LifeSpan Development – Exam 2

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Children’s steady growth, brain maturation, and intellectual advances make middle childhood a time for more _____.

independence

Nine-year-old Akashia announces to her mother, "I am smart, nice, and friendly and I am so good at painting that one day I am going to sell lots of pictures." Akashia is referring to her _____.

self-concept

What is Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development?

industry vs. inferiority

Sara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. According to Erikson, Sara is developing a healthy sense of _____ through these tasks.

industry

According to Erikson, if 9-year-old Jessica is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a view of herself as _____.

industrious

Family structure refers to _____.

the legal and genetic relationships of people in a household

Terrance is asked to list all the people in his family. He is being asked to report his _____.

family structure

Which family function is especially crucial in middle childhood?

harmony and stability

The most common type of family for children in the United States is the _____.

nuclear family

A family that consists of one man, several wives, and the biological children of the man and women is a(n) _____.

polygamous family

To reduce the impact of divorce on children, which of the following should take place?

transitions should be minimized

When both parents live with their children and are mutually committed to them, _____ is likely to form.

a parental alliance

School-age children would most admire _____.

Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane ( she stuck with her peers)

Laurel is always friendly. When someone tells her a secret, she does not tell other friends. She also is helpful and cooperates with others to get class projects done. Other students like working with Laurel. Laurel could be defined as a(n) _____ child.

popular

Eric repeatedly calls Jacob names. Eric also teases Jacob about his haircut and clothes. The type of bullying that Eric is displaying is _____.
A) physical

verbal

Over time, the consequences of bullying _____.

may lead to problems for the bullies and their victims

According to the text, what method has been effective in stopping bullying in schools?

using a whole-school strategy

What period is the prime time for moral development?

middle childhood

Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of _____ in his description of the stages of moral development.

Jean Piaget

Postconventional morality involves _____.

the careful consideration of all options

Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized because his _____.

theory does not take into account cultural differences

Adrionna has begun to participate in arguments on issues of right and wrong. She is developing her own moral thinking, guided by _____.

her peers, parents, and culture

Ten-year-old India caught Lyndsey, her best friend, lying to her mom. India will probably _____.

keep quiet about it

Restitution as a punishment for a transgression involves _____.

restoring what was lost

Ms. Corrina had a good conversation about the fairness of restitution and retribution with 9-year old Nicolette. The next day, Nicolette still thought retribution was most fair. Scientific study shows us that this MOST likely means that talking about moral values with children _____.

will not bring about immediate change

making a positive adaptation to significant adversity is one sign of resilience . true or false?

true

A child who demonstrates positive adaptation in the face of stressors such as poverty and neglect is showing resilience and will always continue to show resilience. true or false?

false

Environmental influences from teachers and peer groups reflect one’s shared influences. true or false?

false

How family members are genetically connected is part of the family structure. true or false?

true

In polygamous families, income per child is higher than in nuclear families. true or false?

false

Family conflict harms children only when adults fight about child rearing. true or false?

false

The culture of children generally mirrors adult values and embraces the racial and ethnic exclusions perpetuated by adults. true or false?

false

In middle childhood, being accepted by the entire group is more important than having a close friend. true or false?

false

Evan, who is 8 years old, is more likely at this age to want to play with Ava than with another boy his age. true or false?

false

During middle childhood, children’s moral reasoning is usually at the third level of Kohlberg’s theory. true or false?

false (answer: fifth level (post conventional)

The ability to do more self-care (keeping oneself and one’s room clean and cooking one’s own food, for example) is an indication of psychosocial _____ between the ages of 6 and 11.

maturation

Unrealistically high self-esteem reduces _____, which is one’s ability to deliberately modify impulses and emotions.

effortful control

Children who overcome severe problems in childhood may be referred to as _____.

resilient

The legal and genetic connections among relatives living in the same household is
the definition of family _____.

