care of older adults in the U.S. is NOT true? a. Approximately one-half of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults > 65 years. b. Medicare pays for some of the health care costs for people over age 65. c. Older adults themselves pay about one-third of their total health care costs. d. United States is the only industrialized nation that provides health insurance specifically for older adults.

c. The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model.

Considering the fact that many of the health problems of older adults are chronic rather than acute, which of the following is a concern regarding the medical system? a. Medicare does not have special provisions for chronic illnesses. b. Costs of prescription drugs are still not subsidized for the elderly. c. The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model. d. Home-visits are not emphasized over hospital stays.

c. eldercare

Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing _____ for her aunt. a. home care service b. emergency care c. eldercare d. hospice

b. generational inequity

The _____ issue raises questions about whether the young should be required to pay for the old, and whether the population is using resources that should go to younger people. a. eldercare b. generational inequity c. ageism d. age-incongruity

a. 9.6%

According to 2006 data, the percentage of older people living in poverty is _____. a. 9.6% b. 12.5% c. 23.3% d. 24.0%

a. 11.5%

According to 2006 data, what percentage of elderly women live alone live in poverty? a. 11.5% b. 18.4% c. 22.7% d. 44%

d. 60%

What percentage of elderly African American women live alone live in poverty? a. 30% b. 40% c. 50% d. 60%

c. 50%

What percentage of elderly Latina American women live alone live in poverty? a. 30% b. 40% c. 50% d. 60%

a. Fifty

_____ percent of women 75 years and older live alone. a. Fifty b. Fifty-five c. Seventy d. Seventy-five

b. wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members.

After losing her husband, Ebony does not want to move into her daughter’s home. "I want to be like most other people my age," she said. "Put me in a nursing home or just let me live alone in my own home." Statistics show that Ebony is: a. right; most elderly adults live in nursing homes or alone in their homes. b. wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members. c. partly wrong; most elderly adults continue to live in their own homes when they lose their spouses. d. wrong; most elderly adults live in a community group arrangement rather than with family or in a nursing home.

b. communicate with relatives.

Older adults use the Internet most often to: a. buy products online. b. communicate with relatives. c. meet a potential mate. d. take up further education.

d. Sarah will become uneasy having Kent around the house all day.

Sarah and Kent have always been a very traditional couple, in that he has worked outside the home, and she has been a homemaker. When Kent retires, which of the following situations is MOST likely to arise? a. Sarah will have difficulty keeping up with housework. b. Sarah will help more with yard work. c. Sarah will be delighted to have someone help her, so she can spend increasing amounts of time away from home. d. Sarah will become uneasy having Kent around the house all day.

c. 3%

Currently, approximately _____ of older American adults cohabit ("live together") (not married). a. 4% b. 1% c. 3% d. 10%

a. her daughter

Who is the most likely caregiver for Mrs. Downes, an 84-year-old frail elder? a. her daughter b. her sister c. her son d. her daughter-in-law

b. ambivalence

In most cases, researchers have found that relationships between aging parents and their children are characterized by _____. a. anger b. ambivalence c. apathy d. abuse

d. disease.

Social support is negatively correlated with: a. happiness. b. socioeconomic status. c. longevity. d. disease.

d. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults.

Which of the following statements about social support for older adults is NOT true? a. Social support for older adults may vary across cultures. b. Friends play a vital role in social support. c. Married people need less formal social support than single people. d. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults.

d. Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults? a. Younger adults tend to perceive time differently, influencing their definition of loneliness. b. Most of the older adults are in community homes; thus reducing loneliness. c. Most of the older adults tend to re-employ themselves thus reducing loneliness. d. Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

d. whether older people have had a large number of children

Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture? a. whether older people control key community resources b. whether the extended family is a common family arrangement c. whether older people are permitted to engage in useful functions d. whether older people have had a large number of children

c. collectivistic; individualistic

It is observed that respect for older adults is greater in _____ cultures than in _____ cultures. a. socialistic; capitalistic b. spiritualistic; competitive c. collectivistic; individualistic d. religious; materialistic

c. pessimism; optimistic

Older adults characterized by _____ don’t live as long as those who are _____. a. empathy; sympathetic b. materialism; spiritualist c. pessimism; optimistic d. generosity; frugal

This Austrian psychiatrist, a concentration camp survivor, wrote the book Man’s Search for
Meaning, where he proposed that the human qualities of spirituality, freedom, and responsibility were key in finding one’s true meaning in life (and death).

Viktor E. Frankl

Identify three of the physical changes that take place during middle adulthood.

Visible signs, Height and weight, Vision and hearing

Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs believe that a meaningful life can be understood in terms of four main needs. Which of the following is NOT one of those needs?
a. the need for financial security
b. the need for purpose
c. the need for values
d. the need for self-worth

a. the need for financial security

Today the average life expectancy in the United States is:
a. 72 years.
b. 74 years.
c. 78 years.
d. 80 years.

c. 78 years.

Which of the following is a sign of aging for the average adult in middle adulthood?
a. Increase in height
b. Decrease in weight
c. Fingernails become brittle
d. Loss of memory

c. Fingernails become brittle

The average adult in middle adulthood _____ height and _____ weight.
a. loses; loses
b. loses; gains
c. gains; gains
d. gains; loses

b. loses; gains

Which of the following statements about bone and joint functioning is TRUE?
a. Peak functioning of the body’s joints usually occurs in the thirties.
b. Women experience about twice the rate of bone loss as men.
c. Maximum bone density occurs by the mid‐ to late twenties.
d. The rate of bone loss decelerates in the fifties.

b. Women experience about twice the rate of bone loss as men.

