Intro to Psychology – Chapt 1-8

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The title of the American jazz classic, "Body and Soul" echoes a view known as dualism, a view associated MOST prominently with the philosopher:


Akira has declared psychology as his major. He will be studying:

behavior and mental processes

In a journal article in psychology, the specific hypothesis tested in the research usually appears in the:


Whereas the philosopher _____ believed that humans possessed some innate knowledge, the philosopher _____ believed that all knowledge is derived from experience.

Plato; Aristotle

The saying "mind over matter" reflects a philosophical view called _____, which is associated with _____.

dualism; Descartes

At a DUI checkpoint, some cars are stopped at random; many others are not stopped. Using the terminology of psychological research, the cars that are stopped may be considered a _____ of all the cars that pass by the checkpoint.


In order, the last two steps of the scientific method are:

analyzing data and publishing findings.

Currently, women earn ____ percent of the advanced psychology degrees in the United States.


Which classic case study revealed the genetic basis of schizophrenia?

Genain quintuplets – revealed the genetic basis of schizophrenia

Wundt began operating the first psychology lab in:


Which psychologist helped pioneer the cognitive perspective?

George Miller

__ psychology is a relatively new approach that counters the field’s more traditional focus on abnormality and maladaptive behavior.


At the heart of the humanistic perspective is the concept of:

free will.

Which of the following steps in the scientific method is correctly paired with its corresponding activity?

1. developing a hypothesis – The research performs a study.
2. collecting data – The researcher reviews the scientific literature on a topic.
3. analyzing data – The researcher determines whether hypothesis is supported.
4. developing a question – The researcher establishes operational definition.

analyzing data – The researcher determines whether hypothesis is supported.

Which early female psychologist might be considered a developmental psychologist?

Mamie Phipps Clark

Experimental research is to correlational research as _____ is to _____.

cause; association

A psychologist is pursuing psychology’s _____ goal when she observes aggressive behavior among patrons in a bar.


The formal beginning of psychology is associated with:


Organizing and making sense of behavioral observations is central to psychology’s goal of:


Characteristics of the environment or the participants that might interfere with an experiment’s outcome are called ____ variables.


The behaviorist perspective emphasized the importance of the environment. The pioneering behaviorist John Watson argued against the "instinct psychology" of the early 20th century. Based on this information, the textbook’s recurring theme of _____ is especially relevant to a discussion of the behaviorist perspective.

nature and nurture

With respect to the psychology of emotion, William James would be MOST interested in the:

way in which emotions aid one’s adaptation to the environment.

A placebo is given to members of the _____ group.


Consider some of the graphs you’ve seen in your text or elsewhere. Then imagine an experiment in which researchers compared the effects on problem solving of the administration of either Vitamin D or a placebo. In portraying the results of this experiment, the administration condition would appear on the _____-axis; a ______ graph would be most appropriate.

x; bar

Brenda says, "Psychology is the study of behavior." Chase responds, "No, psychologists study emotions." Which statement BEST evaluates these two remarks?

Brenda’s statement is too narrow. Chase’s is also too narrow.

According to Niedenthal et al. (2012), "studies of college students linked pacifier use during infancy to lower levels of empathy and emotional intelligence." The frequency of pacifier use during infancy, therefore, is _____ correlated to scores on measures of emotional intelligence.


Which activity is NOT part of psychology’s goal of explanation?

shaping behavior, noticing patterns, seeking clues in literatrue, identifying causes?

seeking clues in literature is not th correct answer

The process psychologists use to conduct research is called:

the scientific method.

Naturalistic observation entails:

examining behavior in the setting in which it typically occurs.

At Folger University, Drs. Chase and Sanborn are conducting an experiment on the effects of caffeine on memory. Participants are randomly assigned to a caffeine or a no-caffeine group; their recall of items on a word list is later assessed. Which pair correctly identifies a variable in this experiment?

a. caffeine – dependent variable
b. word recall – experimental variable
c. caffeine – independent variable
d. word recall – independent variable

caffeine – independent variable

Planning research, making observations, and communicating findings are all part of psychology’s _____ goal.


