Lab Animal- random IACUC & Short Course questions

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What is the genus and species name of the mouse used in research?

A. Musculus mus

B. Mus musculus

C. Mus rodentia

D. Rodentia Musculus

E. Muridae mus

B

All of the following are mouse strains except:

A. DBA

B. 129

C. Balb/C

D. ICR

E. C57BL/6

D ICR is an outbred stock

A research mouse will typically consume how much food a day?

A. 1-2 grams

B. 2-3 grams

C. 3-4 grams

D. 4-5 grams

E. 5-6 grams

D

Female mice have how many pairs of nipples?

A. 1

B. 3

C. 5

D. 7

E. 9

C

The correct dental formula of the mouse is:

A. 1/0/0/3

B. 2/0/0/3

C. 1/0/3/0

D. 2/0/3/0

E. 1/0/0/2

A

Which statement about the Occupational Health and Safety Program is false?
A. Investigators should enroll in the local Occupational Health and Safety Program before beginning work with laboratory animals.
B. Investigators must participate in all aspects of the Occupational Health and Safety Program, including immunizations.
C. Typical services include rabies immunizations, tuberculosis testing, and tetanus immunizations.
D. Each organization must offer an Occupational Health and Safety Program for personnel who have significant contact with laboratory animals.

B. The IACUC is charged with ensuring that all personnel involved in animal research are offered enrollment in the organization’s occupational health program. Treatments under the program may be declined, but enrollment may not.

Why are infectious agents and toxins listed as select agents given additional regulatory oversight by CDC?
A. They have potential biological warfare uses.
B. No treatment is available should a human become exposed.
C. No adequate treatment is available should an animal become exposed.
D. Inadequate funding is available to study pathogenesis.

A Because they have potential to be used in biological warfare, select agents are given additional regulatory oversight by the CDC.

When must personnel performing animal procedures be properly trained to do so?
A. By the end of the experiments
B. Before any procedures are performed unless they have doctoral level or medical degrees
C. Before any procedures are performed
D. Before any procedures are performed unless they receive a waiver from their supervisor

C

Animal care and use regulations and guidelines require organizations to provide training in which of the following areas?
A. Techniques for creating transgenic animals
B. Humane methods of animal experimentation
C. Husbandry of captive amphibians and reptiles
D. History and tactics of animal activist groups (such as PeTA and HSUS)

B Organizations that use animals in research, teaching, or testing are required by the regulations and guidelines of the USDA AWA, PHS Policy, the Guide, and AAALAC, as applicable, to provide training in humane methods of experimentation.

The NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules apply to which of the following types of experiments?
A. Inoculation of biological toxins into mice and rats
B. Inoculation of nonrecombinant infectious agents into animals
C. Inoculation of recombinant infectious agents into animals
D. Laboratory use of recombinant chemical agents for in vitro work

C The NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules deal only with recombinant infectious agents. They do not apply to nonrecombinant ones.

Regarding studies with infectious agents in animals, as the BSL and ABSL number increases from 1 to 4, what happens to the containment and safeguard practices?
A. They become more vague
B. They become more stringent
C. They become less important
D. They become less stringent

B

Which of the following does not generally represent a good practice to follow when performing infectious disease work in animals?
A. Work bare-handed to prevent loss of tactile sensation caused by disposable gloves.
B. Anesthetize or sedate animals to reduce the chances of accidental human needle sticks.
C. Work in pairs.
D. Obtain an antimicrobial sensitivity panel or other therapeutic profile on the infectious agent.

A Good practice when performing infectious disease work in animals includes working with hand covers; obtaining an antimicrobial sensitivity panel for the infectious agent; anesthetizing or sedating animals to reduce chances of accidental human needle sticks; and completing work in pairs.

Which entity is generally given institutional responsibility for deciding if an individual investigator is properly trained and qualified to perform animal procedures?
A. The investigator
B. The IACUC
C. The Institutional Official in charge of the research program
D. The research technicians who perform the animal experiments

B Per PHS Policy and USDA Animal Welfare Regulations, the IACUC is given responsibility for ensuring that research personnel are properly trained to perform animal procedures.

