Human Development Test 1

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Developmental science is a field of study devoted to

Understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan

While great diversity characterizes the interests and concerns of developmental scientists, they are a single goal: to identify

Those factors that influence consistencies and transformations in people from conception to death

Developmental science is ________ because it has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields of study


Theories are vital tools for developmental researches because they

Provide organizing framework for our observations of people

The continuous view of development holds that

Infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do

Within the ______ view of development, new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.


Dr. Kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the ______ perspective.


Kim is interested in comparing the language development of shy versus outgoing preschoolers. Kim is most likely interested in _______ that shpae development

The contexts

Tammy’s father is an exceptional gymnast. When Tammy was just a toddler, her father believed that Tammy already showed great promise as a gymnast. Tammy’s father probably believes that athletic ability is mostly determined by


Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes that sensitive caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin’s mother emphasizes the role of _____ in development


Theorists who point to early experiences as establishing a lifelong pattern of behavior emphasize


Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that

Change in response to influential experiences is possible

The increase in the number of healthier, more active older adults suggests that human development is a

Dynamic system

The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is

Multidimensional and multidirectional

According to the lifespan perspective, __________ is supreme in its impact on the life course.

No single age period

Max, age 65, learned to play the piano at a local senior center. Max demonstrates that

Development is plastic at all ages

Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents, and rarely saw her father, she is a successful, happy, and healthy adult. Betty’s ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development is known as


Research on resilience shows that

Interventions must attend to both the person and the environment to strengthen a child’s capacity while also reducing hazardous experiences

Which of the following is an example of age-graded influence?

Frank got his driver’s license at 16

History-graded influences explain why _______ tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times


The splurge of births from 1946 to 1964 yielded a unique generation that today comprises nearly ________ percent of the U.S. population


As a generation, baby boomers are

Healthier, better educated, and financially better off than any previous midlife cohort

Nonnormative influences

Do not follow a predictable timetable

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized ____________ and ___________

Natural selection; survival of the fittest

G. Stanley Hall regarded development as a ___________ process


G. Stanley Hall and his student, Arnold Gesell,

Launched the normative approach

Arnold Gessell

Was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents by writing child-rearing books

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon addressed practical educational concerns by

Constructing the first intelligence test

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon’s intelligence test was originally constructed to

Identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes

According to the ___________ perspective, people move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations


Sigmund Freud constructed his psychosexual theory

On the basis of his adult patients’ memories of painful childhood events

Accord to Sigmund Freud, the

ID is the source of basic biological neds and desires

Freud’s psychosexual theory was eventually criticized because

It overemphasized the influence of sexual feelings in the development

In contrast to Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson

Pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture’s life situation

One reason that the psychoanalytic perspective is no longer in the mainstream of child development is because

Its theorists were so strongly committed to the clinical approach that they failed to consider other methods

Dr. Faulkner believes that directly observable events-stimuli and responses-are the appropriate focus of the study of development. Dr. Faulkner probably follows the ___________ perspective of development.


Ivan Pavlov discovered

Classical conditioning

In a historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, John Watson demonstrated that

Children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neural stiumulus

According to ____________ theory, the frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforces

Operant conditioning

According to B.F. Skinner, _________ will increase the frequency of a behavior and ___________ will decrease the frequency of a behavior.

Reinforcement; punishment

According to ___________ theory, children learn primarily through modeling.

Social learning

Today, Albert Bandura’s theory stresses the importance of


According to Bandura’s revised social-cognitive theory, as children grow older they

Become more selective in what they imitate

Behavior modification eliminates undesirable behaviors by

Combining condition and modeling

Many theorists believe that behaviorism and social learning theory

Offer too narrow a view of important environmental influences

According to Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory,

Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world

Piaget’s view of development was greatly influence by his early training in


According to Jean Piaget, ____________ is the balance between internal structures and information that children encounter in their everyday worlds


Jamar understands that a certain amount of liquid or clay remains the same even after its appearance changes and can organize objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses. According to Piaget, Jamar is in the _________ stage of cognitive development

Concrete operational

Sydney, when faced with a problem, starts with a hypothesis, deduces testable inferences, and isolates and combines variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Sydney is in Piaget’s ___________ stage of development

Formal operational

Research on Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory indicates that

Children’s performance on Piagetian tasks can be improved with training

The information-processing approach views the mind as a

Symbol-manipulating system though which information flows

Lillian uses flowchart to map the precise steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks. Lillian is a(n) _______________ theorist.


