Lifespan Development Final

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Scientists have discovered that carrying the sickle-cell gene raises immunity to _______, which is a common disease in West Africa


What is the term for the inherited blood-clotting disorder that has been a problem throughout the royal families of Europe, such as the descendants of Queen Victoria?


Eric has blue eyes. Since the gene for blue eyes is recessive, Eric must be ______ for that trait.


Huela is going to have her first child and talks to her physician about assessing the health of her unborn child. The physician recommends a test which combines a blood test and ultrasound sonography. Which procedure was recommended?

first-trimester screen

The hormone __________ is produced in ________, which some scientists speculate may lead to differences in male and female brain structure, and later variations in gender-related behavior(s).

androgen; males

What is the term for the procedure of fertilization in which a man’s sperm is placed directly into a woman’s vagina by a physician?

artificial insemination

Diane has had difficult pregnancies and also developed a rare form of cervical cancer. Diane’s mother may have been prescribed ______ before Diane was born to prevent miscarriage.

DES (diethylstilbestrol)

Which "Big Five" personality trait refers to the degree of emotional stability an individual characteristically displays?


Jason and Justin are twins and are genetically identical. They are ________ twins.


In the embryonic stage, what is the term for the outer layer that will form skin, hair, teeth, sense organs, the brain, and the spinal cord?


In its study of growth, change, and stability, lifespan development takes a(n) ______ approach.


________ development involves the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior.


The concept of childhood as a special period did not exist during the ________ century.


Race is what kind of a concept?


People who lived in New York City during the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center experienced shared challenges due to the attack that are called ________ effects.


Consider a situation where a woman comes down with a case of rubella (German measles) in the eleventh week of pregnancy, as opposed to the thirtieth week of pregnancy. The difference in the way rubella would affect the unborn child at these two times is an example

critical period.

The predetermined unfolding of genetic information is known as


Genetically-determined traits not only directly influence a child’s ______, but also indirectly shape the child’s _________.

behavior; environment

Advocates of the __________ perspective believe that much of behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control


Freud believed that the goal of the pleasure principle was to

maximize satisfaction and reduce tension.

Adults demonstrating excessive activities such as eating, talking, or chewing gum may be experiencing a(n) __________ fixation.


Kimberly is a young woman who has a fear of relationships with others. She can be said to have had a negative outcome in Erikson’s ________ stage of psychosocial development.

intimacy vs isolation

_________ conditioning, in which the response being conditioned is voluntary and purposeful, differs from _________ conditioning, where the response is automatic.

Operant; classical

Roger likes to buy lottery tickets regularly because he occasionally wins. This is an example of ________ behavior.


Ralph watches the other kindergarten students receive stickers and other rewards from the teacher for sitting at their desks and completing their work. Soon, Ralph begins to behave like the other kindergarten students. This is what type of learning?


What did Piaget call the process in which changes occur in the existing way a child thinks in response to encounters with new stimuli or events?


About an hour or so after the sperm enters the ovum, the two gametes suddenly fuse, becoming one cell called a


A trait within an organism that is present but not expressed is called


What is the name of the inherited disorder in which a child is unable to make use of an essential amino acid present in proteins found in milk and other foods and that has the potential to cause brain damage and mental retardation?

phenylketonuria (PKU)

Tera has a disorder that is untreatable and produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death. Her diagnosis would by

Tay-Sachs disease.

Along with schizophrenia, all of the psychological disorders below have been shown to be related, at least in part, to genetic factors. Which of the following disorders is least likely to have a genetic factor, according to the text?


By ____ months of age, the fetus swallows and urinates, arms and hands develop, and fingers develop nails.


The birth of a baby usually occurs _____ days after conception.


The attending nurse tells the expectant mother that her contractions are approximately 5 minutes apart. What hormones are high enough in the mother to cause the uterus to begin periodic contractions?


At what state of birth do the child’s umbilical cord (which is still attached to the neonate) and the placenta expel from the mother’s body?


A newborn baby scores under 4 on the Apgar scale. This means that the baby

needs immediate, life-saving intervention.