Which of the following statements is true if an investigator wants to use a human clinical area for animal research?
A. Signs announcing the use of animals in a clinical area must be posted for 14 days prior to use at high traffic areas throughout the hospital.
B. Permission should be obtained from the IACUC and clinical administrators responsible for the area.
C. Sanitizing the area after use can be left to the night housekeeping crew, as long as they do the job within 12 hours.
D. Animals should only be used in human clinical areas during weekday work hours.

B

What does "IACUC" stand for?
A. Institutional Animal Control and Use Committee
B. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
C. Institutional Animal Care and Utilization Corps
D. Institutional Animal Control and Utilization Corps

B

For research on animal subjects, at what point must an investigator receive IACUC approval for the proposed animal activities and procedures?
A. Any time before the results are submitted for publication.
B. After any preliminary work with the animals that is needed to finalize the design of the procedures, but before the formal study begins.
C. Before any use of the animals for the project begins.
D. No later than when data collection from the animals begins.

C

The IACUC’s activities to ensure compliance benefit whom?
A. The researchers and regulatory agencies only
B. The organization and regulatory agencies only
C. The animals and investigators only
D. The organization, investigators, animals, and public health and welfare

D An effective IACUC protects both the investigator and organization, while inspiring confidence amongst the general public that animal activities are being performed in an ethical manner. Research utilizing animals is a privilege, not a right, and the IACUC has the responsibility to ensure that research, testing, and educational activities involving the use of animals are performed according to the highest standards. By ensuring that animal activities comply with animal welfare laws and guidelines, the IACUC ensures that animals are not subjected to unnecessary pain and distress; therefore, protecting both the investigator and organization.

Which of the following sets of IACUC members are required by the AWA and/or PHS?
A. A practicing scientist with experience in animal research, person who is not a scientist, person who is not affiliated with the organization, and public relations specialist.
B. A public relations specialist, veterinarian, person who is not a scientist, and person who is not affiliated with the organization.
C. A public relations specialist, veterinarian, practicing scientist with experience in animal research, and person who is not a scientist.
D. A veterinarian, practicing scientist with experience in animal research, person who is not a scientist, and person who is not affiliated with the organization.

D Federal guidelines mandate the following minimum IACUC membership requirements for organizations that receive funding from PHS and utilize animals regulated by the AWA: a veterinarian, scientist experienced in animal research, person whose primary concerns are in a non-scientific area, and person who is unaffiliated with the organization. A public relations specialist is not part of this mandate.

Which of the following is a mandated IACUC activity?
A. Inspect the animal facilities at the time of each protocol submission
B. Assist with writing the basic science portions of a grant application
C. Conduct reviews of the animal care and use program on a semiannual basis
D. Write animal use protocols for investigators

C A mandated IACUC function is to conduct reviews of the animal care and use program on a semiannual basis. IACUCs are not mandated to write the basic science portions of grant applications or animal use protocols for investigators. The IACUC is also not mandated to inspect animal facilities at the time of protocol submissions but is mandated to inspect animal facilities on a semiannual basis.

Which of the following is true of AAALAC International?
A. Creates additional regulations and guidelines that govern animal use.
B. Sponsors an accreditation program mandated by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Public Health Service (PHS).
C. Sponsors a voluntary accreditation program for animal care and use programs.
D. Shares information with other regulatory agencies like U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW).

C AAALAC International (2017) describes itself as "a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and assessment programs."

Which of the following Guides is best used as a source of guidance for animals used in agricultural research and teaching?
A. The Guide to Proper Procedures in Research Facilities
B. The Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (the Ag Guide)
C. The Guide to Animal Facility Design and Operation
D. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide)

B As the name implies, the Ag Guide is for agricultural animals used for agricultural (food and fiber) purposes. However, agricultural animals used in biomedical research may need to be housed according to the Guide while on study.

The Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR) do not currently apply to which of the following animals?
A. Hamsters and gerbils.
B. Wild birds.
C. Dogs, pigs, and sheep.
D. Non-vertebrates, laboratory mice, and laboratory rats.