In an experimental test of the effects of Vitamin B-12 on problem-solving performance, _____ is the independent variable and _____ is the dependent variable.

the vitamin; problem-solving performance

Using a sample of young adolescents, Dr. Nguyen finds a correlation of .55 between scores on a measure of neglectful or uninvolved parenting and scores on a measure of delinquent behavior. Based on this correlation alone, Dr. Nguyen can legitimately conclude that:

parenting that is more uninvolved is related to a higher degree of delinquent behavior.

Perhaps the broadest, most integrative approach in psychology is the _____ perspective.


Noreen asserts that our behavior often reflects unconscious motives and conflicts. This viewpoint is MOST consistent with the _____ perspective in psychology.


The advent of brain-imaging techniques has been a boon for the biological and the _____ perspectives in modern-day psychology.


Experimental research requires the examination of the responses of _____ group(s).

at least 2

A neuron’s resting potential is:

-70 mV

Mr. Lopez is prescribed oxycodone to manage chronic lower back pain. Oxycodone is called an opioid because its action resembles that of _____, the brain’s natural painkillers.


There is a _____ correlation between the touch sensitivity of a body part and the amount of somatosensory cortex devoted to that part.


Which neurotransmitter is also a hormone?


A stroke damaged a portion of Broca’s area in Joelle’s brain. Joelle will probably experience deficits in:

language production.

The left and right hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the:

corpus callosum.

Trevor is scratching his head, trying desperately to solve a visual analogy as part of an intelligence test; Sienna, meanwhile, is giving an oral presentation in a political science class. Of the brain’s hemispheres, Trevor’s _____ hemisphere is MOST active; Sienna’s _____ hemisphere is MOST active.

right; left

At the broadest level, the nervous system is divided into the _____ and the _____ nervous systems.

central; peripheral

What is the sequence in which electrical charges occur during an action potential, from first to last?

resting potential > threshold potential > action potential

The branch-like fibers extending in clusters from the neuron’s cell body are called:


Darnell underwent surgery to control his severe epilepsy. Now, however, Darnell cannot form new memories of his experiences, although he does remember events in the past. Most likely, the surgery destroyed a portion of the _____ in Darnell’s brain.


Broca’s area is to Wernicke’s area as the _____ lobe is to the _____ lobe.

frontal; temporal

Which type of glial cell is correctly matched with its function?

None of these types of glial cells is correctly matched with its function.

The neurotransmitter GABA opposes the action of the neurotransmitter:


Arden’s heart rate and respiration are slowing, and her digestion is facilitated. Her _____ nervous system has become active.


Regarding the right hemispheres, which side of the body does it control?

The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body.

Terminal buds are found at the ends of:


The cerebrum contains ____

most of the brain’s structures.

In a split-brain operation:

the right hemisphere is severed from the left hemisphere.

_____ detects blood flow to brain regions, indicating heightened neural activity.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

The chemicals that relay signals across the synapses between neurons are called:


Roger Sperry’s Nobel Prize-winning split-brain investigations:

offered a way for psychologists to study the operation of each hemisphere.

An axon is a:

long, tube-like structure extending from a neuron’s cell body.

Sensory is to motor as _____ is to _____.

afferent; efferent

With respect to acetylcholine, Botox is to nicotine as _____ is to _____

antagonist; agonist

Parkinson’s disease is to dopamine as _____ is to _____.

depression; serotonin

Alphonse suffered a stroke, resulting in a lesion in his temporal lobe. Which of Alphonse’s perceptual or cognitive functions is MOST likely impaired?


A researcher is using a strong magnet to track blood-oxygen changes in participants’ brains as they complete decision-making tasks. The researcher is using _____ to examine the brain’s activity.

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

You cannot fire a gun softly or flush a toilet halfway. Like an action potential, gunfire and a toilet’s flush follow the _____ law.