structure

The five essential functions of the family for school-age children include providing physical necessities, _____, helping the child to develop self-respect, nurturing peer relationships, and harmony and stability.

learning

George, a divorced father of two, and Stephanie, a widowed mother of three, got married and created a _____ family of five.

stepparent

According to the _____ model, the crucial question about any risk factor is whether it increases the family members’ stress.

family-stress

Child culture promotes _____ from adults.

independence (autonomy)

Leonard threatened to punch Sheldon every time he didn’t hand over his new video game. Sheldon was a victim of _____ bullying.

physical

Kohlberg has been criticized for not appreciating _____ or gender differences.

cultural

Erikson’s fourth psychosocial crisis defines children during their middle childhood years. Name and define this crisis, and note how the resolution of the crisis relates to the development of the self.

During the industry versus inferiority stage, children attempt to master many skills, especially the skills that their culture values. Based on their ability to achieve these skills, children judge themselves as either industrious or inferior. They decide whether they are competent or incompetent, productive or useless, winners or losers. Self-pride depends not necessarily on actual accomplishments, but on how others, especially peers, view one’s accomplishments. Social rejection is both a cause and a consequence of feeling inferior.

Define resilience, and identify two factors in a child’s life that can support resilience.

Resilience is the capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress. Resilience is any positive adaptation to significant stress. Resilience is dynamic, which means a given person may be resilient after certain crises but not others. Repeated or sustained stresses make resilience more difficult to achieve. Factors that support resilience in children include traits in the child (especially problem-solving ability), in the family (consistency and caring), and in the community (good schools and welcoming churches). In addition, a child’s interpretation of a family situation (poverty, divorce, and so on) determines how that situation affects him or her.

Explore the relationship among family income, conflict, and family function. Include a discussion of the family-stress model in predicting the impact of low and high incomes on children.

Family income strongly influences family function by influencing how well the family’s needs are met. The two factors that negatively interfere with family function in every structure, ethnic group, and nation are low income and high conflict. Low conflict usually results in a harmonious family that functions well. The family-stress model states that the crucial question about any risk factor (such as low income, divorce, single parenthood, unemployment) is whether it increases stress. It predicts that low-income families experience stress created not only by economic hardship but also because of the parents’ negative reaction to that hardship. The adults’ reaction to poverty is crucial, and some of the effects can be alleviated by a positive attitude (e.g., the adults don’t seem distressed by the lack of money). High income may also create stress in that parents can exert pressure on their children to excel, which can result in troubled behavior such as emotional problems, poor academic performance, drug abuse, and delinquency. Children in high-income families develop more than their share of developmental problems.

Emmy’s son is being bullied at school, and the problem shows no signs of abating. Based on the research, should she be concerned? What should be done?

Emmy should be concerned, as victims of bullying can be anxious, depressed, and underachieving. The results can be long-lasting, too, and may result in low self- esteem and painful memories years later. Efforts to change the entire school are credited with recent successful attempts to decrease bullying in 29 schools in England, throughout Norway, in Finland, and often in the United States. A review of ways to halt bullying finds: ? Everyone in the school must change, not just the identified bullies. ? Intervention is more effective in the earlier grades. ? Evaluation is critical: Programs that seem good might be harmful. Longitudinal research on whole-school efforts finds that some programs make a difference and some do not, with variations depending on the age of the children and the indicators (peer report of bullying or victimization, teacher report of incidents reported, and so on).

What are two criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?

Kohlberg has been criticized for (1) not appreciating cultural or (2) gender differences. For example, loyalty to family overrides any other value in some cultures, so some people might avoid postconventional actions that hurt their family. Also, Kohlberg’s original participants were all boys, which may have led him to discount female values. Kohlberg seemed to (3) value abstract principles more than individual needs. Furthermore, Kohlberg did not seem to recognize that (4) although children’s morality differs from that of adults, their values may be equally valid. School-age children may be right to question or ignore adult rules that seem unfair, and their questions may actually be postconventional.