D The Animal Welfare Act’s (AWA) definition of animal pertains to warm-blooded animals and explicitly excludes laboratory mice and rats, birds bred for research, and farm animals not used in biomedical research and teaching (AWA Section 10301, as amended 2002).

Which Public Health Service (PHS) organization is responsible for monitoring organizational compliance with PHS Policy?
A. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
B. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW)
C. National Science Foundation (NSF)
D. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

B According to PHS (2015), OLAW "has responsibility for the general administration and coordination of the Policy, provides specific guidance, instruction, and materials to institutions that must comply with the Policy."

Which of the following organizations must comply with the PHS Policy when utilizing vertebrate animals for research, teaching, or testing?
A. Those organizations that sell vertebrate animals for research, teaching, or testing.
B. Those organizations that conduct wildlife research.
C. Those organizations that accept U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) research funds.
D. Those organizations that accept Public Health Service (PHS) or National Science Foundation (NSF) funding.

D Organizations receiving funds from PHS agencies are required to comply with the PHS Policy. The 2015 memorandum of understanding between the NIH and NSF also mandates that organizations receiving NSF funding for animal research projects comply with the PHS Policy.

Which of the following statements concerning euthanasia in neonates is true?
A. Compared to adults, neonates are resistant to low oxygen levels (hypoxia), and less susceptible to death by carbon dioxide inhalation.
B. Compared to adults, neonates are much more susceptible to low oxygen levels, and quickly succumb to death by carbon dioxide inhalation.
C. Fetuses must be removed for euthanasia after the dam is euthanized.
D. It is unacceptable to decapitate neonates with scissors, even with IACUC approval.

A In general, neonates are resistant to low oxygen levels (hypoxia), and accordingly carbon dioxide is not very effective as a euthanasia agent unless there is prolonged exposure. IACUCs may allow quick decapitation with scissors for euthanasia of altricial rodent neonates (up to ten days of age). Rodent fetuses along with other mammals are unconscious in utero, and hypoxia does not evoke a response. Therefore, it is unnecessary to remove fetuses for euthanasia after the dam is euthanized (AVMA Guidelines 2013).

Humane endpoint criteria define the conditions under which:
A. The IACUC must be notified of the need for more animals to achieve statistical significance.
B. Animal forms must be rewritten to solicit continued IACUC approval.
C. Intervention must occur to remove an animal from a study, sometimes by euthanizing the animal.
D. Animals must be moved to larger cages.

C The criteria used for intervention in research studies to prevent unnecessary pain and distress are called "humane endpoint criteria" because they describe when it is time to: euthanize an animal to prevent suffering; discontinue a painful procedure; and/or remove an animal from a study.

Which of the following is an example of refinement?
A. The use of improved assays that provide better data precision, so that fewer animals are needed per group.
B. The shared use of tissues by more than one investigator to minimize animal use.
C. The use of newer surgical techniques that result in less tissue trauma.
D. The use of computer modeling software to substitute for animal experiments.

C

Which of the following activities would place an animal in category E?
A. Lethal dose experiments in which animals are allowed to die without intervention.
B. Blood collection from a superficial vessel of a dog.
C. Major surgery in which anesthetics and postoperative analgesics are administered.
D. Observation studies of normal primate behavior.

A Category E of the USDA report form applies to " animals upon which teaching, experiments, research, surgery or tests were conducted involving accompanying pain or distress to the animals and for which the use of appropriate anesthetic, analgesic, or tranquilizing drugs would have adversely affected the procedures, results, or interpretation of the teaching, research, experiments, surgery, or tests."

Which of the following activities would disqualify an animal from USDA category D?
A. Collecting tail snips from adult rodents for genotyping under local or general anesthesia.
B. Retroorbital blood collection from a mouse performed under anesthesia.
C. Studies in which animals experiencing pain are allowed to die without pain relief.
D. Surgery performed under anesthesia.

C Category D of the USDA report form applies to " animals upon which experiments, teaching, research, surgery, or tests were conducted involving accompanying pain or distress to the animals and for which appropriate anesthetic, analgesic, or tranquilizing drugs were used."

