Human resource management 1

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Human resource management is the policies, practices, and systems that influence employee’s ______________, _______________, and __________________

behavior attitudes performance


Analysis and design of work HR Planning Recruiting Selection Training & Development Performance management Compensation Employee relations

companies with effective Human Resource Managment the companies tend to _______________________, ____________________, and __________________

be more innovative have greater productivity develop a more favorable reputation in the community

Human Capital is an organization’s employees described in terms of their _______________, ________________, _______________, _______________, ________________, and ___________________

training experience judgment intelligence relationships insight

HRM therefore contributes to such basic measures of an organization’s success as____________, _____________ , and ________________

quality, profitability, customer satisfaction

An organization can succeed if it has ________________________________________________

sustainable competitive advantage.

HR give organizations advantages because human resources are ____________, cannot be ____________, have no good _______________ and with needed _________ and _______________ are sometimes rare.

valuable, imitated, substitutes, skills, and knowledge

Effective HRM can form the foundation of a _______________________________________

high-performance work system

An organization in which ___________________, __________________, ________________ , and __________________ all work together to give an organization a competitive advantage.

technology, organizational structure, people, Processes

Administrative services and transactions
Business partner services
Strategic partner are

HR Product Lines

Handling administrative tasks (for example, hiring employees and answering questions about benefits) efficiently and with a commitment to quality.

Administrative services and transactions

Developing effective HR systems that help the organization meet its goals for attracting, keeping, and developing people with the skills it needs. To be effective, HR people must understand the business so it can understand what the business needs.

Business partner services

Contributing to the company’s strategy through an understanding of its existing and needed human resources and ways HR practices can give the company a competitive advantage. For strategic ideas to be effective, HR must understand the business, its industry, and its competitors.

Strategic partner

Responsibilities of HR Departments

Analysis and design of work Recruitment and selection Training and development Performance management Compensation and benefits Employee relations Personnel policies Employee data and information systems Compliance with laws Support for strategy

Process of getting detailed information about jobs.

Job Analysis

Process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a given job requires.

Job Design

top qualities employers look for in employees are……

Teamwork skills Decision making, problem solving Planning, prioritizing tasks Verbal communication skills Gathering/processing information

A planned effort to enable employees to learn job-related knowledge, skills, and behavior.


Acquisition of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that improve an employee’s ability to meet changes in job requirements and in customer demands.


The process of ensuring that employees’ activities and outputs match the organization’s goals.

Performance Management

HR may be responsible for developing or obtaining ________________________ and other devices for measuring performance.


The _______ and _________ that employees earn play an important role in motivating them.

Pay, benefits

Organizations often depend on HR professionals to help them maintain __________________________________ with employees.

positive relations

Organizations depend on HR to help establish and communicate policies related to __________________________________________

hiring discipline promotions benefits

Organizations depend on HR to help establish and communicate policies related to ________________, ________________, _________________, and ______________________

hiring discipline promotions benefits

All aspects of HRM require careful and discreet ________________________________

record keeping.

use of quantitative tools and scientific methods to analyze data from human resource databases and other sources to make evidence-based decisions that support business goals.

Workforce Analytics

Government requirements include _____________________________

filing reports, displaying posters, and avoiding unlawful behavior

________________ depend on HR professionals to help them keep track of these requirements.


________________ will continue to influence HRM practices concerning job security.


Ensuring compliance with laws requires that HR personnel keep watch over a rapidly changing ____________________________.

legal landscape

The government has many laws and regulations concerning treatment of employees. These laws govern such matters as _________________________________, _____________________________, __________________________, _________________________, and _____________________.

equal employment opportunity, employee safety and health, employee pay and benefits, and job security

identifying the numbers and types of employees the organization will require to meet its objectives.

HR planning

a systematic, planned effort to attract, retain, develop, and motivate highly skilled employees and managers.

Talent Management

Collecting and using data to show that human resource practices have a positive influence on the company’s bottom line or key stakeholders.

Evidence-based HR

The parties with an interest in the company’s success are ___________________, ____________________, _________________________, and_______________________ .

shareholders, the community, customers, and employees

An organization’s ability to profit without depleting its resources, including employees, natural resources, and support of surrounding community.