Which of the following is an outcome of the reduced blood supply to the eye during late middleage?
a. decrease in the visual field’s size
b. decrease in the eye’s blind spot
c. formation of wrinkles and under the eyes
d. increase in the size of the pupil

a. decrease in the visual field’s size

Which of the following is MOST likely to cause difficulty for a middle aged adult without glasses?
a. reading a newspaper
b. watching TV
c. reading an eye chart 20 feet away
d. reading a road sign during the day

a. reading a newspaper

Which of the following are the MOST common chronic disorders for men during middle age?
a. cancer, heart disease, stroke
b. arthritis, bursitis, varicose veins
c. hearing impairments, vision impairments
d. sinus problems, respiratory problems

a. cancer, heart disease, stroke

What is the leading chronic disorder for women during middle age?
a. arthritis
b. hypertension
c. sinus problems
d. hearing impairment

a. arthritis

Which of the following statements regarding the immune system is TRUE?
a. Its machinery consists of billions of red blood cells.
b. When a person is under stress, the levels of bacteria and viruses drop dramatically.
c. Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of white blood cell.
d. Stress increases the number of natural killer (NK) cells in the body.

c. Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of white blood cell.

The main cause of death in middle adulthood in the United States is:
a. infectious diseases.
b. accidents.
c. chronic diseases.
d. homicide.

c. chronic diseases.

What is the notable finding of Schaie’s assessment of intellectual abilities of parents and their children?
a. The second generation scored higher on numerical abilities.
b. The second generation showed higher levels of cognitive functioning in inductive reasoning.
c. The offspring generation showed cognitive decline from 60 to 67 years of age.
d. The parent generation showed modest increase in cognitive functioning from 60 to 67 years of age.

b. The second generation showed higher levels of cognitive functioning in inductive reasoning.

Which of the following strategies would be MOST helpful in improving memory in middle age?
a. Avoid using vivid imagery to keep from becoming distracted.
b. Use a recall rather than recognition strategy whenever possible.
c. Use an organization strategy to categorize information to be remembered.
d. Avoid using the information to be remembered so that it does not become confused with other
information.

c. Use an organization strategy to categorize information to be remembered.

The seventh stage of Erikson’s life‐span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did
Erikson give this stage?
a. intimacy versus isolation
b. integrity versus despair
c. generativity versus stagnation
d. keeping the meaning versus rigidity

c. generativity versus stagnation

According to Levinson, the changes to middle‐adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these major conflicts?
a. being young versus being old
b. being attractive versus being unattractive
c. being masculine versus being feminine
d. being destructive versus being constructive

b. being attractive versus being unattractive

Daniel Levinson’s studies suggest that most adults feel that middle age is a time of:
a. crisis.
b. reconsolidation.
c. peace and tranquility.
d. intimacy and social closeness.

a. crisis.

What did Levinson’s research conclude about women in midlife transition?
a. Women have significantly less distress during this process.
b. Women face the midlife transition earlier and with greater difficulty than do men.
c. Women who have had children have an easier time than those who have not.
d. Levinson’s stages, transitions, and the crisis of middle age hold for females as well as males.

d. Levinson’s stages, transitions, and the crisis of middle age hold for females as well as males.

Referring to studies from Chapter 15, which of the following abilities does not peak in midlife?
a. vocabulary
b. verbal memory
c. inductive reasoning
d. visual acuity

d. visual acuity

What is the difference between life events and hassles?
a. life events are minor; hassles are major
b. life events are within one’s control; hassles are outside of one’s control
c. life events are temporary; hassles are long‐lasting
d. life events lead to stress; hassles lead to boredom

c. life events are temporary; hassles are long‐lasting

Which of the following is likely to be a daily uplift for a middle aged adult?
a. entertainment
b. games or other physical activities
c. completing a task
d. relating well with a friend

d. relating well with a friend

Which of the following is NOT one of the three aspects of the contexts of life that influence
development during middle adulthood?
a. historical
b. gender
c. genetic
d. culture

c. genetic

Which of the following is true of middle aged and older adults who had poor sibling relationships in childhood?
a. Men were more likely to develop depression by age 50.
b. Women were more likely to develop depression by 40.
c. Both men and women tended to re‐bond with their siblings during middle‐age.
d. Women tended to move away from sibling relationships.

a. Men were more likely to develop depression by age 50.

Ron and his sister, Sarah, are both in their mid‐50s and have a close personal relationship. Most research on sibling relationships suggests that:
a. you cannot predict later relationships by looking at relationships earlier in life.
b. they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood too.
c. they probably had a tumultuous relationship in childhood that turned close as both matured.
d. they probably had a good childhood relationship that turned neutral in early adulthood then
recently returned to closeness.

b. they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood too.

Ben’s parents have divorced and his mother has primary custody. If Ben’s relationship with his father deteriorates as a result of the divorce, research has shown that his relationship with his paternal grandparents will likely:
a. become distant or negative.
b. remain the same as it was before the divorce.
c. become closer.
d. show a decline initially but improves as he grows older.

a. become distant or negative.

If born today, in what country would a person have the highest life expectancy?
a. United States
b. Japan
c. Soviet Union
d. Sweden

b. Japan

Why is life expectancy for women longer than for men?
a. Women engage in fewer high risk behaviors.
b. Women experience less stress than men do.
c. Women work harder and for more years than men do.
d. Men generally suffer greater financial hardship than women do.

a. Women engage in fewer high risk behaviors.

If men and women engaged in exactly the same health‐related behaviors, experienced the same amounts of stress, reacted to stress in the same ways, and had the same work habits and attitudes, which of the following would be expected?
a. Men and women would have the same life expectancies.
b. Women would have longer life expectancies than would men.
c. Men would have longer life expectancies than would women.
d. Men and women would both have shorter life expectancies.

b. Women would have longer life expectancies than would men.

Which of the following biological reasons explains women’s increased resistance to infections and degenerative diseases?
a. estrogen production and the additional X chromosome
b. lower cholesterol levels and improved lung function
c. postmenopausal hormone levels and increased body water
d. better osmoregulation and lower trans fat

a. estrogen production and the additional X chromosome

***Longevity is positively correlated with:
a. ability to cope.
b. lack of stressful events.
c. years of marriage.
d. socioeconomic status

b. lack of stressful events.

Uncle Roger tells you that he is a "member of the oldest old" club, when asked his age. Even
without knowing his exact age, you know that Uncle Roger is at least _____ years old.
a. 70
b. 75
c. 80
d. 85

d. 85

After the age of 80, the majority of elderly adults are:
a. living in a nursing home.
b. living an independent life in the community.
c. under the full‐time care of family or friends.
d. spending more time in the hospital than at home.

b. living an independent life in the community.