In a typical split-brain experiment, whether an image is flashed in the right or the left visual field is a(n) _____ variable.


Sam is recovering from a small stroke. He has difficulty following rapidly changing conversations, and he does not seem to understand puns or sarcasm. Additionally, he has trouble recognizing the faces of his friends and acquaintances. The stroke may have damaged:

the right hemisphere.

The temporal lobe is to the occipital lobe as _____ is to _____.

hearing; vision

Lamar takes a melatonin tablet to help him sleep. The tablet’s active ingredient is released naturally by the:

pineal gland.

One can detect a single drop of perfume diffused in an area the size of a one-bedroom apartment. This is a(n):

absolute threshold.

Which of the following represents a knowledge-based explanation of the Müller-Lyer illusion?

module 3 – answer incorrect

Visual feature detectors are found in the _____ lobe.


In a study cited in the text (Mennella et al., 2001), infants exposed prenatally to the flavor of carrots showed fewer disapproving facial expressions when fed carrot-flavored cereal than did unexposed infants. In this study, the number of disapproving expressions is a(n) _____ definition of liking for carrots.

module 3 – answer incorrect

The function relating the value of a stimulus along some dimension to the just noticeable difference is known as _____ law.


Which statement MOST accurately expresses the relationship between knowledge-based and data-based processing?

Knowledge-based and data-based processes occur simultaneously during the perception of many, if not all, stimuli.

The world’s favorite favorite color is:


Hearing aids work by amplifying incoming sound waves. Their function is therefore similar to that of the:

middle ear bones.

The stimulus intensity that is detected half the time on average is called the _____ threshold.


Olfaction differs from the other sensory systems because:

module 3 – answer incorrect

In the most common form of color blindness:

red and green cannot be distinguished.

The receptor cells for hearing are located in the:


Regarding sensation and perception, which statement is true?

Sensation involves the interpretation of a stimulus, whereas perception does not.

Megan is in the mall, looking at a blue sweater. How does she know it’s blue?

Cones responsive to blue light in the retina begin responding, and blue/yellow opponent-process cells in the cortex increase their rate of firing.

Dorothy is 86 and has trouble hearing. She is not alone: about _____% of adults over 80 have difficulty hearing.


How many basic types of taste are there?


Which depth cue is correctly matched with its description?

linear perspective – parallel lines appear to converge with increasing distance

Simon watches a flock of birds fly south for the winter. Simon sees the flock as a group based not only on the birds’ proximity to each other, but also on the principle of:


Most notably, alcohol increases the activity of the neurotransmitter


Which drug is NOT a hallucinogen?

PCP, methamphetamine, MDMA or ketamine


According to the textbook, "Many cocaine users find they can never quite duplicate the high they experienced the first time, so they take increasingly higher doses . . . " This sentence BEST describes:


Lance is engrossed in an intense conversation at a crowded art gallery opening. Suddenly, his attention is riveted by the mention of his name in a far corner of the room. Lance’s experience demonstrates:

the cocktail party effect

The MOST common psychoactive drug in the United States is:

not alcohol, it may be caffeine, marijana, or nicotine

_____ is the MOST widely used depressant in the United States.


On a typical weeknight, the average American sleeps:

6-7 hours

Difficulty falling or staying asleep is referred to as:


Approximately _____% of one’s dream time is devoted to sexual themes. This is _____ with Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.

15; inconsistent

Which figure BEST approximates the proportion of dream time devoted to sexual themes?


Binge drinking is defined as a male having five or more drinks in one sitting or a female having more than four drinks in one sitting. This is a(n) _____ definition of binge drinking.


Benzodiazepines and barbiturates are types of:


The ________ in the hypothalamus regulates the body’s circadian rhythms.

suprachiasmatic nucleus

Driving after being awake and active for 24 hours straight is:

at least as dangerous as driving drunk.