A simple rule to prevent excess blood collection in an animal is to collect no more than what percentage of body weight as blood at one time?
A. 3 percent
B. 1 percent
C. 8 percent
D. 5 percent

B

Because they cannot vomit and are not prone to aspiration pneumonia, which of the following animals should not routinely be fasted prior to surgery?
A. Ferrets and cats
B. Dogs, cats, and primates
C. Dogs and cats
D. Rodents and rabbits

D

Which statement does not apply to experimental surgery on animals?
A. Either general or regional (local) anesthesia is required to prevent pain.
B. Pre-operative planning is very important.
C. Sterile technique is optional for survival surgeries.
D. A goal of sterile technique is to prevent contamination of the surgical site.

C Sterile surgical technique—the goal of which is to prevent contamination of the surgical site—is required for major and minor survival surgery. General or regional anesthesia is required to prevent pain. Surgical procedures should be planned and approved by the IACUC before they are performed.

Which statement concerning non-survival surgery is true?
A. Non-survival surgery is surgery in which the animal is allowed to regain consciousness after the surgery.
B. If an animal undergoes non-survival surgery, no preparation of the surgical site is necessary because infections are not a concern.
C. Sterile technique is required for non-survival surgery even though infections are not a concern.
D. If an animal undergoes non-survival surgery, the fur around the surgical site should be clipped and clean instruments should be used.

D Sterile technique is not required for non-survival surgery, but fur clipping and clean instruments are.

Which of the following statements is true regarding research antibody production?
A. Contracting with a commercial enterprise to produce custom antibodies requires IACUC approval.
B. The production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in animals is unnecessary in biomedical research.
C. Commercial antibody enterprises are not required to follow PHS or USDA guidelines.
D. Rabbits are not allowed to be used for antibody production.

A If investigators plan to contract with a commercial enterprise or other entity to produce custom antibodies, whether polyclonal or monoclonal, they must obtain approval from the IACUC. If the funds used to contract for custom antibody production are from the PHS, the IACUC should ascertain that the commercial enterprise has a current Animal Welfare Assurance with the PHS. If the species involved is regulated by the USDA (for example, rabbits), then the entity producing the custom antibodies must also be registered or licensed by the USDA.

Which of the following statements about the postoperative period is false?
A. If a procedure would be painful in a human, one should assume that it would be painful in an animal.
B. Postoperative analgesia is not generally needed in rodents.
C. Animals should be monitored during the postoperative period.
D. Postoperative analgesia should be discussed with and approved by a veterinarian.

B

Blood collections should be spaced far enough apart to prevent which of the following?
A. Shock due to low blood volume and anemia.
B. Over distension of the urinary and gall bladders.
C. Over enthusiastic grooming of dorsal fur or haircoat.
D. Shock due to excessive blood volume, and hypercholesterolemia.

A

Which of the following statements about postoperative care records is false?
A. Daily observations are usually recorded during the postoperative period.
B. Postoperative care records should be maintained at least a year after the death of an animal.
C. For rodents, individual postoperative care records are not usually maintained.
D. Written postoperative care records are not necessary, as long as proper care is provided and treatments are administered.

D Written postoperative care records are kept for individual animals larger than rodents, but written records for groups of rodents are the norm. Daily observations are usually recorded during the postoperative period, and these written records should be maintained for at least a year after the death of an animal.

A dedicated surgery suite must be used for which surgery?
A. Major survival surgery on rodents
B. Major survival surgery on non-rodent mammals
C. Non-survival surgery
D. Major non-survival surgery on non-rodent mammals

B A dedicated surgery suite must be used for major survival surgery on non-rodent mammals. Major survival surgery on rodents, non-survival surgery, and major non-survival surgery on non-rodent mammals do not require such a dedicated suite.

Surgery that penetrates and exposes a body cavity or produces substantial physical impairment is defined as what kind of surgery?
A. Minor
B. Non-survival
C. Survival
D. Major

D

Which of the following is true of the dog exercise program mandated by the AWR?
A. The exercise must take place outside the building.
B. The IACUC can exempt an animal for scientific reasons.
C. The veterinarian cannot exempt an animal, even for medical reasons.
D. Dogs must be provided additional exercise regardless of the floor area of the cage.