In parts of the world other than the United States, midwives help deliver about _______ of babies, often in the ________.

80%; home

What is a doula?

a person well-versed in birthing alternatives who provides emotional, psychological, and educational support to the mother

The extent of danger faced by preterm babies largely depends upon

the baby’s birth weight.

What factor can classify an infant as meeting the criteria of very low birth weight?

regardless of weight, an infant who was in the womb less than 30 weeks

What is the stress-related hormone that newborns need in their bloodstream to avoid, for example, breathing problems?


Approximately ___% of Caucasian American women and approximately ____% of African American women receive no prenatal care early in their pregnancies.


Following the birth of her baby, Kerry experienced a period of deep depression triggered by swings in hormone production. Kerry was experiencing

postpartum depression.

Neonates are born with a variety of reflexes including all but which of the following?


Newborns also can distinguish different colors, and they seem to prefer

blue and green.

Which form of learning relies upon newborns producing an "orienting response" in which they become quiet, attentive, and experience a slowed heart rate as they "take in" the novel stimuli?


An infant who learns that smiling at his or her parents brings positive attention, and therefore begins to smile more often, is demonstrating what type of learning?

operant conditioning

The different degrees of sleep and wakefulness through which newborns cycle, ranging from deep sleep to great agitation, are called

States of Arousal

Tiffany Field’s research suggests that infants can discriminate between all of the following basic facial expressions except one. Which expression is NOT discriminated by newborns?


When the newborn’s behavior meshes with the parental behavior, this helps the ________ to grow.

baby’s social relationship skills

Babies are typically able to crawl between _______ months of age.

8 and 10

At what age are babies able to hold a cup to their lips and take a drink without spilling a drop?

24 months

Infants who receive adequate nutrition but act as though they have been deprived of food because they are listless and apathetic are exhibiting

nonorganic failure to thrive.

What is the term for the reflex that does not disappear, and is demonstrated by the infant’s tendency to suck at things that touch its lips?


What is the term for unlearned, unorganized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli?


What is the term for the approach that considers how information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated?

multimodal approach to perception

What does the American Academy of Pediatrics suggest to prevent SIDS?

giving the baby a pacifier during naps and bedtime

Waking, eating, sleeping, and elimination are important parts of a baby’s


Mary is preparing to breast feed her infant daughter, and, in doing so, the baby’s cheek brushes across her mother’s blouse. The baby immediately turns its head toward Mary’s chest in preparation for feeding. This is called the _______ reflex.


The American Academy of Pediatrics now suggests that babies sleep on their backs rather than on their sides or stomachs to prevent


What is the possible function of the Moro reflex in infants?

similar to primates’ protection from falling

At what age can a child build a tower of two cubes?

14 months

Which of the following does an infant demonstrate a preference for through facial expressions?


By the infant’s first birthday, the average infant’s birth weight has


What is the principle that is based on the Latin words for "near" and "far"?


Beth normally breastfeeds her baby; however, during the workday Beth’s mother watches her baby, and the baby must be fed with a bottle. Beth has noticed that her baby’s approach to being bottle fed is somewhat different than when the baby is being breastfed. Piaget would say that this is an example of

Substage 1: simple reflexes of the sensorimotor stage.

What is the term for an organized pattern of functioning that adapts and changes with mental development?


Developmental psychologist Nancy Bayley developed the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to measure

two areas: mental (senses, perception, memory, learning, problem solving, and language), and motor abilities

What term refers to the placement of material into memory?


According to Piaget, what is the major accomplishment of Substage 6?

children exhibit the capacity for mental representation, or symbolic thought

Baby Billy calls his favorite blanket a "blankie." When he sees other blankets in the house, however, he does not refer to them as a "blankie" because he uses that name only for his favorite blanket. This is an example of


What term refers to the process by which material in memory is located, brought to awareness, and used?


Piaget’s theory of development assumed that all children pass through a series of ____ universal stages in a fixed order from birth to adolescence. These are ______.

4; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

What two sources from neuroscience suggest that there are two separate systems involved in long-term memory?

brain scan technology and studies of adults with brain damage

What is the major difference between primary circular reactions and secondary circular reactions in Piaget’s sensorimotor stage?

primary circular reactions involve activities where the infant is focused on its own body, while secondary circular reactions involves activities where the infant’s actions relate to the outside world

Martha and Jim spend time with their baby, teaching her to say what she wants, and to tell her parents what she needs. This style of speech is called


What is the term for the smallest language unit that has meaning?


Piaget calls an internal image of a past event or object a

mental representation.

Developmental psychologist Arnold Gesell formulated a type of test that

measures infant development to distinguish between normal and atypical development in babies.

Piaget believed that the basic building blocks of the way children understand the world are mental structures called


Melissa is teaching her baby to speak by learning the names of lots of familiar and different objects that the baby sees. Melissa is teaching a(n) __________ style of speech.


What is the term for the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved?


At approximately what age is an infant able to discriminate among different emotional facial expressions and respond?

6-8 weeks

Baby Lilly is watching her other siblings as she plays in her playpen. Her siblings begin to squabble and shove each other on the floor. Baby Lilly looks to her mother and notices that her mother is smiling as she watches the other siblings, so Baby Lilly begins to smile too. This is an example of

social referencing.

When a caregiver responds appropriately to an infant, and the caregiver and the child’s emotional states match, this is called

interactional synchrony.

What is the term for the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual?


According to Thomas and Chess, who carried out a large-scale study of infants in the New York Longitudinal Study, what percentage of children were found to be "difficult babies"?


By what age has an infant begun to understand the emotions that lie behind facial and vocal expressions of others?

6 months

Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual are called


Erikson’s approach to personality development suggests that an infant’s early experiences (nurturing, feeding, cuddling, etc.) are responsible for shaping whether or not they become ____________ individuals later in life.


At what age are infants capable of demonstrating empathy for others, such as comforting and showing concern for others?

24 months

According to Erikson, when do we all pass through the trust-versus-mistrust stage?

first 18 months of life

What is the term for an emotional response that corresponds to the feelings of another person?


Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development considers

how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others’, and their own, behavior(s).

The average family size today is ___________ persons per household.


What is the term that refers to knowledge and beliefs about how the mind works and how the mind affects behavior?

theory of mind

Alex is playing in a room where his mother is sitting nearby. Alex becomes distressed when a stranger enters the room and hardly leaves his mother’s side. Later, when his mother and the stranger leave the room for a moment, Alex begins to wail and cry. However, when his mother returns, he runs up to her, and instead of giving her a hug/kiss, he begins to punch her in the arm. This would be a description of what type of attachment pattern?

ambivalent attachment pattern

Mary is planning to take a year and a half leave from her job because she wants to stay home and care for the needs of her newborn child. Mary believes that during the first 18 months of a child’s life, it is critical that she make herself available to her child to meet his needs and give him the attention he deserves. Erikson would say that Mary’s decision comes at a good time to address what stage of her child’s development?

Erikson’s trust-versus-mistrust stage

Four-month-old Baby Timmy is playing and smiling at his Dad. Baby Timmy is demonstrating a

social smile.

According to Thomas and Chess, who carried out a large-scale study of infants in the New York Longitudinal Study, what percentage of children were found to be "slow-to-warm babies"?


Piaget believed that the _______ fit entirely in a single stage of cognitive development called the ___________ stage.

preschool years; preoperational

On Christmas morning, 3-year-old Billy opens one of his gifts from his mother and finds a new sweater. Disappointed that it is not a toy, Billy frowns and throws the sweater aside in front of his mother with no regard for her feelings. In this example, Billy is demonstrating

egocentric thought.

What area of the brain that is associated with memory is completely myelinated in the preschool years?


Because the rate of Alex’s growth during preschool years is ____ than during infancy, Alex needs ______ food to maintain his growth.

slower; less

What is the term for the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others?


According to Vygotsky, what is the level at which a child cannot fully perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent?

zone of proximal development

The right hemisphere of the brain becomes more specialized during the preschool years in all of the following areas EXCEPT

thinking and reasoning.