Dr. LaRossa has spent her career studying the causes of aging. She hypothesizes that as we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing. Dr. LaRossa espouses the _____ theory of aging.
a. telomerase‐injection
b. cellular clock
c. free‐radical
d. hormonal stress

b. cellular clock

DNA sequences that cap chromosomes and that are implicated in why cells die are known as:
a. free radicals.
b. polymers.
c. telomeres.
d. mitochondria

c. telomeres.

As part of aging, after about 70 or 80 replications, the cell no longer can reproduce and the
_____ are dramatically reduced.
a. mitochondria
b. telomeres
c. chromosomes
d. sperm cells

b. telomeres

According to recent study, a higher intake of which of the following vitamins were related to
incidence of longer telomeres in women?
a. vitamin C and E
b. vitamin B12 and D
c. vitamin A and K
d. vitamin B2 and D

a. vitamin C and E

The tiny bodies within cells that supply essential energy for function, growth, and repair are
known as:
a. Lewy bodies.
b. ribosomes.
c. chromosomes.
d. mitochondria

d. mitochondria

Defects in mitochondria have been linked with all of the following conditions EXCEPT:
a. cardiovascular disease.
b. arthritis.
c. decline in liver function.
d. dementia.

b. arthritis.

The hormonal stress theory DIFFERS from the cellular clock and the free‐radical theories of aging in that it:
a. focuses only on the processes of aging in the oldest‐old.
b. ignores changes at the cellular level.
c. discounts the role of genetics in aging.
d. deemphasizes external stressors as the cause of aging.

b. ignores changes at the cellular level.

What is the main difference between the way younger people and older people respond to
stress?
a. Younger people have a slower restorative process after a stressful episode.
b. Younger people have better coping strategies for dealing with stress.
c. The process of aging increases the pituitary gland’s response to stress, making it work harder.
d. Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.

d. Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.

Prolonged, elevated levels of stress‐related hormones have been associated with all of the
following conditions EXCEPT _____.
a. hypertension
b. cancer
c. diabetes
d. arthritis

d. arthritis

With age:
a. brain weight decreases; brain volume does not decrease.
b. brain volume decreases; brain weight does not decrease.
c. both brain weight and brain volume decrease.
d. neither brain weight nor brain volume decrease.

c. both brain weight and brain volume decrease.

Which of the following areas of the brain shrinks more than the others?
a. prefrontal cortex
b. amygdala
c. hypothalamus
d. premotor cortex

a. prefrontal cortex

Paul, age 76, turns the television volume up so that it is at an uncomfortable level for the rest of the family. When his son suggests that he may have a hearing problem, Paul says that he does not and that the volume is "just right." Paul’s reaction to having a decline in his ability to hear it is:
a. fairly common in older adults.
b. out of the ordinary; most older adults clearly recognize that they don’t hear well.
c. a sign of depression.
d. a sign of hostility toward his family.

a. fairly common in older adults.

What percentage of 75‐ to 79‐year‐olds have hearing difficulties?
a. 15 percent
b. 25 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 75 percent

d. 75 percent

Speed and accuracy of the processes involved in sensory input, attention, visual and motor
memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization are components of:
a. cognitive perception.
b. cognitive pragmatics.
c. cognitive mechanics.
d. cognitive intelligence.

c. cognitive mechanics.

Cognitive pragmatics is defined as:
a. a component of mental processing.
b. abstract reasoning skills.
c. the nerve cells of the brain that are the basis of intelligence.
d. the mental skills and routines that one learns from one’s culture.

d. the mental skills and routines that one learns from one’s culture.

Whereas cognitive _____ appears to decline in old age, cognitive _____ appears to remain
constant or increase.
a. mechanics; pragmatics
b. pragmatics; mechanics
c. pragmatics; reasoning
d. learning; reasoning

a. mechanics; pragmatics

One study found that after 6 months of _____, older adults showed improvement on reaction
time tasks.
a. eating a macrobiotic diet
b. cognitive behavioral therapy
c. doing aerobic exercise
d. attending regular religious services

c. doing aerobic exercise

***Selective attention is _____, whereas divided attention is _____.
a. vigilance; focusing on a specific event
b. paying attention only occasionally; constantly paying attention
c. focusing on one thing; focusing on many things
d. paying attention to detail; paying attention to significant events

c. focusing on one thing; focusing on many things

***Competently driving a car demands _____; this includes search, selection, and switching.
a. divided attention
b. programmed attention
c. sequential attention
d. sustained attention

d. sustained attention

The most important factor in how well adults remember information from the past is:
a. how motivated they are to remember.
b. how long ago they learned the information.
c. how old they were when they learned the information.
d. how well they learned the information.

d. how well they learned the information.

Remembering where you went on vacation last summer is an example of _____ memory.
a. situational
b. semantic
c. procedural
d. episodic

d. episodic

Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good _____ memory but poor _____ memory.
a. episodic; procedural
b. procedural; semantic
c. semantic; episodic
d. explicit; implicit

c. semantic; episodic

Older adults have a harder time recognizing a street sign than younger adults, because they
have:
a. a decline in explicit memory.
b. slower perceptual speed.
c. inferior semantic memory.
d. lost the ability to use their working memory.

d. lost the ability to use their working memory.

Explicit memory is also called _____ memory.
a. collective
b. procedural
c. declarative
d. false

c. declarative

Eleanor, who is 75, believes that older people cannot remember new information very well.
Because of this, she has decided not to learn how to use a computer. In view of the research regarding memory and the elderly, what can you say to Eleanor?
a. It is probably best she does not learn to use a computer, as she would have a much more difficult time than a younger person.
b. Although she could learn to use a computer adequately, she will have a difficult time remembering what she learned days earlier.
c. She could learn computer skills, but her ability to type would be slightly impaired.
d. Her negative beliefs about her memory will have a negative influence on her ability to learn.

d. Her negative beliefs about her memory will have a negative influence on her ability to learn.