Physical activity can benefit children in all of the following ways EXCEPT by improving _____.

oral health practices

At Charlie’s recent check-up, her doctor told her that she is obese. Charlie’s BMI is most likely in the _____ percentile.

97th percentile

Lindsay brought her 10-year-old son to see the doctor because he was having problems breathing. The doctor informed Lindsay that her son had inflammation of the airways. Lindsay’s son was diagnosed with _____.

asthma

Scottie was doing a class report on asthma and learned that several factors may contribute to its development, including all of the following EXCEPT _____.

sunlight ( alleles, airtight windows, and carpets do)

A child in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development would be able to reason about all of the following EXCEPT _____.

what to tell his parents if he broke the lamp (could reason: what to wear to school, what to make for lunch, what to buy for parents birthday)

Vygotsky might argue that all of the following could be an instructor to a 6-year-old
child EXCEPT _____.

a 3-year old sibling (an art teacher, a grandparent, and a 10 year old friend could)

To retain information in working memory, individuals must _____.

process the information

The component of the information-processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely is _____.

long-term memory

How readily past learning can be brought into working memory from long-term memory is referred to as _____.

retrieval

New concepts are best learned when they are connected to _____.

what is already known about the subject

A 3-year-old has a hard time catching a ball, whereas a 9-year-old has an easier time of it. One contributing factor for why the 9-year-old is better at ball catching than the 3-year-old is _____.

decreased time reaction

Nine-year-old Devon writes, "My brother eats like a hungry pig." This statement demonstrates his understanding of _____.

metaphors

Mastery of pragmatics allows children to change styles of speech, or "codes," depending on the audience. What code are children likely to use with their teachers?

formal code

The approach to teaching a second language in which children spend the entire day instructed in that second language is referred to as the _____ approach.

immersion

Beth is taking the TIMSS, which is the international test of _____.

science and math

The Common Core is a(n) _____ that was developed by experts and intended for nationwide use in response to doubts about state-level assessments.

set of specific standards by subject and grade level

Carlos attends a school in which the teachers often work longer hours than other schools. They tend to be more ethnically and economically segregated, with small classes. He knows that the school sets its own standards and receives private money and sponsors. Carlos is attending a _____ school.

charter

Solomon was diagnosed with ADHD at an early age. Throughout school he had extreme academic difficulties, though he excelled at art. When he graduated from high school, he started a career as an artist; he quickly began selling his work and achieved critical acclaim. As an adult he was experiencing life success even though he still had symptoms of ADHD. Which of the four general principles of developmental psychopathology does this example best illustrate?

life may be better or worse in adulthood

Aptitude tests are designed to measure one’s _____.

potential for learning a new skill or body of knowledge

Joseph’s aggressive behavior could be due to genetic inheritance, exposure to violent media, or living in a violent neighborhood. This reflects the developmental principle of _____.

equifinality

Damian is excitable, impulsive, and very active. He also has great difficulty concentrating. He MOST likely has _____.

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

All of the following have been identified as problems with diagnosing ADHD EXCEPT that it _____.

has symptoms that are apparent only in severe cases (has no biological marker, can be comorbid with other biological problems, and can be combined with other psychological disorders)

Seven-year-old Henry has been diagnosed with both ADHD and bipolar disorder. Which term applies to Henry having both conditions?

comorbidity

Allen is 3 years old. He ignores people when they are in the room, and if people speak to him, he does not make eye contact. He also will not initiate communication, but rather just repeats what someone has said. Finally, Allen plays with a spinning top for hours. He just spins it, watches it, and when it stops spins it again. Allen may be showing signs of _____.

autism spectrum disorder

Children who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder can vary in the type and range of symptoms they display, but all children with autism spectrum disorder have _____.

difficulty relating to others

The health habits that children develop during the middle childhood years are related to their health in adolescence and adulthood. true or false?

