Lifespan Development Exam Review

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On the preschool playground, which of the following couples is most likely to start playing together before the others?
Hispanic American girl and a Caucasian American boy
an African American girl and a Caucasian American girl
an African American boy and a Hispanic American girl
a Caucasian American boy and a Hispanic American boy

b. an African American girl and a Caucasian American girl

Three-year-old Wendy is playing hide-and-seek with some older children. However, instead of running to find a hiding place away from the other children, Wendy simply covers her eyes. In this example, Wendy is demonstrating __________.

Egocentric thought

Which of the following is the best description of Piaget’s symbolic function?
The child is able to use organized, formal, logical mental processes.
The child is able to understand that symbols on a page (letters or numbers) mean something.
The child is able to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present.
The child is able to use his/her imagination.

c. The child is able to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present.

Which of the following most likely contributes to the high level of accidents in the preschool age group?
Preschooler’s high level of physical activity, curiosity, lack of judgment
Parental neglect, parents working full time, lack of supervision
Dangerous furniture, unsafe living conditions, poor lighting
Lack of quality day care, lack of supervision, poorly trained day care workers

a. Preschooler’s high level of physical activity, curiosity, lack of judgment

Which developmental psychologist believed that the nature of the partnership between children, adults, and peers is determined through cultural and societal factors such as preschools and play groups and the emphasis on certain tasks that are valued by the culture and society, and that even the toys that children play with reflect the nature of the society in which the child lives?


When four-year-old Allison is allowed to decide what to wear from several choices her mother presents to her, she is likely to develop __________.


Parents in China, Japan, and the United States all see the benefits of preschools in a different way. What do Japanese parents view as the most important benefit of preschool?

The experience of being a member of a group

All of the following are considered signs that a toddler is ready to begin toilet training EXCEPT being able to __________.
follow simple directions
stay dry at least two hours at a time during the day or wake up dry after taking a nap
communicate, through facial expressions or words, that urination or elimination is about to occur
thoroughly wipe/cleanse themselves after urination or defecation

d. thoroughly wipe/cleanse themselves after urination or defecation

All of the following may be a factor in how much a preschooler weighs and how tall he/she is EXCEPT __________.
poverty; U.S. children living in families whose income falls below the poverty level are likely to be shorter than children from affluent homes
sex; boys tend to gain more weight and height than girls
global economics; children in developing countries like Bangladesh do not gain weight and height as quickly as do children living in Sweden
the quality of preschool; children who attend quality preschool programs receive better snacks and lunches

d. the quality of preschool; children who attend quality preschool programs receive better snacks and lunches

When a young child begins to learn how to take turns in conversation, stay on topic, and give appropriate responses such as "please" and "thank you," the child is demonstrating knowledge of __________.


Preschoolers: Physical Growth: Height & Weight

-Boys & girls become less round and more slender -Arms & legs lengthen -Head becomes more proportionate to body size -First time you see significant height & weights differences between genders** -Boys are slightly taller & weight more -Senses continue to develop: eustachian tube in ear -Muscles size increases – Children w/ a higher SES tend to weigh more and be slightly taller

Preschoolers: Physical Growth: Health & Illness

-7 to 10 colds and other minor respiratory illnesses each of year between ages three and five -Runny nose due to common cold is most frequent -Majority of US preschoolers are reasonably healthy -Keeping a preschooler healthy: do all the things you would usually do to keep yourself healthy (exercise, eat right, enough sleep, etc.). Try to keep your preschooler away from others that are sick (preschoolers themselves aren’t very good at this) and keep them up to date on their immunizations

Preschoolers: Physical Growth: The Brain

-Myelin increases -Cerebellum (balance) and cerebral cortex (decision making) connection growth (from the back to the front of the brain) -corpus callosum becomes very thick by the end of the preschool period (this helps coordinate brain functioning between the 2 hemispheres of the brain) -Growth spurts which lead to advances in cognitive abilities


-the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere than the other. -Leads to handedness: preference in which hand you write with

Preschoolers: Physical Growth: Gross Motor Skills

Gross Motor Skills: (what they have mastered) -3 years: jumping, hopping on one foot, skipping, running, and able to walk up stairs alternating feet -4 years: can throw a ball well enough for someone else to catch it, able to walk down a staircase alternating feet, with help. -5 years: can toss a ring and have it land on a peg, can learn to ride bikes, climb ladders, and ski. Can walk down a staircase alternating feet