Which of the following persons is most likely to be "wise"?
a. Ida Mae, who is 72
b. Jerome, who is highly intelligent
c. Stanley, who is more concerned about the welfare of others than his own happiness
d. Kyoko, who is introverted

c. Stanley, who is more concerned about the welfare of others than his own happiness

Which of the following has been linked to lower cognitive performance, not only in older adults but also in young and middle‐aged adults?
a. hypertension
b. Alzheimer’s disease
c. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
d. decreased inhibition

a. hypertension

***Which of the following has been associated with cognitive decline?
a. schizophrenia
b. depression
c. bipolar illness
d. obsessive‐compulsive disorder

b. depression

Jake is only 25 but wants to reduce his chance of losing cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?
a. eat foods low in fat
b. do crossword puzzles
c. take up a challenging job
d. quit smoking

b. do crossword puzzles

Senior Odyssey is a 20‐week program designed to:
a. improve problem‐solving skills in older adults.
b. improve motor‐skills and general physical health in older adults.
c. teach adults to multitask.
d. expose older adults to younger people through shared social activities.

a. improve problem‐solving skills in older adults.

According to Denise Park and Patricia Reuter‐Lorenz, neurocognitive _____ involves the use of complementary, neural circuits to protect cognitive functioning in an aging brain.
a. scaffolding
b. bypassing
c. extension
d. regeneration

a. scaffolding

A common memory problem for older adults is the _____ which individuals can’t quite retrieve familiar information but have the feeling that they should be able to retrieve it.
a. dementia
b. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
c. temporary memory loss
d. mental block

b. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon

Which of the following is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease?
a. increased irritability and aggressiveness
b. word‐finding/generating difficulties
c. decrease in ability to produce well‐formed sentences
d. decreased eye‐hand coordination

b. word‐finding/generating difficulties

Which of the following statements about older workers is TRUE?
a. Older workers have more accidents than younger workers.
b. Older workers have higher rates of absenteeism than younger workers.
c. Older workers are of considerably less value to a company than younger workers.
d. Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.

d. Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.

Which of the following is likely the MOST probable reason for not hiring older adults?
a. rapid pace of technological advancement
b. negative ageist stereotyping
c. availability of vast young talent pool
d. lack of job‐types fitting older adult workers

b. negative ageist stereotyping

Which of the following is called the "common cold" of mental disorders?
a. schizophrenia
b. Alzheimer’s disease
c. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
d. major depression

d. major depression

Common predictors of depression in older adults include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. poor health.
b. a history of depression in earlier years.
c. a history of obsessive compulsive disorder.
d. death of a spouse or other loss events.

c. a history of obsessive compulsive disorder.

What percentage of suicides involves older adults 65 years of age or older?
a. less than 2 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 25 percent
d. 40 percent

c. 25 percent

What do Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease have in common?
a. Both affect men at much higher rates than women.
b. Both are chronic and progressive.
c. Both affect only the elderly.
d. Both are easily managed with medication.

b. Both are chronic and progressive.

Martha cares for her elderly mother, Marjorie, who has Alzheimer disease. Although Marjorie
goes to a program at the senior center a few hours each week, the majority of her care falls to Martha.According to research on family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer disease, Martha is at risk for developing:
a. an ulcer.
b. migraine headaches.
c. depression.
d. obsessions.

c. depression.

Marcus is showing some signs of cognitive impairment. He has slurred speech and difficulty
writing. He most likely has:
a. dementia.
b. Alzheimer disease.
c. Parkinson disease.
d. multi‐infarct dementia.

d. multi‐infarct dementia.

Mr. Dalton has a disease that is characterized by muscle tremors, slow movement, and partial facial paralysis. The doctors have told his family that the disease is chronic and progressive in nature. Which of the following conditions does Mr. Martin most likely have?
a. Alzheimer disease
b. multi‐infarct syndrome
c. Lewey body dementia
d. Parkinson disease

d. Parkinson disease

Erikson’s last stage of development is characterized by _____.
a. care
b. fidelity
c. wisdom
d. hope

c. wisdom

Mr. Widaman‐Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman‐Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but insteadwho my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson’s sense of _____. ??? p. 594-595????
a. identity
b. intimacy
c. integrity
d. autonomy

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?
a. death versus dying
b. integrity versus despair
c. immortality versus death
d. independence versus dependence

b. integrity versus despair

Which of the following is a therapy clinicians use to resolve the regrets and lower the depression older adults face?
a. gestalt therapy
b. reminiscence therapy
c. schema therapy
d. drama therapy

b. reminiscence therapy

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and
family?
a. activity theory
b. socioemotional selectivity theory
c. social discontinuity theory
d. disengagement theory

b. socioemotional selectivity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of
goals—emotional and:
a. spiritual.
b. practical.
c. relational.
d. knowledge‐related.

d. knowledge-related.

The model of selective optimization with compensation is based on the idea that older adults
fare better when they:
a. ignore their increasing limitations as much as possible.
b. use technology to broaden and increase their daily activities and efforts.
c. develop positive and creative coping strategies to deal with their limitations.
d. limit the scope of their social networks and concentrate on only a few friendships.

a. ignore their increasing limitations as much as possible.

Which of the following, suggested by Baltes and colleagues, is a selection strategy for older
adults?
a. To achieve something, you may need to be patient until the right moment arrives.
b. Think about what you want in life and commit yourself to one or two major goals.
c. When things don’t go the way they used to, search for other ways to achieve what you want.
d. Keep working on what you have planned until you are successful.

c. When things don’t go the way they used to, search for other ways to achieve what you want.

According to the cross‐sectional study by Ursula Staudinger, which of the following is the MOST important investment for adults between 25 to 34 years of age?
a. work
b. family
c. friends
d. independence

a. work

Older adults focus on _____; the oldest‐old focus on _____.
a. family; thinking about life
b. friends; family
c. cognitive fitness; physical fitness
d. family; health

d. family; health

Older adults characterized by _____ don’t live as long as those who are _____.
a. empathy; sympathetic
b. materialism; spiritualist
c. pessimism; optimistic
d. generosity; frugal

c. pessimism; optimistic

The status an elderly person is accorded in a culture depends on the degree to which he or she:
a. has power and autonomy.
b. has control over family resources, has valued knowledge, and is integrated into the family.
c. has autonomy, has useful skills, and contributes to family harmony.
d. has useful skills and does not interfere with family functioning.

b. has control over family resources, has valued knowledge, and is integrated into the family.