true

Children are overweight if their body mass index (BMI) is above the 85th percentile on the growth chart. true or false?

true

School-age children are able to use logic about concrete things. true or false?

true

Massive interconnections in the brain allow children to master the ability to read. true or false?

true

Reaction time is the amount of time it takes to respond to a stimulus. true or false?

true

The process of switching codes is limited to sentence and grammar usage. true or false?

false

The process by which children change from informal speech to proper speech when talking with teachers and most adults is known as code switching. true or false?

true

A federally sponsored test in the United States is called the National Assessment of Educational Progress. true or false?

true

An intelligence test is an example of an aptitude test. true or false?

true

The Flynn effect has revealed that the average IQ of entire nations has decreased substantially over the past century. true or false?

false

When Sharona recalls plans she has made for this weekend, she retrieves them from her long-term memory and brings them into her _____ memory.

working (short-term)

The analysis and flow of information within the information-processing system is regulated by _____ processes in the brain.

control

The ability to evaluate a task to determine what to do in what order and to monitor progress while working on the task is called _____.

meta-cognition

The main international test of reading given to students is the _____.

PIRLS

The federal legislation that mandated standardized tests to measure school achievement is called the _____ Act.

No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

Public subsidy for tuition payment at a private school is referred to as a _____.

voucher

The four general principles of developmental psychopathology are: abnormality is normal; disability changes year by year; life may be better or worse in adulthood; and _____.

diagnosis and treatment reflect social context

A child’s failure to master a particular skill that most people acquire easily may be an indication that the child has a(n) _____.

specific learning disorder

The most common type of specific learning disorder is dyslexia, which involves unusual difficulty with _____.

reading

Dyscalculia is the term for a specific learning disorder in the area of _____.

math

Evan’s mother is trying to decide whether to sign up her 7-year-old son for soccer.
Offer two reasons why she should encourage this activity.

Reasons for signing up include better overall health through exercise and better academic achievement. Exercise improves physical, emotional, and mental health. Exercise also improves academic achievement through better cerebral blood flow and more neurotransmitters and has indirect benefits of better mood and energy.

Explain three causes of increased childhood obesity in the United States today.

Children engage in (1) less active play and (2) too much screen time (watching TV or playing video games) than ever before. In addition, (3) many parents cave to pester power (bugging parents until they allow the child to have junk food that children see advertised on TV).

Describe the neurological advances of selective attention and automatization. Provide an example of each.

Selective attention is the ability to attend to some stimuli while ignoring others. An example of this would be a child who can do his homework effectively while hearing his siblings playing in the next room. Automatization is a process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence until they become routine or automatic and need little conscious thought. An example of this would be reading. Instead of painstakingly decoding, the process of reading becomes so automatic that the child can concentrate on concepts without thinking about the letters. Learning to alphabetize, knowing the multiplication tables, and writing one’s name all eventually become automatic.

In the United States, there are four types of educational environments for children: public schools, charter schools, private schools, and home schooling. Define each of these alternatives, and identify which type of school the majority of children in the United States attend.

A public school is one that is free to all children because it is funded by taxpayers; it must educate all students. A charter school is a public school with its own set of standards that is funded and licensed by the state or local district in which it is located; it has control over admissions and expulsions. A private school is one funded by tuition, endowments, and/or church sponsors. Home schooling is education in which children are taught at home, usually by a parent. The majority of the children in the United States attend public schools.

Seven-year-old Dwayne has been diagnosed as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Describe some of his behaviors, and tell two things that his parents and teachers can do to help him cope.

Dwayne is more easily distracted and more often in motion than the average child. When sitting down to do schoolwork, he might look around, ask questions, think about playing, get a drink, fidget, squirm, tap the table, jiggle his legs, and go to the bathroom—and then start the whole sequence again. This means that Dwayne will tend to have academic difficulties; he is less likely to graduate from high school and college, and as an adult he is likely to suffer if his employment demands sitting at a desk. Treatment that can help Dwayne cope with ADHD involve (1) training for the family and the child, (2) showing teachers how to help him learn, and (3) medication.