Preschoolers: Physical Growth: Fine Motor Skills

They slowly start to master using a fork & spoon, cutting w/ scissors, tying their shoes, and playing the piano -3 years: can draw a circle/square w/ a crayon, can undo their clothes when they go to the bathroom -4 years: can draw a person that looks like a person, can fold paper into designs -5 years: can hold and use a thin pencil properly


the preference of using one hand over the other

Piaget & Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years

– says this is the preoperational stage: this stage is in which children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges (but still lack normal logical reasoning), and the use of concepts increases -Pretend play, egocentrism, language development -Make decisions based on appearance (centration)

Vygotsky & Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years

-Cognition is the result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation -Children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function on their own because of assistance that adult and peer partners provide


-the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects – preschoolers focus on appearence: button experiment: which row has more button? they will pick the row that’s longer even if it has less buttons


-the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects -ex: pouring something from one glass to one that is taller they will tell you there is now more in that glass because of how it appears -Piaget suggests that the main reason is that their tendency toward centration prevents them from focusing on the relevant features of the situation. Furthermore, they cannot follow the sequence of transformations


the process in which one state is changed into another

Egocentric thought

thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others -preschoolers do not understand that others have different perspectives (can be physical or dealing w/ emotions/feelings) -egocentric thinking lies behind children’s lack of concern over their nonverbal behavior & the impact it has on others

Theory of Mind

people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict -ex: candle experiment


-a disorder that appears in childhood -marked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others’ states of mind

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

-According to this theory, cognitive development is inherently both a social and cultural process -It is social because children learn through interactions with others and require assistance from others in order to learn what they need to know -It is cultural because what children need to know is determined by the culture they live in -Language is essential tool in facilitating learning


Cognitive development is a socially mediated activity; occurs interpersonally, not in isolation.

Zone of Proximal Development

Text: according to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so w/ the assistance of someone more competent PP: The difference between what a child can do independently and what they can do with help from a competent other.


the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth -ex: guidance, orchestration, support, suggestions, prompts, hints, directives, questions, praise, demonstration

Preschoolers: Language Development

– Vygotsky: The Sociocultural Perspective: private and inner speech -Social Speech -They begin to understand pragmatics

Private speech

speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves


Text: the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately w/ others -Helps children to understand the basics of: -conversations -Turn-taking -Sticking to a topic -What should and should not be said, according to the conventions of society -Use of different language in various settings

Social Speech

Text: speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person -Before the age of 3: Speak only for their own entertainment. Apparently unaware if anyone else can understand. -During preschool years: -Begin to direct their speech to others -Want others to listen -Become frustrated when they cannot make themselves understood -Begin to adapt their speech to others through pragmatics

3 Types of Preschools & the differences between them

1. Child Care Centers: aim to provide some form of intellectual stimulation, their primary purpose tends to be more social & emotional than cognitive. 2. Heat Start: you need a degree of some sort to work here and their aim is at cognitive development 3. Pre-K: must have a bachelors to work in one and their main goal is also education and cognitive growth

Why do we have preschools in the U.S.?

1. Mom and dad have to work 2. Develop social skills 3. Prep. for kindergarten 4. They provide social benefits: children tend to end up more successful and have better jobs 5. Help to reinforce cultural beliefs (independence & self reliance in the US vs. academic excellence in China)

Preschool:Forming a Sense of Self: Erikson

-Erikson says that they are in the Initiative v. Guilt phase: -Initiative: desire to act independently of parents and become autonomous -Guilt: guilt of unintended consequences resulting in shame and self-doubt

Self Concept

a person’s identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual -A preschooler self-concept is not very accurate: they are overly optimistic & overestimate their abilities (this is mainly because this is the first time they have ever thought about themselves in this way)

Psychosocial Development

according to Erikson, development that encompasses changes both in the understandings individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others’ behavior

Preschoolers expects boys to demonstrate:

-Competence -Independence -Forcefulness -Competitiveness -More rough & tumble play -Same sex playmate preference around age 3

Preschoolers expects girls to demonstrate:

-Warmth -Expressiveness -Nurturance -Submissiveness -Organized games & role playing -Same sex playmate preference around age 2

Cultural Influence of Self

-View of self culturally bound -Collectivist Orientation: Asian: View of self tied to family (how good of a wife am I? What do I add to the community?) -Individualistic Orientation: Western: View of self individually directed (what are MY accomplishments)

3 Theoretical Perspectives on Gender

1. Biological: Inborn, genetic factors produce gender differences 2. Social Learning: Gender related behavior learned from observations of others’ behaviors 3. Cognitive: Gender schemes form lens through which world is viewed All of these WORK TOGETHER

Authoritarian Parenting Style

-Exhibit controlling, rigid, cold style -Value strict, unquestioning obedience – Their children are usually withdrawn, socially awkward children

Permissive Parenting Style

-Involved with children -Place little or no limits or control on children’s behavior -Their children are usually dependent, moody children with low social skills

Uninvolved Parenting Style

-Uninvolved in children’s lives -Set few limits -Their children are usually emotionally detached, unloved, and insecure children

Authoritative Parenting Style

-Set firm, clear, consistent limits -Allow disagreement and use reasoning, explanations, consequences -Supportive parenting -Their children are usually independent, friendly, self-assertive, and cooperative children

Preschool: The importance of Play

-Relationships based on companionship, play, entertainment -Friendship focused on completion of shared activities -Play promotes preschoolers’ physical, cognitive, and social development. -"Play is to preschool as gas is to a car." – According to developmentalist Lev Vygotshy, children are able, through make-believe play, to practice activities that are part of heir particular culture and broaden their understanding of the way the world functions.

Functional Play

simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds that may involve objects or repetitive muscular movements

Constructive Play

activities in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something

Parallel Play

Children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other

Onlooker Play

Children simply watch each other play

Associative Play

-Children interact with one another in groups of two or more -Children share or borrow toys or materials, but do not do the same thing

Cooperative Play

Children play with one another, take turns, play games, and devise contests

Frank was tested by the school psychologist and diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The test results have been explained to his parents. His parents are curious as to brain involvement and ADHD. The school psychologist informs them that __________.

some research indicates that ADHD is related to a delay in neural development

Eleven-year-old Tina characterizes herself as a smart, friendly person who is helpful to others. Tina’s views of herself are based on __________.

psychological characteristics, inner traits that are more abstract

The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that boys and girls should engage in sports and games, and __________,

boys and girls should engage in sports and games in mixed-gender groups until puberty

What is the term for a form of education in which the goal is to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures?

Multicultural education

Seven-year-old Alice is working with clay in art class, and she rolls a round ball of clay between her hands until it becomes a long rope. However, she decides that she does not want the rope of clay, but would prefer that the clay be in the shape of a ball again. Alice knows that this is possible. Piaget would say that Alice is demonstrating the knowledge of __________.


Larry was daydreaming the day that his first grade teacher reviewed the math lesson that 5 + 5 = 10. Later, Larry was not able to recall this information, probably because he __________.

never encoded it

Mrs. Alverez has concerns regarding her daughter’s body image. She believes her daughter is attempting to measure up to different kinds of body representations she sees in the media. Mrs. Alverez has scheduled a meeting with the school psychologist to discuss her concerns. What can the school psychologist suggest to Mrs. Alverez to lessen her concerns?

She can try to speak with her daughter against these influences by teaching her that the U.S. has a preoccupation with slimness, which permeates the entire society and that media representations are often exaggerated and unattainable.

Intelligence tests most frequently used in schools are based on a common idea that intelligence is a single factor or unitary mental ability called __________.

g factor

Amanda is 12 years old, Suzy is 8, Bobby is 5, and Allan is 3. Which of these children is more apt to be injured than the others?