According to the text, which of the following could be the reason why many ethnic minority
workers never enjoy the Social Security and Medicare benefits to which their earnings contribute?
a. because most of them do not qualify for these benefits
b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits
c. because their contributions to the benefits are negligible and thus they might not get sufficient
benefits.
d. because most of the ethnic minority workers are illegal immigrants

b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits

According to the text, which of the following could be the reason why many ethnic minority
workers never enjoy the Social Security and Medicare benefits to which their earnings contribute?
a. because most of them do not qualify for these benefits
b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits
c. because their contributions to the benefits are negligible and thus they might not get sufficient
benefits.
d. because most of the ethnic minority workers are illegal immigrants

b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits

Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture?
a. whether older people control key community resources
b. whether the extended family is a common family arrangement
c. whether older people are permitted to engage in useful functions
d. whether older people have had a large number of children

d. whether older people have had a large number of children

A theory of aging suggests that older adults become more selective about their social networks, because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction in their relationships.

Socioemotional selectivity theory

The view that our aging society is being unfair to its younger members, because older adults receive inequitably large allocations of resources.

Generational inequity

What is the role of gender in relationships involving older adult parents and their children?

Adult daughters rather than sons are more likely to be involved in the lives of their aging parents.

Rory works in a laboratory analyzing the results of biopsies and other tests. Kastenbaum would say that Rory’s function in the death system is that of:
a. preventing death.
b. warning and prediction.
c. making sense of death.
d. undertaking death ceremonies.

d. undertaking death ceremonies.

Which of the following is true of the American attitude toward death?
a. Americans are conditioned from early in life to live as mere mortals.
b. It is not uncommon for Americans to reach adulthood without having seen someone die.
c. To live a full life and die with glory is the prevailing goal of the Americans.
d. Americans do not use any symbols associated with death.

Why is it more difficult to determine whether someone is dead now than it was 100 years ago?
a. because fewer people die at home today
b. because medical technology has made it possible to live much longer today
c. because medical technology has made it possible to create differing definitions of death
d. because the development of different religions has given rise to different philosophies of the
meanings of life and death

c. because medical technology has made it possible to create differing definitions of death

A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brainfunction. Her parents decide to take her off the life‐support machines but are shocked when she continues to breathe on her own. Is the young woman dead?
a. No, because she continues to breathe on her own.
b. It is unclear, because we do not know how long she will breathe on her own.
c. Yes, because she is no longer capable of thinking or showing personality characteristics.
d. It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

d. It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

Germaine has signed an advance directive. This means that:
a. his physician can disconnect him from life‐sustaining equipment.
b. he has given his immediate family legal control over his care.
c. he has authorized his family to engage in active euthanasia.
d. he has ordered his physician to do everything possible to keep him alive.

a. his physician can disconnect him from life‐sustaining equipment.

Recent scientific advances in the United States have led to more people:
a. dying a painless and easy death in their own home.
b. living a better‐quality life in their final stages of dying.
c. dying a painless and easy death in the hospital.
d. suffering more and in pain longer before they die.

An advanced directive/living will must be signed when:
a. at least two medical professionals are present.
b. a doctor and a lawyer are present.
c. when an individual is told he or she has a life‐threatening condition.
d. when an individual is able to think clearly.

d. when an individual is able to think clearly.

_____ is a program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and
depression as possible.
a. Terminal care
b. End‐of‐life care
c. Hospice
d. Palliative care

c. Hospice

Currently in the United States, 90% of hospice care is provided:
a. in special units in hospitals.
b. in nursing homes.
c. in the patients’ homes.
d. in free‐standing hospice facilities in the community.

c. in the patients’ homes.

What is the leading cause of infant death in the United States?
a. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
b. accidents
c. child abuse
d. cancer

a. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Allen is 8 years old. Which of the following presents the greatest risk of death for Allen?
a. cancer
b. suicide
c. respiratory illness
d. accidents

d. accidents

Most deaths that occur during adolescence are caused by:
a. illnesses.
b. automobile accidents.
c. heart disease.
d. genetic disorders.

b. automobile accidents.

Older adults are more likely to die from:
a. autoimmune diseases.
b. genetic disorders.
c. accidents.
d. chronic diseases.

d. chronic diseases.

When explaining death to younger children (around preschool age), the most important point for parents to stress is that:
a. death is final and irreversible.
b. all things die.
c. death is a physical and biological process.
d. the child is loved and will not be abandoned.

d. the child is loved and will not be abandoned.

Compared to young children, which of the following is likely to be a differentiating aspect of
adolescents’ view of death?
a. They tend to get angry at death.
b. They develop more abstract conceptions of death.
c. They need more reassurance that they will be loved even after a caregiver dies.
d. They generally do not get upset at the sight of death.

b. They develop more abstract conceptions of death.

What is the main difference between the feelings of terminally ill younger adults and those of terminally ill older adults?
a. Younger adults feel more anger.
b. Older adults feel more guilt.
c. Younger adults feel cheated.
d. Older adults feel more resigned.

c. Younger adults feel cheated.

Elisabeth Kübler‐Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?
a. denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
b. denial and isolation, bargaining, anger, depression, acceptance
c. denial and isolation, anger, grief, bargaining, acceptance
d. anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance, grief

a. denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kübler‐Ross’ stages of dying?
a. denial
b. hope
c. bargaining
d. acceptance

c. bargaining

Which of the following observations is true regarding finding meaning and purpose in lives in the event of death?
a. Studies have found that educating dying people about Kübler‐Ross’ stages help them overcome depression.
b. Only people with terminal illnesses are benefited by disconnecting the self from love objects.
c. Studies have found that spirituality helps to buffer dying individuals from severe depression.
d. Involvement of community organizations helps minimize the pain and depression faced by dying individuals.

c. Studies have found that spirituality helps to buffer dying individuals from severe depression.

Which of the following is an advantage of a dying individual knowing that he or she is dying?
a. The person can seek more aggressive medical interventions.
b. The person can move through the stages of dying more quickly.
c. The person can construct more effective means of denying death.
d. The person has time to reflect on his or her life and make decisions about dying.

d. The person has time to reflect on his or her life and make decisions about dying.