Because emotional regulation requires practice, maturation, and work, it is referred to as _____.

effortful control

Erikson called the psychosocial developmental stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age _____.

initiative vs. guilt

"If you draw a pretty picture for me, I will give you a certificate as a reward," the researcher told Amy. After receiving her reward, Amy was given the opportunity to draw some more pictures just for fun. If Amy was like most children, what was she likely to do?

stop drawing pictures

Which are the types of play identified by Mildred Parten?

personal play

What is one of the functions peers provide in active play?

competition

Just as monkeys do in their rough-and-tumble play, human children _____.

use a play face

Rough-and-tumble play between boys and fathers may prevent _____ at a later age.

antisocial behavior

When Noah’s dad gets home from work, Noah runs to him shouting, "Daddy!" His dad sweeps him up in a bear hug, gives him a gentle knuckle rub on top of his head, then lowers him to the ground in a pretend choke hold. Noah screams with delight, escapes the hold, and climbs on his dad’s back to ride him like a horse. Inadvertently, Noah hurt his dad while climbing, and his dad said sternly, "That really hurt. Be nice!" What kind of lesson is Noah’s dad teaching him with this rough-and-tumble play bout?

emotional regulation

Tiara, Molly, and Maria are playing dress-up. They are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. What type of play are the three girls engaging in?

sociodramatic play

Diana Baumrind is known for her work on _____.

parenting styles

Jose demonstrates warmth and nurturance toward his children. He does not believe in punishment of any sort and does not have any rules for his children. His parenting
style is _____.

permissive

The individual most likely to have grown up with permissive parents is _____.

Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control

Which scenario best demonstrates the behaviorist theory regarding gender development?

Christine wears a dress and her parents tell her how pretty she looks

When Delilah, age 3, sees a little boy fall and hurt himself, a look of concern appears on her face. She is probably experiencing _____.

empathy

Which scenario is an example of antisocial behavior?

Mark intentionally knocks over Simon’s blocks

Three girls spread a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. This is an example of _____ aggression.

relational

Roderick hits or kicks Edwin on the playground nearly every day. He also encourages other children to laugh at Edwin’s attempts to kick a ball. Roderick is using _____ aggression against Edwin.

bullying

Psychological control as a means of discipline relies on a child’s _____.

feelings of shame, guilt, and gratitude

Children whose parents use psychological control as a means of discipline are more likely to _____.

be rationally aggressive

When would a time-out be the most effective discipline strategy?

if the child enjoys being with other people

Lead poisoning can result in death if a level of _____ micrograms per deciliter of blood is reached.

70

_____ is harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified.

substantiated maltreatment

_____ are actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, after an adverse event.

tertiary prevention

Putting a person in the care of someone other than the parents to prevent further harm is referred to as _____.

foster care

_____ is a form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver.

kinship care

Research has found that specific cultures emphasize control of different emotions. true or false?

true

Andrew spends hours practicing tying his shoes. Because he is extrinsically motivated, he often practices alone with the goal of tying them well. true or false?

false

A play face helps to facilitate sociodramatic play. true or false?

false

Rough-and-tumble play helps children to develop self-control. true or false?

true

Permissive parenting tends to produce children with strong emotional regulation skills and healthy peer relationships. true or false?

false

In a group of 4-year-old children, a child who chooses a toy traditionally associated with the other gender will probably be criticized by peers. true or false?

true

A child who deliberately causes harm to another person is exhibiting antisocial behavior. true or false?

true

Children who are spanked are more likely to use aggression to retaliate against a peer. true or false?

true

Psychological control is a punishment in which children’s shame, guilt, and gratitude are used to control their behavior. true or false?

true

Induction is generally considered to be an effective strategy for helping children internalize standards. true or false?

true

The type of play characterized by children playing with similar toys in similar ways but not together is called _____ play.

parallel

The four dimensions of parenting identified by _____ are strategies for discipline, warmth, communication, and expectations for maturity.