Extreme sleepers are people who sleep "less than 4 hours or more than 11 hours per night." The phrase in quotes is a(n) _____ definition of the concept


One of the MOST noted hypnosis researchers is _____. He believed that _____.

Hilgard; hypnosis causes a division of consciousness

Brody is just drifting off to sleep. An EEG would reveal that _____ waves have supplanted beta waves.


Gina and Hal had several drinks at a party last night; she had three drinks, while he had five. Which of the two was binge drinking?

Only Hal was binge drinking.

A narrow focus on specific stimuli is called:

selective attention.

The MOST commonly used hallucinogen in the United States is:


Most sleep paralysis episodes last:

a few seconds.

The latent content of a dream:

is a dream’s underlying meaning.

Dreams in which sleepers realize they are dreaming are called _____ dreams.


Fatigue and pain reflect deprivation of _____ sleep. Emotional overreactions reflect deprivation of _____ sleep.

non-REM; REM

Which stage of consciousness is correctly paired with its corresponding brain wave?

Stage 3 sleep – delta waves

Which statement BEST expresses the relationship between narcolepsy and cataplexy?

Cataplexy is a symptom of narcolepsy.

REM sleep is paradoxical because:

the brain is active, but the major skeletal muscles are paralyzed.

_____ is an altered state of consciousness involving heightened suggestibility.


Which of these responses is acquired through classical conditioning?

feeling anxious before a test

Dr. DiFonzo notices several students nodding in agreement as he lectures. Subsequently, his rhetoric becomes more confident and more passionate. The students have provided ______ reinforcement.

both positive and secondary

Broadly speaking, nature is to nurture as the _____ is to the _____.


Event is to behavior as _____ is to _____.

stimulus; response

Thorndike’s notion that successful responses are stamped in by experience may be seen as an early statement of Skinner’s concept of:

positive reinforcement.

The focus of classical and operant conditioning is on _____. The focus of the cognitive learning approach is on _____.

external stimuli and consequences; internal processes

When behavior reemerges following extinction, _____ has occurred.

spontaneous recovery

Often, a conditioned response may be elicited not only by the original CS, but by a similar one as well. This is known as stimulus:


Positive reinforcement occurs when:

a desirable stimulus is added following a behavior.

Psychologists working in the area of cognition and learning:

go beyond classical and operant conditioning.

Which of the following reinforcers is NOT correctly categorized?

money – primary reinforcer

How does short-term memory differ from sensory memory?

Its duration is longer than that of sensory memory.

Which statement about the information processing model of memory is true?

Short-term memory has the smallest capacity of the three stages.

As Rodolfo works on a complex multiplication problem in his head, the numbers he is manipulating are in his _____ memory, and the multiplication tables he is drawing upon are in his _____ memory.

working; long-term

Jerome cannot open his term paper on his computer because the file has become corrupt. Kaci cannot find her term paper on her computer because of all the other documents she has stored on the hard drive. Jerome’s failure to retrieve his paper is analogous to the _____ theory of forgetting, whereas Kaci’s failure better resembles the _____ theory

decay; interference

How do Chinese participants’ life memories differ from those of Americans, and why?

Chinese participants’ memories more often relate to social and historical events because China is a more collectivist culture.

"I know it! It’s um . . . um . . . It starts with ‘G’," begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is falling prey to the _____ phenomenon.


Which statement accurately captures the relationship among the types of long-term memory?

Episodic and semantic memory are both components of explicit memory.

Based on the textbook’s discussion, memory competitors appear to differ from other people mainly in their:

memory strategies.

The recency effect refers to the fact that:

the last items on a list are more likely to be remembered than the middle items.

What does Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve demonstrate about the way people forget material over time?

Most forgetting happens immediately after people learn material; the rate of forgetting slows down as time goes by.

Which of the following sequences BEST reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last?

encoding, storage, retrieval

An essay question is a _____ test of memory. A multiple-choice question is a _____ test.

recall; recognition

Research reviewed in the textbook suggests that practice tests:

increase memory for material.