A company’s commitment to meeting the needs of its stakeholders.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Apply HRM principles to contribute to company success are …..

HR Expertise and Practice

Manage interaction with others with goal of providing service and organizational success

Relationship Management

Provide guidance and advice to stakeholders


Direct initiatives and processes within the company

Organizational Leadership

Create a free flow of communication among stakeholders at all levels to produce meaningful outcomes


Manage human resources within and across organizational boundaries

Global & Cultural Effectiveness

Integrate core values, integrity and accountability throughout organization

Ethical Practice

Interpret pertinent information skillfully to determine impact of business decisions

Critical Evaluation

– Able to understand business function and metrics on company and industry level

Business Acumen

HR Professionals Behaviors

Remains current on laws and regulations; develops and uses best practices Provides customer service to stakeholders, ensures strategic alignment between HR and overall organization Serves as people management expert; develops consultative and coaching skills Fosters collaboration; exhibits behaviors consistent with company culture Provides constructive feedback; helps managers communicate effectively Embraces inclusion; work effectively with diverse cultures Maintains confidentiality; acts with personal and professional integrity Gathers critical information; makes sound decisions based on evaluation of information Demonstrates ability to understand business operations and functions; understand metrics and their relationship to business success

Who should be concerned with HRM?

Managers, supervisors and HR

Supervisors’ Involvement In HRM are

Help define jobs Provide training Appraise performance Communicate policies Recommend pay increase and promotions Interview Candidates Forecast HR needs Motivate with benefits or other rewards

fundamental principles of right and wrong.


is behavior that is consistent with those principles.

Behavioral ethics

Employee rights are

free consent privacy freedom of conscience freedom of speech due process

Ethical companies, in their relationships with customers, vendors, and clients, ethical companies emphasize ___________________________________.

mutual benefits

Ethical companies’ employees ______________________________________ for the actions of the company.

assume responsibility

Ethical companies have a ________________________________ or vision that employees value and use in their day-to-day work.

sense of purpose

Ethical companies emphasize _____________.


Standards for Identifying Ethical Practices are

fair and equitable Respect for basic human life Greatest good for greatest number

HRM consists of an organization’s ____________ ___________

people practices

people practices

policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance. influences who works for the organization and how those people work. responsible for a variety of functions related to acquiring and managing employees.

HRM requires human relations skills, including:

communicating negotiating team development

HR professionals also need to:

understand the language of business be credible with line managers and executives be strategic partners

Non-HR managers must be familiar with the basics of _________ and their own role with regard to managing HR.


Supervisors typically have responsibilities related to all HR functions such as ____________________, ___________________, ___________________, and _______________________

analyzing work, interviewing, training and performance appraisals.

HR professionals should make _______________ consistent with sound ethical principles.


Decisions of HR professionals should:

result in the greatest good for the largest number of people. respect basic rights of privacy, due process, consent, and free speech. treat employees and customers equitably and fairly.

Careers in HRM may involve specialized work in fields such as _______________, ________________, or ____________________

recruiting, training, or compensation

refers to all the people willing and able to work

Labor force

An organization’s workers includes its employees and people who have contracts to work at the organization

Internal labor

__________ __________ force has been drawn from the external labor market.

Internal labor

Individuals who are actively seeking employment.

External Labor Market

Number and kinds of people in ___________ ___________ ____________ determine kinds of human resources available to an organization.

external labor market

Changes in the Labor Force

Aging Workforce Diverse Workforce Skill Deficiencies

There are several practical implications of the aging workforce:

HR professionals will spend much of their time on concerns related to retirement planning, retraining older workers, and motivating workers whose careers have reached a plateau. Organizations will struggle with ways to control the rising costs of health care and other benefits. Many of tomorrow’s managers will supervise employees much older than themselves. Organizations will have to find ways to attract, retain, and prepare the youth labor force.

How does the company benefit from these mentoring programs?

workers so that knowledge is not lost but passed on.

The fastest growing of these categories are _______________________________ because these groups are experiencing immigration and birthrates above the national average

Asian and "other groups"

Along with greater racial and ethnic diversity, there is also greater gender diversity. More women today than in the past are in the paid labor force, and the labor force participation rate for men has been slowly declining.