Diana Baumrind

Freud called the period from the ages of 3 to 6 years the _____ stage.

phallic

_____ believe that virtually all roles, values, and morals are learned.

Behaviorists

The concept that male-female sexual passion is one of humankind’s basic drives because all creatures have a powerful impulse to reproduce is basic to _____.

evolutionary theory

Harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities is called _____.

reported maltreatment

A study comparing children who had been maltreated with similar children who had not been maltreated found that years later they were _____ percent less likely to be employed.

14

Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse, are categorized as _____.

primary prevention

Putting a person in the care of someone other than the parents to prevent further harm is referred to as _____.

foster care

A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver is called _____.

kinship care

Define intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. How might parents and teachers help children become intrinsically motivated?

Intrinsic motivation comes from within a person who does something for the joy of doing it without the need for payment, praise, or other external reward. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside a person and entices the person to behave in a certain way in order to earn praise, money, rewards, or to avoid punishment. Parents and teachers can help children become intrinsically motivated by acknowledging their effort when engaged in activities instead of the product or outcome of their effort.

Describe the three parenting styles identified by Baumrind.

– Authoritarian, which is characterized by lack of warmth; strict, rigid rules; no input from the child; and strict, often physical, discipline. These parents have high expectations for maturity. – Authoritative, which is warm and nurturing, uses reinforcement over punishment, understands that children are not cognitively as mature as adults, and encourages communication between the parent and child. These parents have realistic expectations for maturity. – Permissive, which may be warm and loving but does not establish rules and often does not have consequences even for overt misbehaviors. These parents have low expectations for maturity.

Describe neglectful/uninvolved parenting, and compare it to the permissive parenting style.

. Neglectful/uninvolved parents do not seem to care what or how their children are doing. Permissive parents care about their children’s activities and are involved in their children’s lives; however, they are indulgent. With both styles the parents do not use physical punishment for misbehavior.

Discuss the long-term outcomes that are associated with the four parenting styles.

Children who are raised by authoritative parents tend to be popular with teachers and peers. As adults, they tend to be successful, articulate, happy with themselves, and generous with others. Children who have authoritarian parents tend to feel guilty or depressed, internalizing their frustrations and blaming themselves when things don’t go well. Rebellion is common. As adults, they are conscientious, obedient, and quiet but not especially happy. Children who have permissive parents tend to be less mature than their peers. They display poorer self-regulation. They continue to display dependent behaviors into adulthood. As adults, they lack emotional regulation and self-control. This immaturity impedes relationships, which is the main reason for their unhappiness. Children with neglectful/uninvolved parents tend to be immature, sad, lonely, and at risk of injury and abuse not only during childhood but throughout their life span.

Explain the difference between sex and gender as described in the text. Give three examples of gender schema.

Sex is defined by biology and includes the anatomical differences between males and females. Gender is a cultural construct and includes everything from toy preferences to dress to which emotions may be expressed and how they are to be expressed. Examples of gender schema include cultural constructs such as (1) boys shouldn’t cry; (2) girls play with dolls instead of soldiers; (3) boys don’t do ballet; and (4) girls don’t play football.

A person’s average body mass index (BMI) is the lowest at the ages of _____.

5 to 6

Between the ages of 2 and 6, a child’s appetite _____.

decreases

Alden is beginning to learn how to write. He can hold a pencil in one hand and steady the paper with his other hand. This new ability to coordinate the duties of his right and left hands is likely due to _____.

the growth of his corpus callosum

The number of people who claim to be left-handed in the United States and Great Britain has ____ since 1900.

increased

Steven, a 6-year-old, can correctly name objects, catch a ball and throw it, and write his ABCs in proper sequence. His younger brother Harvey is much less speedy and skillful in all of these areas. What is the best explanation for Steven’s superior performance?