The left hemisphere of the brain processes information _________, while the right hemisphere of the brain processes information ________.

sequentially; globally

What is the term for the system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed?


What type of psychology focuses on the reliability of children’s autobiographical memories in the context of the legal system?

forensic developmental psychology

Developmental psychologists have found that children can benefit from involvement in some form of ___________ before they enroll in formal schooling, which takes place at ages 5 or 6 in the U.S.

educational activity

What percentage of children who are raised in abusive households grow up to be abusive parents themselves?


Western cultures, unlike many Asian cultures, foster a view of self reflected in a(n)

individualistic orientation.

The difference between a 3-year-old’s development of "pretend" compared to his/her development of "belief" can be illustrated by

false belief task.

In preschool one day, 5 children decided to help each other build a fort with the items that were available to them. Each child took it upon him/herself to find objects in the classroom that could be put together to build a fort. This is an example of

associative play.

What is the term for the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people?

race dissonance

Which of the following is the best example of functional play?

skipping or jumping

Five-year-old Wendel is new to his kindergarten classroom. His teacher tries to use open and friendly questions to build rapport with him. His teacher asks him what he is good at and what he likes. Wendel responds "I can run fast" and "I like to eat pizza." Wendel’s responses are examples of his


What is the term for the perception of oneself as male or female?

gender identity

According to Erikson, what is the term for development that encompasses changes both in the understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others’ behavior(s)?

psychosocial development

Which of the following is the most frequent form of child abuse?


What is the term for action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves?


Functional play is typical of


The ____________ approach believes children learn gender-related behaviors and expectations by observing others and how they are rewarded for acting in gender-appropriate ways.

social learning

What percentage of preteens suffers with depression?


Which of the following is NOT considered one of the prevalent disorders that affects children with normal intelligence?

psychosomatic illnesses

Auditory impairment, which is a special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing, affects ________ percent of the school-age population.


Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory?

fluid intelligence

Larry was daydreaming the day that his first grade teacher reviewed the math lesson that 5 + 5 = 10. Later, Larry was not able to recall this information, probably because

he never encoded it.

When non-English speaking children are initially taught in their native language, while at the same time learning English, this is called

bilingual education.

The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that boys and girls should engage in sports and games, and

boys and girls should engage in sports and games in mixed-gender groups until puberty.

Children begin to use reading as a source for learning around

fourth grade.

What is the term for the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account?


At what age can both boys and girls judge and intercept directions of small balls thrown from a distance and run 17 feet per second?

10 years old

At approximately what age should a child be able to tie his/her shoes?

7 years old

Which of the following is least likely to be the cause of U.S. children’s inadequate fitness levels?

There is no national effort to increase the level of children’s fitness.

Middle-school-age children utilize _____________ when information is fuzzy or incomplete, such as asking for clarifications of information.

metalinguistic awareness

Approximately how many children under the age of 18 in the U.S. live in single-parent households?


Friends influence children’s development during the middle childhood years in all of the following ways EXCEPT

friendships provide more security than relationships with parents and other family members.

More than ______________ households in the United States contain at least one spouse who has remarried.

10 million

According to Damon, when Steven (who is 15 years old) is asked, "How do you know that someone is your best friend?" it is highly likely that he responded

"Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what."

____________ is the period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior.


Which of the following psychologists developed the three stages of moral development for women?

Carol Gilligan

Which of the following terms means rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group?

dominance hierarchy

When living in a blended family, roles and expectations can be unclear, and this is called

role ambiguity.

The lack of cross-gender interaction in the middle childhood years means that

boys’ and girls’ friendships are restricted to members of their own sex.

What percentage of children in the U.S. live in "blended families"?


According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects concrete interests of the individual considered in terms of rewards and punishments?

preconventional morality

What is the approximate percentage of children in the U.S. who spend their entire childhood living in the same household with both parents?


A seventh grade student is tempted to cheat on an exam, but talks himself out of it because he is afraid he will get caught and will fail the course. This student is demonstrating

preconventional morality.

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