During the economic recession and slow recovery, women’s labor force participation rate also declined slightly, but between 2012 and 2022,

women’s share of the labor
force is expected to remain steady, at around 47%. One important source of racial and ethnic diversity is immigration.

Two HR Implications Toward Undocumented
or Illegal Immigrants

supply of and demand for labor need to comply with laws

Many U.S. industries, including meatpacking, construction, farming, and services, rely on immigrants to perform demanding work that may be low paid.

. In other industries, such as computer software development, employers say they have difficulty finding enough qualified U.S. workers to fill technical jobs. These employers are pressing for immigration laws to allow a greater supply of foreign-born workers

The other HR concern is the need to comply with laws. In recent years, Immigration and Customs and Enforcement has focused its efforts on auditing employers to ensure they are following proper procedures to avoid employing undocumented immigrants.

Businesses that have justified hiring these people on the grounds that they work hard and are needed for the business to continue operating now are facing greater
legal risks.



communicate with employees from a variety of backgrounds.


provide career development for employees with different backgrounds and abilities.


provide feedback based on objective outcomes


create a work environment that is comfortable for all and fosters creativity.


Employers are looking for skills:

mathematical verbal Interpersonal computer

. Other companies team up with universities, community colleges and professional schools to design and teach courses ranging from basic reading to design blueprint reading.

Today’s employees must be able to handle a variety of responsibilities, interact with customers, and think creatively.

. More employers are looking for mathematical, verbal, and interpersonal skills, such as the ability to solve math or other problems or reach decisions as part of a team.

The increasing use of computers to do routine tasks has shifted the kinds of skills needed for employees in the U.S. economy. Such qualities as physical strength and mastery of a particular piece of machinery are no longer important for many jobs.

Three trends in high-performance work systems:

reliance on knowledge workers empowerment of employees to make decisions teamwork

Organizations have best fit between their:

social system (people and how they interact); and technical system (equipment and processes).

Employees whose contribution to the organization is specialized knowledge of:

customers processes profession

Knowledge Workers are especially needed for jobs in:

health services business services social services engineering management

Full involvement in one’s work and commitment to one’s job and company.
This is associated with:

higher productivity better customer service lower employee turnover

Giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service.

Employee Empowerment

Full involvement in one’s work and commitment to one’s job and company.

Employee Engagement

Work teams often assume many of the activities traditionally reserved for managers:

selecting new team members scheduling work coordinating work with customers and other units of the organization

is a companywide effort to continuously improve the ways people, machines, and systems accomplish work.

Total Quality Management

____________________________________ approach provides guidelines for all the organization’s activities, including HRM.

Total Quality Management

TQM Core Values

Methods and processes are designed to meet the needs of internal and external customers. Every employee receives training in quality. Quality is designed into a product or service so that errors are prevented from occurring. Organization promotes cooperation with vendors, suppliers, and customers to improve quality and hold down costs. Managers measure progress with feedback based on data.

3 HRM Controls Cost

downsizing reengineering outsourcing

presents a number of challenges and opportunities for HRM. IHRM must "surgically" reduce the workforce by cutting only the workers who are less valuable in their performance.


A complete review of the organization’s major work processes to make them more efficient and able to deliver higher quality, including HRM.


How HR accomplishes its goals may change.
Change requires HR to help design and implement change so that all employees will be committed to the reengineered organization’s success.

Reengineering affects HRM in two ways

the practice of having another company, such as a vendor, third-party provider, or consultant, provide services.


__________________ gives the company access to in-depth expertise and is often more economical as well.


HR helps with a transition to __________________


HRM should have a significant role in carrying out a merger or acquisition.

HRM’s significant roles in carrying out a merger or acquisition are

Differences between businesses involved in the deal make conflict inevitable. Training should include conflict resolution skills. There is a need to sort out differences in the two companies’ practices regarding compensation, performance appraisal, and other HR systems.

Expanding into Global Markets

Offshoring International Labor Pool

Moving operations from the country where a company is headquartered to a country where pay rates are lower but the necessary skills are available.


Hiring at home may involve selection of employees from other countries. Immigration

International Labor Pool

This requires HR expertise in selecting employees for international assignments and preparing them for those assignments. Employees who take assignments in other countries are called ________________


A computer system used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, and distribute information related to an organization’s human resources.