B According to the AWR (§3.81.d.), "Exemptions. (1) If, in the opinion of the attending veterinarian, it is inappropriate for certain dogs to exercise because of their health, condition, or well-being, the dealer, exhibitor, or research facility may be exempted from meeting the requirements of this section for those dogs…(2) A research facility may be exempted from the requirements of this section if the principal investigator determines for scientific reasons set forth in the research proposal that it is inappropriate for certain dogs to exercise." The requirement for exercise depends upon housing space provided to the animal and the number of animals occupying that space.

Which of the following is true of the nonhuman primate psychological well-being program mandated by the AWR?
A. The program must include time spent outside.
B. The IACUC can exempt an animal for scientific reasons.
C. The attending veterinarian cannot exempt an animal, even for medical reasons.
D. Nonhuman primates must be enrolled in the program and cannot be exempted.

B

According to the Guide, social animals should be housed in pairs or groups whenever possible. Which of the following is not a good justification for housing animals individually?
A. Behavioral reasons (such as aggression by C57BL/6 male mice)
B. Scientific reasons
C. Health problems in an animal
D. Convenience of the research and husbandry staff

D

According to the Guide, which housing is recommended preferentially for domesticated rodents?
A. Cages with water bottle watering systems
B. Wire mesh floors
C. Solid bottom cages with contact bedding
D. Cages with automatic watering systems

C

Which of the following significant changes to a protocol could be administratively approved (in principle) by VVC?
A. A change from non-survival to survival surgery
B. A change in the principal investigator
C. A change in the specific objectives for the project
D. A change in the analgesic agent administered

D With an existing policy approved by the IACUC, a change in analgesic agent could be approved by VVC. Changes in principal investigator, objectives, species, or type of surgery can never be approved by this method.

What must investigators do prior to making any significant changes in their use of animals?
A. Obtain approval of the animal husbandry staff.
B. Modify the animal protocol form and keep a copy for their files.
C. Conduct a quick pilot study to be sure the change is useful.
D. Obtain IACUC approval.

D

Which of the following is considered a minor change that would not require formal IACUC review and approval?
A. An increase in the number of procedures to be performed on an animal.
B. A change in principal investigator.
C. A change in personnel.
D. A change in surgical anesthetic.

C Changes that may, or may have, a negative effect on animal welfare (including changes in anesthetic or the number of procedures) and changes in principal investigator are considered significant that require IACUC review and approval. Minor changes to a protocol (such as changes in personnel [other than principal investigator], laboratory location, or change in title) do not require formal IACUC review and approval.

Which of the following is true regarding the IACUC’s authority and responsibilities regarding research animal misuse, mistreatment, or noncompliance?
A. If an organization accepts PHS funds or is registered with the USDA as a research organization, any protocol suspension does not have to be reported by the Institutional Official to OLAW and USDA.
B. IACUCs are not responsible for investigating allegations of mistreatment, misuse, or noncompliance, as it is the investigator’s role to do so.
C. The IACUC has regulatory authority to stop any animal activities to protect either animals or people.
D. If an IACUC votes to suspend a protocol or animal activity, that decision can be overturned by any administrator at the organization.

C If the IACUC decides that any animal activities must be stopped to protect either animals or humans, it is given clear regulatory authority to do so. In fact, if an IACUC votes to suspend a protocol or animal activity, that decision cannot be overturned by any administrator at the organization. If an organization accepts PHS funds or is registered with the USDA as a research organization, any protocol suspension must be reported by the Institutional Official to OLAW and USDA. Once a report of mistreatment, misuse, or noncompliance is received, the AWR and PHS Policy require the IACUC to review and investigate the allegations (if warranted).

Who is authorized to overturn a decision by an IACUC to suspend an activity involving animals?
A. The attending veterinarian
B. The Institutional Official
C. Nobody
D. The Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW)

C If an IACUC votes to suspend a protocol or animal activity, its decision cannot be overturned by any administrator at the organization (including the Institutional Official). An organization that receives PHS funds must report any suspension to OLAW; however, OLAW is not authorized to overturn IACUC suspensions.