Unlike Piaget’s cognitive-development theory, the information-processing approach

Does not divide development into stages

The information-processing perspective views the development as


A major strength of the information-processing approach to development is it commitment to

Rigorous research methods

The information-processing approach

Is better at analyzing thinking into its components than at putting them back together into a comprehensive theory

Dr. Singh studies the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person’s cognitive processing and behavior patterns. She is part of a group of researchers from the fields of psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine. This approach to development is known as

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen laid the modern foundations for


A(n) _____________ period is a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge


John Bowlby argued that

Behaviors such as smiling, babbling, and crying are innate social signals that encourage parents to interact with their infants

Evolutionary development psychology

Seeks to understand the adaptive value of specieswide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age

Lev Vygotsky’s theory focuses on

How culture is transmitted to the next generation

Unlike Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a ________ process

Socially mediated

Cross-cultural research stimulated by Vygotsky’s theory reveals that

Children in every culture develop unique strengths

Ecological systems theory views the person as

Developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding enviornment

Because a child’s biologically influenced dispositions join with environmental forces to mold development, Urie Bronfenbrenner characterized his perspective as a(n) ____________ model


According to ecological systems theory, interactions between Marina and her child occur in the


Family chaos is linked to

Economic disadvantage

_________ can help prevent escalating demands on families that give way to chaos.

High-quality child care that is affordable and reliable

Bronfenbrenner’s macrosystem consists of

Cultural values, laws, customs, and resources

Toby moved with his family just before he entered fourth grade. In ecological systems theory, the move represents a change in Toby’s


Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory all stress

Changes in thinking

A ___________ is a prediction about behavior drawn from a _____________


Dr. George predicted that positive reinforcement would increase prosocial behavior in preschoolers. Dr. George’s prediction is an example of a


Taking tests and answering questionnaires are examples of

Research methods

Which of the following statements about learning research strategies is true?

It is important in separating dependable information from misleading results

Ethology, evolutionary developmental psychology, sociocultural theory, and the lifespan perspective all view development as

Both continuous and discontinuous

Dr. Wiren observes children’s responses to bullying by wathcing them play in a park. This is a(n) example

Naturalistic observation

In a naturalistic observation, the investigator

Goes into the field and records the behavior of interest

A major limitation of systematic observation is that it

Tells investigators little about the reasoning behind responses and behaviors

____________ ask research participants to provide information on their perceptions, thoughts, and feelings


A major strength of the clinical interview is that

Permits participants to display their thoughts in terms that are as close as possible to the way they think in everyday life

Jessica asked each of 21 children in a kindergarten classroom to explain where rain comes from. She asked the same set of follow-up questions to each participant. This is an example of

Structured interview

A researcher using a structured interview would typically ask

The same set of questions in the same way to each research participant

Which of the following research methods is an outgrowth of psychoanalytic theory?

The clinical method

Dr. Bigelow is interested in studying musical prodigies. Which method is best suited for this type of research?

Case study

One major limitation of the clinical, or case study, method is

That researchers’ theoretical preferences may bias their observations and interpretations

Which of the following methods is best suited for studying whether American parents are warmer than Japanese parents?


Ethnographic research is directed toward understanding a culture through __________ observation


Jade spent two years in a Mexican-American community studying communication between parents and children. Jade is using the ____________ research method.


Compared to their agemates, adolescents form immigrant families are __________ likely to ________________.

Less; commit delinquent or violent acts

In the United States, adolescents from immigrant families

View school success as both their own and their parents’ success

One limitation of the ethnographic method is that

Investigators’ cultural values sometimes lead them to misinterpret what they see

Two main types of designs used in all research on human behavior are _________ and _________

Correlational; experimental

In a(n) __________ design, researches look at the relationships between participants’ characteristics and their behavior or development


Dr. Dias’ research shows the death of a spouse in old age is correlated with a decline in the surviving partner’s physical health. Which of the following conclusions is supported by this study?

The death of a spouse is related to a decline in the surviving partner’s physical health

One limitation of correlation studies is

Investigators cannot infer cause and effect

Dr Andodyne found a correlation of +.49 between illegal drugs use and levels of adolescent delinquency. This correlation is _______________ and ____________.

Moderate; positive

Dr. Anderson wants to conduct a study to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between domestic violence and anger in children. Dr. Anderson should use a(n) _____________ design.