If a child is demonstrating difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities, the child is exhibiting a(n) __________.

learning disability

Middle Childhood: Physical Growth: Height & Weight

-During this period children, on average, grow 2 to 3 inches a year -Only period in life that girls tend to be taller than boys because of the slightly more rapid physical development of girls – Both boys & girls gain 5 to 7lbs a year and weight is redistributed -Children’s bodies become more muscular and their strength increases

Middle Childhood: Gross Motor Development

-Children master many types of skills that earlier they could not perform well, such as riding a bike, ice skating, swimming, and skipping rope. -Gender differences in gross motor skills became increasingly pronounced during middle childhood -Boys outperform girls -Little or no difference when equal participation in exercise/activities -Influenced by societal expectations

Middle Childhood: Fine Motor Development

-Necessary for wide range of school-related tasks -Influenced by increase in amount of myelin; speeds up electrical impulses between neurons – Able to type on a computer, write in cursive, draw detailed pictures, tie their own shoes, fasten buttons, use each hand independently, & manipulate objects -No gender differences

Middle Childhood: Brain Development: ADHD

-The brains of children with ADHD (in the top row) show less thickening of the cortex compared the brains of typical children at the same age. -Ritalin or Dexadrine reduce activity levels in hyperactive children and are routinely prescribed. -Most commonly diagnosed in Middle childhood -To diagnose: interview w/ child, parent, and teacher

Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development: Piaget

-Concrete Operational Stage -Characterized by active and appropriate use of logic -Logical operations applied to concrete problems -Conservation problems; reversibility; time and speed; decentering -Critical limitation of this period: they remain tied to concrete, physical reality. -Unable to understand truly abstract or hypothetical questions or ones that involve formal logic


the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account


the notion that transformations to a stimulus can be reversed


the process by which info is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved

Middle Childhood: Information Processing

-Increasing ability to handle information -Memory improvement -Short term memory capacity improvement -Encoding, storing, retrieval


the child records the info in a form usable to memory


-an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood -Improves during school age years Helps children use control strategies (conscious, intentional tactics to improve functioning)

Control strategies

intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing like rehearsal and organizing material into coherent patterns (chunking).

Keyword strategies

pairing information of 2 sets of words or labels that sound alike

Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development: Vygotsky

-his approach has particularly encouraged the development of classroom practices that promote children’s active participation in their learning -classrooms are seen as places where children should experiment and try out new activities -education should focus on activities that involve interaction w/ others -cooperative learning: children work in groups to achieve a common goal -reciprocal teaching: a technique to teach reading comprehension strategies.

Mastering the Mechanics of Language in Middle Childhood (7 stages)

1. Vocabulary continues to increase 2. Mastery of grammar improves 3. Understanding of syntax grows 4. Certain phonemes remain troublesome 5. Decoding difficulties when dependent on intonation 6. More competence in pragmatics 7. Increase in meta-linguistic awareness

Middle Childhood: Metalinguistic Awareness

-One of most significant developments in middle childhood is children’s increasing understanding of their own use of language. -By age 5 or 6: Understand language is governed by set of rules -By age 7 or 8: Realize that miscommunication be due to factors attributable not only to themselves, but to person communicating with them

How does language promote self-control?

-Helps school-age children control and regulate behavior -"Self-talk" used to help regulate behavior -Increases effectiveness of self-control as linguistic capabilities increased

Erikson: Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood

-Industry v. Inferiority -Industry: feelings of mastery and proficiency and a growing sense of competence -Inferiority: feelings of failure and inadequacy -Characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges related to: -Parents -Peers -School -Other complexities of the modern world

Self & Identity in Middle Childhood

-During middle childhood, children begin to view themselves: -Less in terms of external physical attributes -More in terms of psychological traits (am I a nice person?) -In more complex ways -Divided into personal and academic spheres

Self-Esteem in Middle childhood

-Develops in important ways during middle childhood -*Children increasingly compare themselves to others -Children are developing their own standards -For most children self-esteem increases during middle childhood

Clark and Clark Study

-Asked children in middle childhood questions about two dolls: one was black one was white -Asked things like: which one is the pretty one? which one is the bad one? -Most children, even the black children answered that most of the negative qualities (ugly, bad, etc) went along with the colored doll

Social Identity Theory

Members of a minority group accept negative views held by majority group only if they perceive little realistic possibility of changing power and status differences between groups

Middle Childhood: Damon’s Stages of Friendship: Stage 1 (ages 4-7yrs)

-Children see friends as like themselves -Children see friends as people to share toys and activities with -Children do not take into account personal traits

Middle Childhood: Damon’s Stages of Friendship: Stage 2 (ages 8-10yrs)