HR Information System

HRIS can:

support strategic decision making help the organization avoid lawsuits provide data for evaluating programs or policies support day-to-day HR decisions

Technologies Influencing HRM

Internet Portal Shared Service Centers Business Intelligence Data mining Cloud computing

________________________ refers to arrangements in which remote server computers do the user’s computing tasks.

Cloud computing

_______________________ uses powerful computers to analyze large amounts of data, such as data about employee traits, pay, and performance.

Data mining

____________________ employees can go online to select from items in a benefits package and enroll in the benefits they choose.


. They can look up answers to HR-related questions and read company news, perhaps downloading it as a podcast. This processing and transmission of digitized HR information is called electronic ____________________________________________________________

human resource management (e-HRM)

Creative organizations are applying social networking tools to HRM.

As a result, HR employees play a smaller role in maintaining records, and employees now get information through _______ ________.


processing and transmission of digitized HR information especially using computer networking and Internet.


has potential to change all traditional HRM functions.


System in which employees have online access to information about HR issues and go online to enroll themselves in programs and provide feedback through surveys.


Change In Employment Relationship

A New Psychological Contract Flexibility Flexible Work Schedules Flexible Staffing Levels

a description of what an employee expects to contribute in an employment relationship and what the employer will provide the employee in exchange for those contributions.

psychological contract,

Methods of staffing other than the traditional hiring of full-time employees (for example, use?of independent contractors, on-call workers, temporary workers, and contract company workers).

Alternative Work Arrangements

includes flexible staffing levels and flexible work schedules

Flexibility in HRM

A New Psychological Contract has

Less job security Top performance/longer work hours Flexible schedules Comfortable Working conditions More autonomy Greater training and development opportunities Financial incentives based on company performance Employability

are methods of staffing other than the traditional hiring of full-time employees

Alternative work arrangements

Organizations seek flexibility in staffing levels through alternatives to traditional employment relationship such as

outsourcing, temporary and contract workers flexible work schedules – including shortened work weeks moving employees to different jobs to meet changes in demand

An organization’s internal labor force comes from its external labor market

U.S. labor market is aging and becoming more racially and ethnically diverse.

Organizations must recruit from a diverse population, establish bias-free HR systems, and help employees understand and appreciate cultural differences.

HRM can help organizations find and keep the best possible fit between their social and technical systems.

Job design and appropriate systems for assessment and rewards have a central role in supporting employee empowerment and teamwork.

Employee empowerment means giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service.

HRM must design jobs to give employees latitude for decision-making and interpersonal skills.

HR professionals should be familiar with the organization’s strategy and may play a role in developing the strategy.

Specific HR practices vary according to type of strategy.

Organizations with international operations hire employees in foreign countries where they operate, so they need knowledge of differences in culture and business practices.

Regulation of HRM



Has enacted a number of laws governing HR activities.


Responsible for enforcing the laws. Includes the regulatory agencies that the president oversees.


Interprets the law. The Supreme Court is the court of final appeal. Its decisions are binding.

condition in which all individuals have an equal chance for employment, regardless of their race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin.

Equal employment opportunity (EEO)

Federal government’s efforts in this area include:

constitutional amendments legislation executive orders court decisions

Abolished slavery in United States.
Has been applied in cases where discrimination involved symbols and incidents of slavery.

Thirteenth Amendment

Forbids states from taking life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Prevents states from denying equal protection of discrimination.
Applies to decisions or actions of government.

Fourteenth Amendment

Prohibits employers from discriminating based on:
National origin
Applies to organizations that employ 15 or more

Title VII Civil Rights Act (1964

Prohibits discrimination against workers who are 40 years of age or older.
Age discrimination complaints make up a large percentage of complaints filed with EEOC.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)

Requires federal contractors and subcontractors to take affirmative action toward employing veterans Vietnam War veterans.
Covers veterans who served between August 5, 1964 and May 7, 1975.

Vietnam Era Veteran’s Readjustment Act (1974)

An organization’s active effort to find opportunities to hire or promote
people in a particular group.

Affirmative Action

Defines discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related form of medical condition to be a form of illegal sex discrimination.
Benefits, including health insurance, should cover pregnancy and related medical conditions in the same way as other medical conditions.

Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)

Protects individuals with disabilities from being discriminated against in the workplace.
Prohibits discrimination based on disability in all employment practices.
Employers must take steps to accommodate individuals covered by the act.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990

Right to jury trial for intentional acts
Adds compensatory and punitive damages in cases of discrimination under Title VII and ADA.
Amount of punitive damages is limited by the act and depends on size of the organization charged with discrimination.

Civil Rights Act (1991)

Employers must reemploy workers who left jobs to fulfill military duties for up to five years.
Should be in the job they would have held if they had not left to serve in the military.

Uniformed Services Rights Act

Maximum Punitive Damages Allowed Under the Civil Rights Act of 1991
15 to 100 employees
101 to 200 employees
201 to 500 employees
More than 500 employees

EMPLOYER SIZE DAMAGE LIMIT 15 to 100 employees $50,000 101 to 200 employees $100,000 201 to 500 employees $200,000 More than 500 employees $300,000

Employers may not use genetic information in making decision related to terms, conditions, or privileges of employment
Includes a person’s genetic tests, genetic test of the person’s family members, and family medial histories
Forbids unintentional collection of this data
Forbids harassment of employee because of genetic information

Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008

Prohibits federal contractors and subcontractors from discriminating based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Employers whose contracts meet minimum size requirements must engage in affirmative action.

Executive Order 11246

Requires federal government to base all its employment decisions on merit and fitness.
Also covers organizations doing at least $10,000 worth of business with federal government.

Executive Order 11478

Responsible for enforcing most of EEO laws.
Investigates and resolves complaints about discrimination
Gathers information
Issues guidelines
Monitors organizations’ hiring practices

The Government

EEOC Complaints must be filed within 180 days of incident.
300 days if state referral agency exists.

Responsible for enforcing executive orders that cover __________________ doing business with federal government.


Audits _________________ ___________________ to ensure they are actively pursuing goals in their affirmative action plans.

government contractors

Plan must include utilization analysis, goals and timetables and action steps.

Differing treatment of individuals based on the individuals’ race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability status.

Disparate Treatment

A necessary (not merely preferred) qualification for performing a job.
Supreme Court has ruled that BFOQ’s are limited to policies directly related to a worker’s ability to do the job.

Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)

A condition in which employment practices are seemingly neutral yet disproportionately exclude a protected group from employment opportunities.

Disparate Impact

Rule of thumb that finds evidence of discrimination if an organization’s hiring rate for a minority group is less than four-fifths the hiring rate for the majority group.
Compares rates of hiring, not numbers of employees hired.

Four-Fifths Rule

An employer’s obligation to do something to enable an otherwise qualified person to perform a job.

Reasonable Accommodation

In Avoiding Discrimination companies should recognize needs based on individuals’ religion or disabilities.

Employers may need to make such accommodations as adjusting work schedules or dress codes, making the workplace more accessible, or restructuring jobs.

refers to unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical contact of a sexual nature when:

Sexual Harassment

Submission to such conduct is made explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s employment,

Submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting such individual, or

Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment.

Organizations can prevent sexual harassment by

Developing and communicating a policy that defines and forbids it Training employees to recognize and avoid this behavior Providing a means for employees to complain and be protected

Authorizes federal government to establish and enforce occupational safety and health standards for all places of employment engaging in interstate commerce.
Established (OSHA). Responsible for

Inspecting employers Applying safety and health standards Levying fines for violation

Each employer has a general duty to furnish each employee a place of employment free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm.

General Duty Clause

Employers must keep records of work-related injuries and illnesses.
Employers must post an annual summary of these records from February 1 to April 30 in the following year.

Specific Duties

Employee Rights Under the OSH Act
Employees have the right to:

Request an inspection. Have a representative present at an inspection. Have dangerous substances identified. Be promptly informed about exposure to hazards and be given access to accurate records regarding exposure. Have employer violations posted at work site.

OSHA is responsible for inspecting businesses, applying safety and health standards, and levying fines for violations.

OSHA regulations prohibit notifying employers of inspections in advance.