Steven’s brain has experienced greater myelination than Harvey’s

Lin is able to play "Go Fish," a card game that requires quick thinking. What brain
change most directly supports his ability to think quickly?

myelination

Nicoli suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere of his brain. Which of the following skills is most likely to have been affected?

speech

During a long car trip, Lex and Nicole asked "Are we there yet?" so many times that their father became irritated. His children were exhibiting _____.

perseveration

The amygdala is a brain structure that registers _____.

emotions

The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that processes _____.

memories

Rose and her mother were shopping for a birthday gift for Rose’s older brother. "How about this? My brother would love it!" Rose exclaimed, showing her mother a pink and purple toy horse with flowing mane and tail. Beverly’s belief that her teenage brother would enjoy a toy that she herself would enjoy is an example of _____.

egocentrism

Seeing his third-grade teacher in the grocery store shocks Armand because he is used to seeing her only in school. This is likely due to Armand’s _____.

static reasoning

When children assume that the world is unchanging, they are engaging in _____.

static reasoning

Daryl has a ball of Silly Putty. His 6-year-old son, Mason, watches as Daryl flattens the Silly Putty into a thin "pancake." When Daryl asks Mason if there is now more Silly Putty, Mason replies "Yes" because he has _____.

not mastered the understanding of object permanence

A child is shown two identical tall containers, both half-filled with water. The contents of one container are then poured into a short, wide container. If the child states that both containers still have the same amount, then the child understands the concept of _____.

conservation

Which is an example of scaffolding?

Miriam helps her son Ben to make cookies. She measures all the ingredients out and places them on a counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon

Which capability is demonstrated when young children imitate adult actions that are irrelevant, time-consuming, and inefficient?

overimitation

According to theory-theory, why do children imitate irrelevant adult behaviors?

they theorize that the irrelevant behavior must be important

A child’s ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly is called _____.

fast-mapping

Four-year-old Yvonne is putting on her shoes and says, "I need to put my shoes on my foots." She is exhibiting _____.

over regularization

Neuroscience has proven true which statement about young bilingual children?

even though both languages reside in the same area of the brain, bilingual individuals are able to activate one language and temporarily inhibit the other

Demetrius’s family recently immigrated to the United States from the Ukraine. After he attended kindergarten, his parents noticed that his English was more fluent than his native language. Demetrius was exhibiting _____.

a language shift

Preschool programs are called "child-centered" when they stress children’s _____

development and growth

Sunnymont Preschool has plenty of opportunities for the children to play dress-up, dance, build with blocks, finger-paint, and be creative. Sunnymont is most likely a _____ program.

child-centered

Learning Circle Preschool emphasizes individual pride and achievement while focusing on teaching young children literacy-related tasks. Learning Circle’s approach seems to most closely resemble a(n) _____ program.

Montessori

The center of gravity in a 6-year-old drops from the breast to the belly, enabling many motor skills. true or false?

true

Too much sugar and too little fiber cause tooth decay in childhood. true or false?

true

The part of the brain that specializes in planning and prioritizing is the prefrontal cortex. true or false?

true

Myelination is essential for basic communication between neurons. true or false?

false

Impulsiveness and perseveration are opposite behaviors with the same underlying cause. true or false?

true

Vygotsky’s followers believe in scaffolding, a learning process that involves mentors who guide the child. true or false?

true

A theory of mind is one’s own personal understanding of the complex interaction among emotions, perceptions, thoughts, and intentions in oneself and others. true or false?

true

Children display evidence of fast-mapping before the age of 1. true or false?

false

It is always better for a young child to attend preschool than to be home with a parent. true or false?

false

Reggio Emilia programs emphasize formal classroom instruction by the teacher. true or false?

false

The executive function area of the brain where planning, prioritizing, and reasoning occur is called the _____.