A dependent variable is the

One the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable

In an experiment on the effects of music versus acting lessons on intelligence, the independent variable would be

The type of lessons (music versus acting)

In an experiment examining whether phonics instruction in preschool increases a child’s reading level in third grade, the dependent variable would be the

Child’s reading level in third grade

In experimental studies,

Investigators must take special precautions to control for participants’ characteristics that could reduce the accuracy of their findings.

By using ________ assignment of participants to treatment conditions, investigators increase the chances that participants’ characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups.


Professor Martinez wants to know if children who receive one-on-one instruction at school feel more self-confident than children who receive group instruction. To identify a casual relationship between type of instruction and self-confidence, Professor Martinez should

Randomly assign half of the participants to group instruction and the other half one-on-one instruction and compare measures of self-confidence for each group

In ____________ experiments, investigators capitalize on opportunities to assign participants randomly to treatment conditions in natural settings.


Researchers randomly assigned adolescents to either a single-grade classroom or a mixed-age classroom. This is an example of

Field experiment

In a longitudinal design, researchers study

The same group of participants repeatedly at different ages

Longitudinal research can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in behavior because the investigator

Tracks the performance of each person over time

A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can

Examine relationships between early and late behaviors

To examine whether depression is stable or changes with age, Dr. Bleu followed a group of participants from age 8 to age 40. This is an example of a ___________ design.


Bernadette, a participant in a longitudinal study, became quite familiar with the test over time and, as a result, her performance improved. This limitation of longitudinal research is known as

Practice effects

In a longitudinal study, _____________ effects occur when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions


In a cross-sectional design, researchers study

Groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time

Professor Gimbly wants to investigate how children of different ages characterize their friendships. Professor Gimbly should use a ___________ research design.


A major disadvantage of cross-sectional research is that

Factors affecting individual development cannot be explored

Like longitudinal research, cross-sectional studies can be threatened by

Cohort effects

In sequential designs, researchers study

Participants over the same ages but in different years

A sequential design

Permits researchers to check if cohort effects are operation

Research that combines __________ and __________ designs is increasingly common because it permits correlational and causal inferences

Experimental; developmental

The critical principle of ____________ requires special interpretation when participants cannot fully appreciate the research goals and activities

Informed consent

Dr. Ramorey 90-year-old Mr. Higgins to participate in a research study that involves moderate risks. Mr. Higgins is incapable of consenting. Which of the following would best state you advice regarding Mr. Higgin’s participation in the study?

He should only be allowed to participate in the study if it is likely to benefit him directly

One limitation of debriefing is

Young children often lack the cognitive skills to understand the reasons for deceptive procedures

Ethical standards permit deception in research studies if

The benefits to society justify the risks to the participants.

Christine is 5’7" and has blue eyes. Such directly observable circumstances are called


Phenotypes depend in part on a individual’s


A _____________ is a complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics.


Within every cell (except red blood cells) is a control center, or


Rodlike structures called _______________ store and transmit genetic information


Generally, human ________ come in 23 matching pairs


A _______________ is a segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome.


Research shows that ___________ genes lie along the human chromosomes.

20,000 to 25,000

Zookeeper Ross knows that he shares some of his genetic makeup with the chimpanzee, Chumley. You could tell Ross that between _____________ percent of their DNA is identical.

98 and 99

Lynn, a Canadian, and Sasha, a Russian, are probably about _________ percent genetically identical


A unique feature of DNA is that it can duplicate itself through a process called


During mitosis,

The chromosomes copy themselves

The area surrounding the cell nucleus is calld them


_______________ are the biological foundation on which our characteristics are built


The sperm and the ovum are sex cells, or


A gamete

Contains 23 chromosomes

______________ halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells


When sperm and ovum unite at conception, a(n) _____________ results


The exchange of chromosome segments during meiosis results in

Incredible variability among siblings

The genetic variability produced by meiosis is


In the male,

The cells from which sperm arise are produced continuously throughout life

A healthy man can father a child

At any age after sexual maturity

In the female, meiosis results in

Just one ovum

Of matching pairs of chromosomes, 22 of 23 are called ________ and one pair consists of ____________ chromosomes.

Autosomes; sex

Taylor’s twenty-third pair of chromosomes is XY. Taylor is a


The sex of a new organism is determined by whether

An X-bearing sperm or a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum

Patsy and Terry are fraternal twins. This type of twinning results from

The release and fertilization of two ova

Dizygotic twins

Are no more alike than ordinary siblings

Twins occur more often among _____________ women than _________ woman

Tall; short

A zygote that separates into two clusters of cells instead of just one produces

Identical twins

Candace and Cassidy, like all monozygotic twins,

Have the same genetic makeup

If the alleles from both parents __________, the child is _________

Differ; heterozygous

In dominant-recessive inheritance, the one allele that affects the child’s characteristics is called


Which of the following is a recessive characteristics?