Safety promotion technique that involves breaking down a job into basic elements, then rating each element for its potential for harm or injury

Job Hazard Analysis Technique

Method of promoting safety by determining which specific element of a job led to a past accident

Technic of Operations Review (TOR)

A safety awareness program has three primary components:

Identifying and communicating job hazards Reinforcing safe practices Promoting safety internationally

Implementing a safety incentive program to reward workers for their support of and commitment to safety goals.
Start by focusing on monthly or quarterly goals.
Encourage suggestions for improving safety.

Reinforcing Safe Practices

Cultural differences make this difficult.
Laws, enforcement practices, and political climates vary from country to country.
Companies may operate in countries where labor standards are far less strict than in U.S.

Reinforcing Safe Practices

Major federal laws requiring EEO:

Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1871 Equal Pay Act of 1963 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Age Discrimination in Employment Act

Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Vietnam Era Veteran’s Readjustment Act of 1974 Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)

is responsible for enforcing executive orders that call for affirmative action by companies that do business with the federal government.

Office of Federal Contract Compliance Procedures (OFCCP)

Employers can avoid by avoiding disparate treatment of job applicants and employees, as well as policies that result in disparate impact.


may correct past discrimination, but quota-based activities can result in charges of __________________________.

reverse discrimination

To provide ______________________________ , recognize needs based on individual’s religion or disabilities.

reasonable accommodation

Organizations can prevent _________________________________ by communicating a policy that defines and forbids it, training employees to recognize and avoid this behavior, and providing a means for employees to complain and be protected.

sexual harassment

Work Flow In Organizations

Work Flow Design Position Job

Process of analyzing tasks necessary for production of a product or service.

Work Flow Design

Set of job duties performed by a particular person.


Set of related duties.


Developing a Work Flow Analysis inputs fall into three categories: _______________________________, ______________________________________ , and _______________________________

raw inputs (materials and information), equipment, and human resources (knowledge, skills, and abilities).

________________________ are the activities that a work unit’s members engage in to produce a given output

Work processes

Knowledge of work processes also can guide staffing changes when work is ________________, __________________, or _____________________.

automated, outsourced, or restructured.

identifies the inputs required to carry out the work processes.

. Work flow analysis

Within an organization, individuals must cooperate to create outputs.
The organization’s structure brings together people who must collaborate to efficiently produce desired outputs.

Centralized Decentralized Functional Product or Customer

Firefighters work as a ________.


Firefighters and their equipment are the _______ and the _______ is an extinguished fire and the rescue of people and pets.

inputs, output

In any organization or team, workers need to be ______________ in several skills to create an effective team.

cross- trained

the process of getting detailed information about jobs

Job analysis:

a _______________ looks at the qualities or requirements the person performing the job must possess..

job specification

refers to factual or procedural information that is necessary for successfully performing a task.


a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails.

Job Description

Key components of Job Description

Job Title Brief description of the TDRs List of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty Essential duties vs. non-essential duties (ADA)

list of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAO needed to perform a particular job.

job specification

an individual’s level of proficiency at performing a particular task.


a general enduring capability that an individual possesses.


job-related licensing, certifications, or personality traits.

Other Characteristics:

Sources of Job Information

Incumbents Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

– people who currently hold the position in the organization.

published by U.S. Department of Labor (now replaced by O*NET)

an online job description database developed by the Labor Department

A standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs.

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

Key sections of Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

Information input Mental processes Work output Relationships with other persons Job context Other characteristics

Job analysis technique that asks subject-matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job.

Fleishman Job Analysis System

Fleishman Job Analysis System categories of Abilities

Written comprehension Deductive reasoning Manual dexterity Stamina Originality

is so important to HR managers that it has been called the building block of all HRM functions.

Job analysis

Identify types of work in their units
Information about work flow process
Information that supports hiring decisions, performance review, and compensation

Job analysis

Organizations are viewed as a _______________________ needing to be done, rather than as a set series of jobs held by individual

– designing work by project rather than jobs.


the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job.

Job Design

a similar process that involves changing an existing job design

Job Redesign

To design jobs effectively, a person must thoroughly understand:

job itself (through job analysis) and its place in the work flow (work flow analysis)

the available approaches emphasize different aspects of the job:

the mechanics of doing a job efficiently, the job’s impact on motivation, the use of safe work practices, and the mental demands of the job.

study of jobs to find simplest way to structure work to maximize efficiency.