"Dog food, coffee, paper towels." Michelle’s roommate begins reciting items into the phone as she gets into her car; Michelle is supposed to stop by the store on the way home. The roommate continues to list a few more items. Finally, he wraps with, "Coffee creamer, spaghetti sauce, dish soap, and iced tea mix." Michelle forgets a few things, but the spaghetti sauce, dish soap, and iced tea mix are in the bag. Her memory for these items reflects the _____ effect.


In the words of George Miller, the capacity of short-term memory is the "magical number _____."

7, plus or minus 2

While a computer’s hard drive may be likened to the memory process of storage, its keyboard is analogous to the process of:


Clarice presses the Ctrl and S keys on her keyboard to save a document. A file is then created on her computer’s hard drive. Clarice’s action is MOST analogous to the memory activity of:


Which of the following expressions BEST reflects the capacity of short-term memory?

7, plus or minus 2 items

Define working memory

Working memory is generally used synonymously with short term memory Working memory is generally used synonymously with short term memory

The IQ of intellectually gifted individuals is _____ or above.


Which is MOST likely the prototype for the concept "fruit"?


______ is NOT among the three types of intelligence in Gardner’s theory


Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City, many Americans elected to drive rather than fly. The media coverage of the hijackings caused Americans to overestimate the danger of flying. This example illustrates:

the availability heuristic.

_____ is defined as a sudden understanding of a problem’s solution.


Terman’s long-term study of the intellectually gifted found that the gifted tend to be:

neither socially awkward nor physically weak.

Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports and ignores editorials critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to:

the confirmation bias.

"Kitty sleep," 2-year-old Isabella remarks. Isabella is referring to her pet at the _____ level of the concept hierarchy.


Zelma is asked to think of all the words she can, beginning with the letters "squ," as in "squeak." Later she is given a fill-in-the-blank task on which one of the items is "s _ _ o n g." Zelma keeps trying to make "squong" a word, and has trouble thinking of the common word "strong." Zelma’s ability to solve this problem has been hampered by:

a mental set.

"I need some Palmolive," Loretta remarks upon entering a large, unfamiliar discount store. "Excuse me. Could you point me to the dish liquid?" her friend asks a nearby sales associate. "Aisle 9, in household cleaners," the associate responds. Loretta referred to the _____ level in the concept hierarchy. Her friend referenced the _____ level. The associate identified the _____ level.

subordinate; basic; superordinate

Suppose a researcher uses strong magnets to track changes in blood oxygen levels across the brain when participants are viewing a scene and also when they are imagining the scene. Which device is the researcher MOST likely using?


According to the textbook, the average English speaker is familiar with _____ words.

30,000 to 60,000

People seek and remember evidence that supports their existing hypotheses; they ignore or discount contradictory evidence. In other words, people are prone to the:

confirmation bias.

With respect to the concept hierarchy, the _____ level is used MOST often to identify objects in everyday life.


Henry’s dog, Sparky, has been rolling in the mud. Henry must bathe Sparky before the dog gets mud all over the carpet. However, Henry is unable to find the plug for the tub. Sitting on the counter right beside the tub is a fifty-cent piece. In his frustration, Henry fails to see that the coin could be used as an emergency plug for the tub. What happened to Henry?

He suffered from functional fixedness.

As a condition for a test’s validity, a test’s reliability is:


"When you have trouble in a class, try outlining the book in your own words." What is this general "rule of thumb" for solving a common academic problem called?

a heuristic

When one tries to solve a problem, one brings to the situation all sorts of assumptions, habits of mind, and pre-existing knowledge and expectations. All these elements together make up one’s usual problem-solving strategy, which is called a(n):

mental set.