Red hair

Which of the following is supported by research on dominant and recessive diseases?

Only rarely are serious diseases due to dominant alleles

North Americans with sickle cell anemia have an average life expectancy of ___________ years.


Carriers of sickle cell gene

Are more resistant to malaria than are individuals with two alleles for normal red blood cells

Eric is more likely than his sister to be negatively affected by X-linked disorders because

The Y chromosome lacks many corresponding genes to override those carried on the X chromosome

Studies of sex differences show that

The proportion of male birthdays has declined in many industrialized countries in recent decades.

Children with diabetes tend to have fathers, not mothers, with the illness. The pattern of inheritance is best explained by

Genomic imprinting

In which of the following disorders does genomic imprinting operate on the sex chromosomes?

Fragile X syndrome

___________ is a sudden but permanent change in a segment in DNA that can lead to _____________

Mutation; genetic abnormality

Studies of mutation demonstrate that

Some mutations occur spontaneously, simply by chance

Gilles has had frequent and high exposure to radiation in his occupation for the past ten years. Gilles’s offspring are at greater risk for ___________ than children whose fathers were not exposed to radiation.

Childhood cancer

Characteristics that vary on continuum among people, such as height, weight, or intelligence, are most likely determined by _____________ inheritance.


Most chromosomal defects result from

Mistakes occurring during meiosis

There was a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis, so Azizi received three of these chromosomes rather than the normal two. Aziz has ______________ syndrome.


The risk of bearing a child with Down syndrome rises dramatically with

Maternal age

The most common sex chromosome disorders involve

The presence of an extra chromosome (either X or Y) or the absence of one X in females

Research on sex chromosome disorders shows that

Females who are missing an X chromosome often have trouble with spatial relationships

The communication process of ___________ can help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals

Genetic counseling

Mr. and Mrs. Hopewell are concerned because they have been trying without success to have a baby for over a year. Which of the following procedures would you recommend to them?

Genetic counseling

If a family of mental retardation, psychological disorders, physical defects, or inherited diseases exist, a genetic counselor prepares a _____________m which identifies affected relatives in a couple’s family tree


Donor insemination

Permits women without a male partner to become pregnant

With ____________, a woman is given hormones that stimulate the ripening of several ova. These are removed surgically and placed in a dish of nutrients, to which sperm are added

In vitro fertilization

Children conceived through in vitro fertilization

May be genetically unrelated to both of their parents

Which of the following is an ethical concern regarding the use of reproductive technologies?

The in vitro "sex sorter" method could lead to parental sex selection

Hoda, an economically disadvantaged mother of four, is considering becoming a surrogate. What is one realistic concern that Hoda might have about surrogate motherhood?

Knowledge that their mother would give away a baby might cause insecurities in Hoda’s children

To detect developmental problems before birth, doctors use

Prenatal diagnostic methods

To inspect Jasmine;s fetus for defects of the limbs and face, as well as to allow a sampke of fetal blood to be obtained, permitting diagnosis of hemophilia and sickle cell anemia, her doctor should use


Except for ____________, prenatal diagnosis should not be used routinely because these methods have some chance of injuring the developing organism

Maternal blood analysis

Gene therapy corrects genetic abnormalities by

Delivering DNA carrying to a functional gene to the cells

Mr. and Mrs. Hale plan to have a baby. Physical and genetic examination revealed healthy reproductive systems and no family history of genetic disease. What additional steps would you recommend they rake to increase their chances of having a healthy baby?

Reducing or elimination toxins under their control, taking prenatal vitamin-mineral supplements, and ensuring proper nutrition

Most adopted children

Become well adjusted adults

Contemporary researchers view the family as a(n)

Network of interdependent relationships

When Erin and Brooke willingly comply, their parents are likely to be warm and gentle in the future. This is an example of a(n) ______________ influence between parents and their children/


Amelia and Andrew praise and stimulate their children, they mutually support each other’s parenting behaviors. Amelia and Andrew engage in effective


Grandparents are an example of ______________ that can promote children’s development

Third parites

Higher-SES parents tend to emphasize the importance of ___________ for their children, whereas lower-SES parents tend to emphasize __________

Psychological traits; external characteristscs

Today, about _________ million Americans are affected by poverty


In the United States, the poverty rate for single mothers with preschool children is nearly ________ percent.