Industrial Engineering

What does industrial engineering do to maximize efficiency.

Reduces complexity of work. Allows almost anyone to be trained quickly and easily perform the job. Used for highly specialized and repetitive jobs.

The model predicts that a person with such a job will be more satisfied and will produce more and better work.
This model describes jobs in terms of five characteristics

Job Characteristics Model.

Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback

The extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved.

Skill variety

The degree to which a job requires completing a "whole" piece of work from beginning to end (for example, building an entire component or resolving a customer’s complaint).

Task identity

The extent to which the job has an important impact on the lives of other people.

Task significance

The degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out.


The extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself.


A scheduling policy in which full-time employees may choose starting and ending times within guidelines.
A work schedule that allows time for community and family interests can be extremely motivating.


A work option in which two part-time employees carry out tasks associated with a single job.

Job Sharing

the broad term for doing one’s work away from a centrally located office.


Advantages in telework to employers include:

less need for office space greater flexibility to employees with special needs

Easiest to implement for managerial, professional, or sales jobs.
Difficult to set up for manufacturing workers.


Enlarging jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks.

Job Extension –

Enlarging jobs by moving employees among several different jobs.

Job Rotation –

Broadening types of tasks performed in a job.

Job Enlargement –

Empowering workers by adding more decision-making authority to jobs.
Individuals motivated more by intrinsic aspects of work.

Job Enrichment

Have authority for an entire work process or segment
Team members motivated by autonomy, skill variety, and task identity

Self-Managing Work Teams

– study of interface between individuals’ physiology and characteristics of physical work environment.


Goal is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring physical work environment around the way the human body works.
Redesigning work to make it more worker- friendly can lead to increased efficiencies.


Designing Jobs That Meet Mental Capabilities and Limitations. Work is designed to reduce information- processing requirements of the job.

Designing Jobs That Meet Mental Capabilities and Limitations. Workers may be less likely to make mistakes or have accidents.

Designing Jobs That Meet Mental Capabilities and Limitations. Simpler jobs may be less motivating.

Technology tools may be distracting employees from their primary task resulting in increased mistakes and accidents. Ex: computer/doctor

Designing Jobs That Meet Mental Capabilities and Limitations.

Ways to Simplify a ?Job’s Mental Demands._______ amount of information and memorization that the job requires.


Ways to Simplify a ?Job’s Mental Demands
Organizations can provide:

adequate lighting easy-to-read gauges and displays simple-to-operate equipment clear instructions

Work flow analysis identifies:

inputs used to carry out processes and produce outputs work processes required to produce these outputs amount and quality of a work unit’s outputs

is the process of getting detailed information about jobs.

Job analysis

Job analysis includes preparation of

Job descriptions Job specifications

The basic technique for designing efficient jobs is

industrial engineering.

According to the _______________________________________ jobs are more motivating if they have greater skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.

Job Characteristics Model

Ways to create such jobs include:

Job Enlargement Job Rotation Job Enrichment Self-managing work teams offer greater skill variety and task identity Flexible work schedules and telework offer greater autonomy

design may involve modifying equipment to reduce the physical demands of performing certain jobs or redesigning the jobs them- selves to reduce strain.


is better than competitors at something, and can hold that advantage over a sustained period of time).

Sustainability Competitive Advantage

The Ten Most Common
Ways to Turn an
Employee into a Plaintiff

Not Knowing/Following Policy/Practice Lack of Documentation/Good Faith Investigation Showing Favoritism/Appearance of Same Engaging in Sexual Harassment or Allowing Others to do so Not Following "Just Cause" Policy in Administering Discipline Modifying Employee-At-Will Doctrine Through Oral or Written Statements Inadequate Evaluation Process/Non-Candid Reviews Not Providing a Safe, Healthy, and Harassment-Free Work Environment Ignoring Small/Potential Problems – "Ostrich Syndrome"

Job Characteristics Model

Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback

The extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved.

Skill variety

The degree to which a job requires completing a "whole" piece of work from beginning to end (for example, building an entire component or resolving a customer’s complaint).

Task identity

The extent to which the job has an important impact on the lives of other people.

Task significance

The degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out.


The extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself.


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