prefrontal cortex

The left side of the brain controls the _____ side of the body.

right

The belief that inanimate things (furniture, moon, clouds) are alive is called _____

animism

Three-year-old Joss does not want to eat the sandwich his mother made because it has mustard on it. His mother wipes off the mustard, but Joss still will not eat it. This characteristic of preoperational thought, in which the child feels that a thing cannot be undone or restored, is known as _____.

irreversibility

The process by which one person learns from another, more experienced mentor as they share social experiences and explorations is known as _____.

guided participation

The child who says, "I seed the dog," or "My tooths hurt," is demonstrating a language error called _____.

over-regularization

Jace designed her preschool classroom with several play areas that enable groups of children to learn from one another. Her classroom shows the influence of _____, who thought that children learn from other children in addition to adults.

Vygotsky

Child-centered programs are influenced by _____, who believed that children can learn much from other children with the guidance of adults.

Vygotsky

In addition to being influenced by Vygotsky, child-centered programs are also influenced by _____, who believed that each child is capable of discovering new ideas.

Piaget

The federally funded early-childhood education program that was started in 1965 to help foster better health and cognition in disadvantaged children before first grade is called _____.

Head Start

Explain the functions of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system in early childhood. What changes occur in a child’s behavior as a result of the maturing limbic system
and prefrontal cortex?

The prefrontal cortex is the executive of the brain, essential to planning, reasoning, and anticipating. The limbic system controls the expression and regulation of emotions and processes memory. As the prefrontal cortex matures, the child’s ability to plan increases and impulsiveness decreases. As the limbic system matures, memory improves while nightmares and irrational fears decrease.

Explain the concept of animism. Give two examples of how children demonstrate this concept.

Animism is a child’s belief that inanimate objects are alive and that nonhuman objects or animals have the same human characteristics as the child. For example, a child may believe that a doll has emotions, that her pet cat thinks like she does, or that the chair on which she stubbed her toe did it to her on purpose.

Explain the difference between Piaget’s concept of egocentrism and the concept of egocentrism in everyday usage. Give an example of each of the two different usages.

Egocentrism in Piagetian terminology means that young children assume that everyone else experiences and perceives the world exactly as they do. For example, a child may buy a gift for his mother that he actually wants; he believes that she will be delighted with it because he would be. In everyday usage, the word egocentrism is synonymous with being selfish or concerned only with oneself. For example, an egocentric adult will assume that because he likes to have music blaring from his speakers, his neighbors are enjoying his loud music, too.

What is conservation? Describe an example of a conservation task, noting the initial presentation of the material, the transformation of the material, and the questions that children are asked. What is a preoperational child’s response?

Conservation is the understanding that the amount of something remains the same despite changes in its appearance. For example, one test of conservation begins with two identical glasses containing the same amount of a liquid. The liquid from one glass is then poured into a taller, narrower glass. The child is then asked whether one glass contains more liquid or if both glasses contain the same amount of liquid. Children who are in the preoperational stage of cognitive development will believe that the taller glass contains more liquid.

Explain and discuss the process of fast-mapping and the related idea of logical extension. Give an example of each concept.

Both fast-mapping and logical extension refer to the surge in a child’s learning of perceptual interrelationships among words. Fast-mapping refers to the phenomenon by which young children develop an interconnected set of categories for words, a kind of mental map, which makes speedy vocabulary acquisition possible. Fast- mapping speeds the development of learning new words because children immediately assign a new word to one of the categories in their mental language grid. Thus, the first time a child sees a pet ferret, he may assign it the status of a type of dog or a kind of cat because he does not have a weasel concept. The child’s understanding of the new word is not always precise. Children refine their understanding through use and experience. Logical extension refers to a child applying a newly learned word to another related object. A young girl who was just read a story about a Dalmatian dog may then refer to a black-and-white cow as a Dalmatian cow.

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