Of all Western nations, _____________ has the highest percentage of extremely poor children

The United States

Most homeless families consist of

Women with children under age 5

In several studies, affluent teenagers were _________ likely than low-SES youths to _____________

More; report high levels of anxiety and depression

For both affluent and low-SES youths, what simple routine is associated with a reduction in adjustment difficulties

Eating dinner with parents

Neighborhoods have a(n) ____________ impact on economically disadvantaged than well-to-do young people


Research on effects of neighborhoods suggests that

Neighborhoods affect the well-being of children and adults

Mr. and Mrs. Parsons feel that an important factor in promoting their children academic success is frequent contact between teachers and parents. The Parsons would most likely find this offering in a(n)

Small town

Compared to those in large urban areas, adults in small towns are __________ likely to__________.

More; occupy positions of leadership

Compared to elders in large cities, elders in small towns are ______________ likely to __________.

More; remain actively involved in the community

One reason that the American people have been reluctant to accept the idea of publicly supported child care is that

American values emphasized independence and self-reliance

In _______________, people hold different beliefs and customs from those held by the larger culture


Which of the following statements about extended families in the United States is true?

More black than white adults have relatives other than their own children living in the same household

Among African Americans, living within an extended family tends to produce

Improved child rearing and reduced stress

Compared with nuclear-family households, extended-family arrangements

Place more emphasis on cooperation and on moral and religious views

In collectivist societies, people

Define themselves as part of a group

The United States is strongly _____________, whereas most Western European countries lean toward ______________.

Individualistic; collectivism

When reports indicate that many children are not achieving well in school, the state government grants more tax money to school districts. This is an example of a(n) ____________ policy.


In the United States, public policies safeguarding _________ lag behind policies for _____________.

Children and youths; the elderly

The United States

Does not rank well on any key measure of children’s health and well-being

Which of the following countries has a higher childhood poverty rate?


The United States

Has a higher infant death rate than canada

Which of the following countries has the highest teenage birth rate?

United States

Approximately _______ percent of U.S. children have no health insurance


One reason that public policies safeguarding children are slow to emerge in the United States is because

Children cannot vote or speak out to protect their own insurance

Social Security and Medicare consume __________ percent of the U.S. federal budget for the elderly


The minimum income guaranteed to Americans age 65 and older from Social Security is

Just above the poverty line

Senior citizens in the United States today are

More likely than other age groups to be among the "near poor"

The Children’s Defense Fund

Engages in public education, legal action, drafting of legislation, congressional testimony, and community organizing

___________ is a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in human traits and abilities

Behavioral genetics

A growing number of researchers regard the question of how much heredity and environment contribute to differences among people as


Dr. Rudy wants to compare the characteristics of family members. What kind of research method would you recommend that Dr. Rudy use?

A kinship study

Research on heritability suggests that

Heritability of personality does not increase over the lifespan

Twin studies of schizophrenia

Consistently yield high heritabilities, around .80

Because the environments of most twin pairs are less diverse than those of the general population, it is often difficult to

Generalize heritability findings to the whole population

Heritability estimates

Are likely to exaggerate the role of heredity

According to the concept of gene-environment interactions

People have unique, genetically influenced reactions to particular experiences

If a behavior is strongly canalized, then

Only powerful environmental forces can change it

Which of the following is strongly canalized?

Infant motor development

___________ is a strongly canalized skill


According to the concept of __________, our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed

Gene-environment correlation

Bart and Nadia are gymnasts. Their son, 4-year-old Dylan, participates in children’s gymnastics. This is an example of

A passive correlation

Angela, a cooperative and attentive child, receives more patient and sensitive interactions from her parents than Carlos, who is inattentive and hyper. This is an example of a(n) ___________ gene-environment correlation


____________ gene-environment correlation becomes common at older ages


Anthony, a well-coordinated and muscular boy, decides to play high school football. This is an example of a(n) _________ gene-environment correlation


Emma, an intellectual curious child, is a familiar patron at her local library. This is an example of


Which age group is likely to do more niche-picking?


The concept of ___________ helps explain why pairs of identical twins reared apart during childhood and later reunited may find that they have similar hobbies, food preferences, and vocaions


Accumulating evidence reveals that the relationship between heredity and the environment is


Which of the following concepts places the most emphasis on bidirectional exchanges between heredity and the environment


According to the concept of epigenesis?