-Children now begin to take other’s personal qualities and traits into consideration (traits are still not deal breakers) -Friends are viewed in terms of kinds of rewards they provide -Friendships are based on mutual trust -Children are very "black & white" in this stage (you’re either nice or you’re mean)

Middle Childhood: Damon’s Stages of Friendship: Stage 3 (ages 11-15yrs)

-Friendships become based on intimacy and loyalty -Friendships involve mutual disclosure and exclusivity

Middle Childhood: Peer Relations

-Children’s friendships show clear hierarchies in terms of status -Avoidance of opposite sex becomes very pronounced during middle childhood -Children’s friendships are almost entirely sex-segregated -When sexes interact it is called "border work," is often romantic, and helps emphasize clear boundaries between sexes

Middle Childhood: Boys and Friendships

Larger networks of friends than girls Activity based hangout time Strict dominance hierarchy Physical Aggression Attempt to maintain and improve status in hierarchy -Restrictive play

Middle Childhood: Girls and Friendships

-Focus on one or two "best friends" of relatively equal status -Conflicts solved by compromise, ignoring situation, or giving in -Can be confrontational with other girls who are not their friends -Language is less confrontational and direct than boys’ -Relational aggression

Middle Childhood: Family Relationships

In addition to other changes, children experience: -increasing independence -coregulation w/ parents -sibling relationships and rivalry In most cases, children fare quite well

Adolescence: Biology & Puberty

Puberty: the period during which the sexual organs mature -Puberty begins earlier for girls Pages 255-258

Adolescence: Physical Growth

-period of very rapid height and weight growth -Boys row an average of 4.1in a year and girls grow 3.5in a year -Weight depends on a multitude of factors such as SES, early/late maturation, psychological disorders (anorexia & bulimia)

Adolescence: Brain Development

-Myelination is continuing and increasing (back to front of brain) -Prefrontal cortex (decision making & impulse control) is still developing -Brain is not done developing until 25yrs -Brain immaturity leads to the risky and impulsive behavior that is associated with this time period -Adolescents underestimate the risks of risky behavior and they overestimate the rewards that will come from the behavior

Adolescence: Cognitive Development: Piaget

-Formal operations stage -can think abstractly and reason hypothetically -Piaget believed that the attainment of the formal operations stage, in contrast to the other stages, is not universal -Can use propositional thought

Adolescence: Information Processing Model

-Adolescents’ cognitive abilities grow gradually and continuously -Adolescents’ general intelligence remains stable, but dramatic improvements occur in the specific abilities that underlie intelligence (verbal, mathematical, and spatial abilities increase) -Memory capacity grows _They can handle more than 1 stimulus at a time -Growth in metacognition

Social Cognition

Social cognition is the term used to describe the way we think about other people, social relationships and social institutions -2 aspects: Perspective taking & adolescent egocentrism

2 Aspects of Social Cognition

1. Perspective Taking: Selman’s research: The ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others. Stage approach. 2. Adolescent Egocentrism: Elkind’s research: Having difficulty distinguishing your own thinking about yourself from the thoughts of others

Adolescent Egocentrism

the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes, and their ability to monitor their cognition

Imaginary Audience

Results from adolescents’ limited capacity to distinguish between their thinking about themselves and their thinking about the thoughts of others

Personal Fables

The belief in an imaginary audience that is highly conscious of how you look and act leads to the belief that there must be something special, something unique about you

Optimistic Bias

-A concept related to the personal fable -Comes from health psychology research -The tendency to assume that accidents, diseases and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to others than ourselves -Both adolescents and adults have an optimistic bias with regard to health risk behavior -Adolescents tend to have a stronger optimistic bias than adults

Adolescence: Intelligence, Learning, & School

-Academic performance is linked in complex ways to SES and to race & ethnicity -Both gender & ethnicity affect the incidence of dropping out -Grade inflation: the gradual shift upwards of adolescents’ grades in the last decade due to unfavorable comparison of US standardized test scores to the scores of other countries – Females are least likely to drop out of high school prior to graduation in the US

Adolescence: Language

-Chilhood language is more concrete terms related to traits -In adolescence speech is more trait-focused, traits are more abstract, and personality characteristics and displayed more

Adolescence: Erikson

-Identity achievement v. identity confusion -Achievement: Establishing a clear and definite sense of who you are and how you fit into the world around you. -Confusion: Failure to form a stable and secure identity. -Achieving identity involves exploration – sifting through life choices, trying out possibilities, and ultimately making commitments.