If an investigator sees an animal that appears to be in immediate danger, what action should be taken first?
A. Submit a report to OLAW or USDA.
B. Remove the animal from the threat if safe to do so and contact the attending veterinarian or IACUC.
C. Request that the IACUC suspend the activity.
D. Notify the Institutional Official.

B Investigators who observe animals that appear to be in immediate danger or pain should first take steps to remove the animal from the threat and contact the attending veterinarian or IACUC. If the investigator believes the event is due to misuse, mistreatment, or noncompliance, the details of the incident should be reported to the IACUC (or use another reporting method recommended by their organization), so that the incident can be reviewed and investigated (if warranted). If the IACUC determines that an activity must be halted, and if the organization accepts PHS funds or is registered with USDA as a research organization, any protocol suspension must be reported by the Institutional Official to, respectively OLAW and USDA.

Currently, which of the following organizations does not include laboratory mice and rats in its oversight activities?
A. The Public Health Service (OLAW)
B. USDA (Animal Care Section)
C. AAALAC

B The "Animal Welfare Act" of 1966 is enforced by the USDA and was enacted to regulate the sale of pets to research facilities, and as such, do not regulate mice, rats (or birds), bred for use in research. Institutions receiving PHS money must follow the "Guide" (OLAW oversight) and those accredited with AAALAC are subject to triannual program review and facility visits. Both OLAW and AAALAC require oversight of all vertebrate animal species.

Which of the following statements concerning health risks from working with mice is false?
A. Mouse urine and pelt proteins are an allergic hazard to people.
B. Mouse bites can penetrate and injure the skin.
C. Zoonotic diseases are very common in specific-pathogen-free laboratory mice.
D. Contact with wild mice in field studies is a risk for exposure to zoonotic diseases.

C

Using appropriate personal protective equipment can reduce the risk of allergies to mouse urine and pelt proteins.
True
False

True

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the federally mandated "alternatives search" in an animal protocol?
A. To provide an assurance by an information specialist that no alternative to the proposed animal model exists.
B. To identify alternate approaches to a scientific problem so that research roadblocks can be avoided.
C. To provide a narrative justifying the use of the animal model based on experimental data.
D. To search for procedures that may replace the use of animals, reduce the number of animals used, or refine the methodology to minimize animal pain or distress.

D The federally mandated search for alternatives helps to fulfill the requirement set forth in the AWA policies to consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary pain or distress. A properly performed search for alternatives will likely also confirm that the animal model is appropriate and that no alternative models exist.

Which of the following best summarizes the information that must be provided when a database search is used to document a lack of alternatives?
A. A narrative summarizing experimental data that justifies the use of the proposed animal model.
B. The library service used to perform the search, the date of the search, and the key words used.
C. The list of citations and the date of the search.
D. The names of the databases used, the date of the search, the years of citations accessed, and the search strategy.

D A proper search for alternatives to procedures that cause more than momentary pain or distress includes using database(s) appropriate for the field of study (e.g., Medline), listing the period covered by the search, the date the search was conducted, and providing a list of relevant ‘keywords’ to indicate that an alternative to the painful or distressful procedure was sought. This is not intended to be a search to support the necessity or purpose of the research. A library service (such as AWIC) can be helpful, but is not required.

Which is a TRUE statement below regarding assessment of pain or distress in mice:
A. A mouse with a moderately painful condition may appear and behave normally.
B. Pain or distress in mice is commonly expressed by dramatic changes in activity level and behavior.
C. Mice will continue to groom themselves, even when in pain or distress.
D. Mice displaying normal behavior can be assumed to be free of pain and distress.

A As a ‘prey species,’ rodents are genetically programmed to mask signs of pain or distress. Post-operative analgesics should be used and daily post-procedural monitoring done by personnel familiar with rodent behavior. Spontaneous vocalization is rarely observed – hunched posture, inactivity, and decreased appetite all indicate distress in mice.

Generally there is no need to withhold food or water from mice before surgery because:
A. Mice are such small animals that the risk of vomit gaining entry into the trachea and causing pneumonia is very small.
B. Mice are physiologically unable to vomit, they have no risk for respiratory aspiration of vomitus under anesthesia.
C. USDA regulations require that all mice be fasted prior to surgery.
D. Food should be withheld prior to surgery, but not water.