Which component of language is correctly matched with its definition?

pragmatics – social communication

"I adopted a third cat," Leonie reports. "Is it another Siamese?" Salvatore asks. With respect to the concept hierarchy, Leonie made reference to the _____, whereas Salvatore referred to the _____ level.

basic; subordinate

"Sound it out," Mrs. Sands encourages her first-grade students when they struggle to read a word aloud. Mrs. Sands is introducing her students to:


According to the text, divergent thinking is a component of creativity. Therefore, scores on measures of divergent thinking should be _____ correlated with scores on creativity measures.


An event’s availability in memory is NOT based on its:

primacy effect.

At a faculty-student mixer, Mildred’s psychology professor introduces her to a faculty member from the linguistics department. Mildred’s professor remarks that the linguist is "one of North America’s foremost phonologists." Based on her study of the psychology of language, Mildred surmises that the faculty member studies:


The practical problem Alfred Binet wanted to solve when he developed his intelligence test was:

identifying children with learning difficulties.

Etta is taking an intelligence test based on Gardner’s theory. How is Etta’s performance likely to be scored?

She will receive a score for each of seven types of intelligence.

When one uses the representativeness heuristic, one is:

assuming that something is typical of its class.

A researcher develops a questionnaire to assess the personality trait of impulsivity among adults. In a journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they take the test twice, 2 months apart. She also presents the average score, the highest score, and the lowest score obtained by two large samples: one done with 2,000 college students and another done with 750 adults who are not in college. However, when one reviews the sample questionnaire items, it seems clear that they relate more to whether a person is sociable, outgoing, and fun than to whether an individual is impulsive. As a result, one would question the _____ of the researcher’s questionnaire.


Suppose a researcher uses strong magnets to track changes in blood oxygen levels across the brain when participants are viewing a scene and also when they are imagining the scene. The ______ variable in this study is ______.

dependent; changes in blood oxygen levels

According to the textbook, about _____% of U.S. teens have established identities on social media sites.


In Kübler-Ross’s theory, acceptance of death is most immediately preceded by:


Mary Ainsworth devised the "strange situation" to assess


The brain becomes fully mature:

by 22 to 25 years of age.

A teratogen is:

an environmental agent that can produce a birth defect.

Piaget used the word _____ to refer to a collection of ideas that functions as a basic unit of understanding.


To stop baby Rudy from repeatedly reaching for a sharp knife on the kitchen table, Rudy’s mother put it into her apron pocket. "Out of sight, out of mind," she thought, and it worked. Rudy’s mother capitalized on his lack of:

object permanence.

Rebecca takes her 1-year-old son, Adam, to visit an infant-toddler program in which she hopes to enroll him. Adam appears very anxious and is unwilling to explore and play with the toys, even though Rebecca is close by. When Rebecca leaves the room to fill out some forms, Adam becomes extremely upset and remains inconsolable. When Rebecca returns, Adam stays close to her, holding onto her pant leg. However, Adam makes it very clear he does not want her to touch him or pick him up. Which term best describes Adam’s attachment style?


Susie does not eat cookies before dinner because her parents will send her to her room for the rest of the night. In Kohlberg’s terms, Susie is at the _____ level of moral reasoning


In psychology, the MOST influential theory of moral development in psychology is that of:


Which physical development during adolescence is accurately labeled?

enlarged Adam’s apple – secondary sexual characteristic

A 4-year-old child is shown a row of seven red checkers. He is asked to place a black checker immediately above each red one. By doing so, the child agrees that there are as many red as black checkers. The experimenter then spreads out the black checkers so that the line they form is longer than the one formed by the red checkers. The experimenter asks whether there are more red checkers or more black checkers in order to determine whether the child understands:


Based on the textbook’s discussion of the heredity-environment debate, which phrase is MOST accurate in regards to human development?

nature and nutrue

Recall Erikson’s stages of socioemotional development that occur during childhood. Which stage is correctly matched with its age range?

autonomy vs. doubt – 1 to 3 years

Parents who set strict boundaries and show little warmth reflect a(n) _____ parenting style.


Whereas the study of attachment style is associated with _____, the study of parenting style is associated with _____.

Ainsworth; Baumrind

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