Culture & the Self

-Broad v. Narrow Socialization -Broad: Promote independent, individualistic self Encourage self-reflection Self-esteem valued highly -Narrow: Interdependent self Needs and interests of others (i.e., groups) take precedence over self-esteem

The Self in Adolescence

The capacity for abstract thought means an adolescent can distinguish between: -Actual Self "Who I am" -Possible Selves "Who I might become"

Ideal v. Feared Self

-Ideal: "Who I would like to be." -Feared: "Who I dread becoming"

Identity Research: James Marcia

-expanded on Erikson’s research: 4 possible outcomes: 1. Achievement 2. Foreclosure 3. Diffusion 4. Moratorium

Psychosocial Moratorium

a period when adult responsibilities are postponed as young people try on various possible selves -Identity formation is founded partly on identifications made in childhood

Culture & Identity: 4 Statuses

1. Bicultural 2. Assimilated 3. Separated 4. Marginal

Peers v. Friends

-Peers: People who are about the same age -Friends: People with whom you develop a valued, mutual relationship

4 Types of Friends in late adolescence

1. Friendly (focus on shared activities) 2. Intimate (focus on affection, emotional attachment) 3. Integrated (combines friendly and intimate) 4. Uninvolved (focus on neither shared activities nor intimacy)

Gender and Intimacy in Adolescence

-Females: tend to have more intimate friendships than boys and are more likely to place higher value on talking together as a friendship component -Males: tend to have less intimate friendships than girls and are more likely to emphasize shared activities as the basis of friendship

Why do adolescents become friends?

Similarity in: Age Gender Educational orientation Media and leisure preferences Participation in risk behavior Ethnicity

Informational Support

"What should I do? Should I ask Jimi to go out with me?"

Instrumental Support

"Thanks for helping me with my math homework"

Companionship Support

"Let’s go to the game together – that way we can sit together. I don’t know anyone at Riverdale High."

Esteem Support

"Don’t worry about it, you’re the best guitar player here. You’ll win the songwriting contest next time."

What is the area of the brain that undergoes considerable development during the adolescent years?

Prefrontal Cortex

In what way does a woman’s body react differently to binge drinking than a man’s?

Women tend to weigh less than men, so their bodies cannot absorb alcohol as efficiently, and they become drunk more quickly.

Mrs. Valdez was concerned that her daughter was not getting adequate sleep and that, as a result, she was failing classes and suffering from depression. Mrs. Valdez attended a school meeting with other concerned parents about adolescent sleep requirements and learned that __________.

with increasing academic and social demands, adolescents are often leading their lives in a sleep-deprived state

Adolescents who engage in risky behaviors such as not using condoms when engaging in sexual activity and driving recklessly when drunk are exhibiting __________; they feel that no bad consequences of these risky behaviors could possibly happen to them.

Personal Fable

The surge in hormone production that triggers the beginning of adolescence may lead to rapid mood swings. Boys may have feelings of __________, whereas girls may feel __________.

anger and annoyance; anger and depression

Adrienne is a 16-year-old girl who is searching for her identity. Which of the following would NOT be an example of the search for her self-concept?
She would be able to consider both her views and the views of others.
She would describe herself using only a list of traits.
She would look at herself from a psychological perspective.
She would have a broader view of herself and be able to see various aspects of herself simultaneously.

b. She would describe herself using only a list of traits.

Which of the following models suggests that U.S. society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their cultural features?
a. Melting-pot model
b. Pluralistic society model
c. Cultural assimilation model
d. Bicultural identity model

b. Pluralistic society model

Ellen notices conspicuous examples of drunkenness around campus, which causes her to assume that everybody is drinking heavily. As a result, Ellen begins to engage in binge drinking. This is an example of __________.

False Consensus Effect

According to psychologist Judith Smetana, what is the most likely reason for the greater conflict between adolescents and their parents in the earlier stage of adolescence compared to the later stage?

Differing definitions of and rationales for appropriate versus inappropriate conduct

According to information-processing explanations of cognitive development during adolescence, one of the most important reasons for advances in mental abilities is the growth of __________.


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