B Mice and rats have a tissue fold in their stomachs known as the ‘limiting ridge’ that prevents them from vomiting. Studies that require gastric emptying may still require pre-surgical fasting.

Which is TRUE regarding thermal support for mice during anesthesia?
A. Thermal support is required by USDA regulations.
B. Thermal support is not required in mice during anesthesia.
C. Mice lose body heat rapidly under anesthesia.
D. Mice have a low metabolic rate.

C

Which statement is true regarding venipuncture procedures in mice:
A. The tail vein in a mouse cannot be used to collect small amounts of blood.
B. Because of potential damage to the heart, blood collection by cardiac puncture is usually permitted only as a terminal procedure.
C. The lateral saphenous vein is not accessible in the mouse.
D. Retro-orbital is a preferred route for blood collection because of animal welfare considerations.

B Collection of blood by cardiac puncture can result in bleeding into the pericardial sac and tamponade (death), and should only be done terminally. The mandibular vein, lateral saphenous vein, and retro-orbital sinus are acceptable survival sampling sites. However, the latter should be performed under anesthesia and is not a preferred site because of the potential for damage to the eye when the technique is not done properly or when used repeatedly.

Which statement is true regarding anesthesia in mice?
A. Long-term anesthesia is best achieved by repeat dosages of a short-acting injectable anesthetic cocktail.
B. Dose rates (ml/kg) of injectable agents are the same for all common laboratory animal species.
C. Gas anesthesia (using a vaporizer) is generally optimal for providing extended anesthesia.
D. Ether is a preferred agent for long-term anesthesia.

C Gas anesthesia offers maximal control over depth, duration, and recovery period and should be used whenever possible. Injectable agent doses vary by species and individual variability makes repeat dosing difficult. Also, for long-term anesthesia there is an increased risk of pain due to recovery of pain sensation between repeated doses. Ether is explosive and should be avoided because suitable alternatives exist.

Which statement is true regarding the conduct of surgery in mice?
A. Nonaseptic surgical practices are acceptable when it can be shown that mice do not develop postsurgical infections.
B. Nonaseptic technique for survival surgery in mice is permitted by the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
C. Applicable federal mandates require the use of aseptic technique for survival surgery in mice.
D. Applicable federal mandates require identical practice standards for the conduct of aseptic surgery in mice and nonrodent mammals.

C

Which of the following statements concerning euthanasia of mice is true?
A. Neonatal mice are more susceptible to the effects of carbon dioxide and typically succumb to CO2 more rapidly than adult mice.
B. Experimental criteria are the only determinants of the euthanasia method that is acceptable for an animal.
C. Once respiration stops in mice euthanatized with carbon dioxide, it is safe to assume that death has occurred, and mice may be placed in an airtight bag and transferred to the necropsy refrigerator.
D. The selection of an appropriate euthanasia method should address considerations of humaneness to the animal, safety for the staff and onlookers, and experimental needs.

D

Which statement is true regarding care procedures for mice undergoing surgery?
A. Assessment of wound repair is the only objective of post-operative monitoring.
B. Antibiotics should be routinely administered to avoid wound infection.
C. While under anesthesia, mice should be monitored for cardiovascular and respiratory function and body temperature.
D. Supportive care and monitoring can be discontinued when the mice have recovered from anesthesia.

C

According to the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, which statement is TRUE for the use of CO2 as a euthanasia agent of mice?
A. Animal density in the euthanasia chamber is not a concern.
B. Compressed CO2 gas in cylinders is the only recommended source of carbon dioxide.
C. Dry ice is an acceptable source of CO2 for euthanasia.
D. Carbon dioxide should not be combined with premedication with inhaled anesthetics to euthanize mice.
E. Death from CO2 can be verified solely by a lack of respiration (apnea).

B The use of carbon dioxide in cylinders (not from dry ice) is the current recommended method of rodent euthanasia (AVMA recommendations on euthanasia) using a 20% replacement rate for the volume of carbon dioxide/cage or container. The floor space of the cage should be adequate to accommodate all mice on the cage floor, and respiration and heart beat cessation should be confirmed before disposal.

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Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

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