"I really have to go see Mr. Milhauser," Marla says, "but I have no idea what to say to someone who is dying." What should Marla do?
a. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about her own health problems.
b. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about the type of treatment he is receiving.
c. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and foster internal growth.
d. Send a message rather than going to see Mr. Milhauser so that she will not tire him.

c. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and foster internal growth.

Allison’s grandmother is dying and she is very frail and weak. Which of the following would be good advice for Allison?
a. "Limit the length of your visit so that your grandmother does not get too tired."
b. "Don’t touch your grandmother; dying people don’t want to be touched."
c. "Change the subject if your grandmother talks about dying."
d. "Don’t bring up your memories of growing up with your grandmother; she will get depressed."

d. "Don’t bring up your memories of growing up with your grandmother; she will get depressed."

The type of grief which describes an individual’s grief involving a deceased person whose loss cannot be openly mourned.

Disenfranchised Grief

In the Jewish community, the members of a grieving family all walk together for a short distance to symbolize their:
a. common loss.
b. unity in grief.
c. return to society.
d. community unity.

c. return to society.

Traditional Amish and Jewish cultures are similar in how they cope with death in that they both:
a. provide a lot of community support for the family over several months.
b. have elaborate funeral ceremonies in church to symbolize the last passage from Earth.
c. believe that grief is stronger for the whole community than for the individual family.
d. expect families to unite and cope together with only minimal support or interference from the rest of the community.

a. provide a lot of community support for the family over several months.

The Women’s Health Initiative Study of Widowhood was a 3‐year longitudinal study designed to examine the all of the aspects of widows EXCEPT:
a. physical health.
b. mental health.
c. health outcomes.
d. community relations.

d. community relations.

Why do women have an easier time with the loss of their spouse than do men?
a. Women receive larger insurance payouts.
b. Women have better social networks.
c. Women experience less loneliness in general.
d. Women are more likely to remarry quickly.

b. Women have better social networks.

According to 2008 data, In the United States, _____ percent of men and _____ percent of
women 65 years of age and older were widowed.
a. 25; 66
b. 14; 42
c. 44; 32
d. 10; 23

b. 14; 42

Other than pining for the lost person, which of the following is another dimension of grief over death?
a. depression
b. insomnia
c. separation anxiety
d. death wish

c. separation anxiety

The view that grief proceeds in stages does NOT address:
a. the idea that grief is a unitary concept.
b. the invariant order in which grief proceeds.
c. the idea that grief gradually decreases across time.
d. the idea that some aspects of grief persist while others fade away.

Grief is most like:
a. an emotional volcano that erupts then slowly dies out.
b. a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.
c. a sequence of stages, each with a specific length of time.
d. a flood that gradually swells to an emotional pitch.

b. a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.

Approximately _____ of survivors experience complicated grief reactions.
a. 10 to 20%
b. 20 to 30%
c. 30 to 40%
d. 40 to 50%

a. 10 to 20%

Maciejewski & others advocate use of the term _____ to describe the type of grief that involves enduring despair and is still unresolved over an extended period of time.
a. depressive grief
c. extended grief
c. abnormal grief
d. prolonged grief

d. prolonged grief

Delilah lost her husband Hendricks to a bloody highway accident. Being just three years into marriage, she was devastated. Four months later, she was hassled by problems such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbance, problems in concentrating. Delilah is probably experiencing _____.
a. post‐traumatic stress disorder symptoms
b. restoration‐oriented stress
c. disenfranchised grief
d. separation anxiety

a. post‐traumatic stress disorder symptoms

Studies of the diversity of grieving patterns within and between cultures indicate that:
a. it is best to break bonds with the dead person.
b. prolonged contemplation of a close person’s death leads to the best adjustment.
c. belief in an afterlife affords the most effective comfort in dealing with a loved person’s death.
d. there is no one, best way to grieve another person’s death.

d. there is no one, best way to grieve another person’s death.

Approximately _____ of corpses are disposed of by cremation.
a. two‐thirds
b. one‐third
c. half
d. 90 percent

b. one-third

The crux of the recent controversy surrounding the funeral industry is whether:
a. cremation is prohibitively expensive.
b. closed caskets truly allow mourners to grieve in a healing way.
c. funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.
d. funeral arrangements can be made in advance of death.

c. funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?

integrity versus despair

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience _____ in later adulthood.

a. despair

Erikson’s last stage of development is characterized by _____.

c. wisdom

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson’s sense of _____.

c. integrity

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

a. life review.

Which of the following statements about life review is NOT true?

a. Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?

socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?

socioemotional selectivity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotional and:

d. knowledge-related.

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:

activity theory.

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

c. selection, optimization, and compensation.

The late Arthur Rubinstein, during his old age, maintained his status as an admired pianist by few simple strategies. One of those was reducing the scope of his performances and playing fewer pieces. Which aspect of Baltes theory does this reflect?

a. selection

Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost effective are examples of:

b. ageism.

Don is 68 years old and would like to work part time during his retirement. All his applications have been turned down, however, even though Don has many years’ experience, has an excellent work record, and is appropriate for the job. Don may be experiencing:

a. ageism.

Which of the following is the most common consequence of ageism?

c. disrespect for older adults

Considering the fact that many of the health problems of older adults are chronic rather than acute, which of the following is a concern regarding the medical system?

c. The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model.

Which of the following statements about the health care of older adults in the U.S. is NOT true?

a. Approximately one-half of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults > 65 years.

Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing _____ for her aunt.

c. eldercare

The _____ issue raises questions about whether the young should be required to pay for the old, and whether the population is using resources that should go to younger people.

b. generational inequity

According to 2006 data, the percentage of older people living in poverty is _____.

a. 9.6%

According to 2006 data, what percentage of elderly women live alone live in poverty?

a. 11.5%

What percentage of elderly African American women live alone live in poverty?

d. 60%

What percentage of elderly Latina American women live alone live in poverty?

c. 50%

_____ percent of women 75 years and older live alone.

a. Fifty

After losing her husband, Ebony does not want to move into her daughter’s home. "I want to be like most other people my age," she said. "Put me in a nursing home or just let me live alone in my own home." Statistics show that Ebony is:

b. wrong; most elderly adults live with other family members.

Older adults use the Internet most often to:

b. communicate with relatives.

Sarah and Kent have always been a very traditional couple, in that he has worked outside the home, and she has been a homemaker. When Kent retires, which of the following situations is MOST likely to arise?

d. Sarah will become uneasy having Kent around the house all day.

Currently, approximately _____ of older American adults cohabit ("live together").

c. 3%

Who is the most likely caregiver for Mrs. Downes, an 84-year-old frail elder?

a. her daughter

In most cases, researchers have found that relationships between aging parents and their children are characterized by _____.

b. ambivalence

Social support is negatively correlated with:

d. disease.

Which of the following statements about social support for older adults is NOT true?

d. Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults

Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults?

d. Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture?

d. whether older people have had a large number of children

It is observed that respect for older adults is greater in _____ cultures than in _____ cultures.

c. collectivistic; individualistic

Older adults characterized by _____ don’t live as long as those who are _____.

c. pessimism; optimistic

What is brain death?

Neurological definition of death stating that a person is brain dead when all electrical activity of the brain has ceased for a specified period of time (recorded using EEG)

What is Euthanasia?

The act of painlessly ending the lives of individuals who are suffering from an incurable disease or severe disability. AKA mercy killing

What is passive Euthanasia?

Passive- person allowed to die by withholding available treatment (taking off life support).

What is Active Euthanasia?

Active- death is deliberately induced such as injected with lethal dose of a drug.

Hospice?

Program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety and depression as possible. Emphasis placed on palliative care

Define palliative care:

reducing pain and suffering and helping individuals die with dignity

What are the Kubler-Ross stages of dying?

Denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

What is grief?

The emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness and loneliness that accompany the loss of someone we love.

Define prolonged grief:

grief that involves enduring despair and is unresolved over an extended period of time, usually has negative consequences on physical and mental health.

Define disenfranchised grief:

an individual’s grief over a deceased person that is a socially ambiguous loss that cant be openly mourned or supported. Grieg about something that can’t be publicly acknowledged. Ex, an ex-spouse, abortion, HIV caused death.

What is the dual process model of coping with bereavement?

Made of loss oriented stressors and restoration- oriented stressors

What is Kastenbaum’s view of culture and death?

Every culture has a death system which involves components including: People, places, time, objects and symbols. Most cultures belief spiritual life continues after death.

According to Kastenbaum the U.S. is a ……?

Death denying and death avoiding culture

How have our exposures to death been minimized?

> 80% of deaths occur in the hospital/ institution, usually older adults, exposure to death in the family minimized

Which age group is most likely to die due to accidents or illness? Which age group is more likely to die due to chronic disease?

1. Children and young adults, 2. Elderly

What is the best way to talk about death with children?

Honesty, and remember children tend to blame themselves when people die

True or false: Denial can be adaptive or maladaptive

True denial can be both depending on the circumstance

Would people rather die at home or in the hospital? What worries people about dying at home?

1. At home, 2. That they will be a burden on their family

Where should emphasis be placed when working with the dying?

Open communication that doesn’t dwell on pathology but emphasizes the dying person’s strengths

What does the death of an intimate partner lead to?

Profound grief & risk for health problems. Social support benefits widows & widowers

What fraction of corpses are buried vs. cremated?

2/3 buried, 1/3 cremated, many cultures the funeral or meal afterward are important aspects.

At what age do children begin to veiw death as universal and irreversible?

Age 9

What type of deaths are likely to have more intense and prolonged effects on surviving individuals?

Sudden deaths

Aging

BEINGS AT CONCEPTION

Cognitive neuroscience

discipline that studies links between the brain and cognitive functioning; Changes in the brain can influence cognitive functioning, and changes in cognitive functioning can influence the brain

Cognitive Mechanics

"Hardware" of the mind; reflects neuropsychological architecture of the brain. Involves speed and accuracy of processes involving sensory input, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization. Declines with age.

Cognitive Pragmatics

culture-based; "software". Includes: reading and writing skills, language comprehension, educational qualifications, professional skills, and knowledge of "self" and the life skills that help us to master or cope with life. Plateaus with age.

Which of the following statements about cognitive functioning is NOT true?

a. Cognitive interventions may increase these neural connections. b. Aging of the brain’s prefrontal cortex does not affect working memory. c. Changes in cognitive functioning can influence the brain. d. Changes in the brain can influence cognitive functioning.

Selective Attention

focusing on a specific aspect of an experience that is relevant, while ignoring everything is is irrelevant. (ie only paying attention to what is necessary)

Divided Attention

concentrating on more than one activity at the same time. (ie multitasking)

Sustained Attention

Focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment. (think: the opposite of ADHD)

Memory

Memory changes during aging, but not all memory changes in the same way; affected by beliefs and expectancies; influenced by health, education, and SES

Working memory and perceptual speed

decline during the late adulthood years

Episodic Memory

retention of info about where and when things happened in life. "I remember my first beer" (older ppl have more difficulty recalling things like this, not because they were drunk (maybe) but because they are old!)

Semantic Memory

knowledge about the world – including person’s field of expertise, general academic knowledge learned in school and "everyday knowledge". Older adults can typically recall this information, but it can take them a longer time to recall. Ability to recall specific info (ie names) declines with age

Explicit Memory

also called declarative memory; memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state. (ie remembering what is on your list for the grocery store)

Implicit Memory

Memory without conscious recollection; involves skills, routine procedures that are automatically performed; (ie driving, typing, brushing teeth)

Source Memory

the ability to remember where one learned something. declines with age. Example: forgetting who told you a joke, and telling the person who told it to you

Prospective Memory

Remembering to do something in the future (remembering to take medication); declines with age, but can be specific in regard to what the task is….it’s complicated

Decision Making

preserved rather well in older adults

Wisdom

Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgement about important matters; acknowledging multiple perspectives, recognizing one’s own limits, compromising….being a wizard.

Major Depression

mood disorder; individual is deeply unhappy, demoralized, self-derogatory, and bored. Tires easily, poor appetite, listless and unmotivated. SO common it is called the "common cold" of mental disorders….what does this say about society…hmmmmm

Processing Speed

Often due to a decline in brain and CNS functioning

Dementia

global term, any neurological disorder in which the primary symptoms involve a deterioration of mental functioning. 20% of individuals over the age of 80 have dementia

Alzheimer Disease

progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory (Acetylcholine), language, and eventually physical fxn; Physiologically –> amyloid plaques (proteins that build up in blood) and neurofibrillary tangles (twisted fibers that build up in neurons); link to gene "ApoE"; # of ppl w/ WD doubles every 5 yrs after age 65

Multi-infarct Dementia

sporadic and progressive loss of intellectual fxn caused by repeated temporary obstruction of blood flow in cerebral arteries; results from "mini strokes"; also called vascular dementia. Characterized by: numbness on side of face/arm/leg, confusion, slurring speech. It is reversible if you treat the underlying cause. In untreated, progressively get worse and will have a major stroke

Parkinson Disease

Chronic, progressive disease characterized by muscle tremors, slowing of movement and partial facial paralysis. (ppl w/ PD = Muhammad Ali, Michael J Fox). Caused by degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons. The actual cause of degeneration is not known. Treated by dopamine enhancing drugs, and later by drugs that are converted to dopamine; also treated with DBS (deep brain stimulation…involves electrodes)

Successful Aging

…….

Zack is in a crowded restaurant trying to pay attention to the waiter who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because _____ attention declines as one ages.

*A. selective b. divided c. focused d. sustained

Education, Work, and Health

Level of education, cognitive abilities associated with work, and overall health have increased in the 20th century and in successive generations

Use It or Lose It

Use your brain or it will turn into mush. Your brain needs to be trained and maintained just like a healthy, sexy bod.

Language and Aging

"Tip of the tongue" phenomenon, difficulty in understanding speech. Older adults often speak lower, slower, less precise, and less fluent

Cognitive Ability

best predictor of job performance in older adults

Retirement

On average, workers will spend 10%-15% of their lives in retirement (USA) 7 million retired Americans return to work after they retire An increasing number of adults are beginning to reject the early retirement option

Adjusting to Retirement

Best results when: Healthy; Active and have an adequate income; Are better educated; Have extended social networks and family; Were satisfied with their lives before retiring; Flexibility and planning are key factors in whether individuals adjust well to retirement

Which of the following statements about retirement is TRUE?

a. Men spend less time planning for retirement than women do. b. Older adults with a long work history adjust to retirement more easily than those who have been in the workforce for a shorter period of time. *C. Many workers count on benefits that will not be there for them when they retire. d. People who consider just the financial aspect of being retired do better than those who consider other areas of their lives as well.

Common Predictors of Depression

Earlier depressive symptoms Poor health or disability Loss events Low social support

Which of the following is TRUE concerning depression in older adults?

*A. It is often left untreated. b. It is a very common though temporary problem. c. It is a very rare problem. d. It is usually diagnosed and treated.

What percentage of suicides involves older adults 65 years of age or older?

a. less than 2 percent b. 10 percent *C. 25 percent d. 40 percent

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

a transitional state between the cognitive changes of normal aging and very early disease

In 2009, an estimated _____ adults in the United States had Alzheimer disease.

a. 1 million b. 2.6 million *C. 5.3 million d. 8.5 million

Martha cares for her elderly mother, Marjorie, who has Alzheimer disease. Although Marjorie goes to a program at the senior center a few hours each week, the majority of her care falls to Martha. According to research on family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer disease, Martha is at risk for developing:

a. an ulcer. b. migraine headaches. *C. depression. d. obsessions.

Victimization, Crime, and Elder Mistreatment

sense of fear and vulnerability in older adults because of their physical decline and limitations; Crimes against older adults are likely to be serious; Elder maltreatment is primarily committed by family members; can also be institutional abuse

Religion and Old Peeps

Older adults are spiritual leaders in many societies around the world; Many derive a sense of meaning in life from religion have higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism; can provide important psychological needs

Death system

According to Kastenbaum, people, places/contexts, times, objects, and symbols are all part of this

Brain death

A neurological definition of death. This is defined as when the brain activity has ceased for a specified period of time. A flat EEG recording is on criterion.

Euthanasia

The act of painlessly ending the lives of persons who are suffering from incurable diseases or severe disabilities; sometimes called "mercy killing"

Passive euthanasia

The withholding of available treatments, such as life-sustaining devices, allowing the person to die

Active euthanasia

Death induced deliberately, as by injecting a lethal dose of a drug

Hospice

A program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and depression as possible. The goals of this contrast with those of a hospital, which are to cure disease and prolong life

Palliative

This type of care is emphasized in hospice care. It involves reducing pain and suffering and helping individuals die with dignity.

Denial

Kubler-Ross’ first stage of dying, in which the dying person denies that she or he is really going to die

Anger

Kubler-Ross’ second stage of dying, in which the dying person’s denial gives way to resentment, rage, and envy

Bargaining

Kubler-Ross’ third stage of dying, in which the dying person develops the hope that death can somehow be postponed

Depression

Kubler-Ross’ fourth stage of dying, in which the dying person comes to accept that certainty of his/her death and preparatory grief may appear

Acceptance

Kubler-Ross’ fifth (and final) stage of dying, in which the dying person develops a sense of peace, and, in many cases, a desire to be left alone

Grief

The emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness, and loneliness that accompany the loss of someone we love

Prolonged grief

Grief that involves enduring despair and is still unresolved over an extended period of time

Dual-process model

A model of coping with bereavement that emphasizes oscillation between two dimensions: 1. loss-oriented stressors, and 2. restoration-oriented stressors

Living will

A document about heroic measures to sustain life

Durable power of attorney

This specifies a surrogate person as legally designated to make health decisions

80

____% of deaths occur in institutions

Separation anxiety

More than anything, infants and young children experience this when dealing with the death of someone close

9

Around the age of ____, children view death as more universal and irreversible as opposed to viewing it as unlikely and reversible

(John) Bowlby

This theorist created a model that included the following stages of death: Numbing, Yearning and Searching, Disorganizing and Depression, and Reorganizing

Parkes

This theorist’s model of grief involves: shock/disbelief/numbness, painful longing (memories, sadness, yearning, depression), and acceptance

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