Development results from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and the environment

Animal evidence suggests that one reason for an inconsistency in results from studies regarding the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHS) in individuals who are homozygous for a chromosome-5 gene (DD) may be that

Environmental influences associated with ADHD modify the gene’s activity

A study of maternal smoking during pregnancy and the DD genotype revelaed that

Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy scored higher that children of nonsmokers in impulsivity, overactivity, and oppositional behavior

One reason that the majority of children prenatally exposed to nicotines are at high risk for learning and behavior problems is that the DD genotype is


Development is best understood as

A series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture

An ovum bursts from on of a woman’s two ______________ and is drawn into one of two ________________.

Ovaries; fallopian tubes

The ____________ secretes hormones that prepare the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum

Corpus Luteum

The male produces an average of ________ sperm a day, yet only _____________ reach the ovum

300 million; 300 to 500

The male produces sperm in the ___________, two glands located in the _________.

Testes; scrotum

The outer ring of cells on a blastocyst, termed the trophoblast, will become the

Structures that provide protective covering and nourishment

The embryonic disc

Becomes the new organism

Following fertilization, a one-celled ________ multiplies and forms a __________

Zygote; blastocyst

Which of the following statements about a blastocyst is true?

Between the seventh and ninth day, it burrows deep into the uterine lining

The amnion

Encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid

The amniotic fluid

Helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant

As many as __________ percent of zygotes do not survive the first two weeks


The placenta

Delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism

The umbilical cord

Connects the placenta to the developing organism

The most rapid prenatal changes take place the period of


The ___________ eventually becomes the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs


During the period of the embryo, the ___________ becomes the ___________.

Endoderm; digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands

At beginning of the embryonic period, the _____________ system develops fastest


The _________ folds over to form the ___________, which will become the spinal cord and brain.

Ectoderm; neural tube

By the end of Greta’s first month of pregnancy, her embryo

Is about 1/4 inch long

During the __________ month of pregnancy, the embryo responds to touch


By the ____________ week of pregnancy, Monica will be able to learn the sex of her fetus.


Katie wonders when she will first be able to hear her fetus’s heartbeat through a stethoscope. You tell her that this should happen by the

Third month

By the middle of the second trimester, the

New being has grown large enough that the mother can feel its movements


Is a white, downy hair that covers the fetus’s entire body

While the sense of _____________ have begun to emerge by 20 weeks, a fetus born at this time cannot survive because ____________.

Sight and sound; its brain cannot yet control breathing and body temperature

Viability occurs between ________ weeks

22 and 26

A baby born between the seventh and eighth month of pregnancy

Usually needs oxygen assistance to breathe

In one study, more active fetuses during the third trimester became 2-year-olds who

Were less fearful

In the final month of pregnancy,

A layer of fat is added to assist with temperature regulation

In the last weeks of pregnancy,

Most fetuses assume an upside-down position

The term teratogen refers to

Any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period

The effects of teratogens

Vary with the age of the organism at the time of exposure

Which of the following statements about the harm done by teratogens is true?

The genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important role

Which of the following statements about prenatal sensitive periods with respect to teratogens is true?

In the period of the zygote, before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact

Currently, the most widely used potent teratogen is


Willa gets regular headaches. While pregnant, Willa begins using aspirin to ease the pain because she is convinced that aspirin is harmless. Which of the following effects can Willa’s regular aspirin use have on the developing organism?

Regular aspirin use is linked to low birth weight and poorer motor development

Mateo was born prematurely to Yvonne, a cocaine addict. Mateo’s caregivers can expect that

His cries might be abnormally shrill and piercing

It is difficult to isolate the precise damage caused by illegal drugs during pregnancy because

Drug-using mothers often take several drugs, display other high-risk behaviors, and suffer from poverty and other stresses

Victoria is a pregnant smoker. Victoria is among the estimated _________ percent of American women who smoke during their pregnancies


The best-known effect of smoking during the prenatal period is

Low birth weight

Adolescents prenatally exposed to smoking tend to have _________ than those born to mothers who did not smoke.

Higher levels of disruptive, aggressive behavior

Maryann is pregnant and works in a smoke-filled environment. What can you tell her about passive smoking?

Passive smoking is related to low birth weight, infant death, and childhood respiratory illnesses

Which of the following statements about fetal alcohol syndrome is true?

It is distinguished by slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities, and brain injury.

Recent evidence suggests that paternal alcohol use around the time of conception

Can alter gene expression

The more alcohol a woman consumes during pregnancy, the

Poorer’s the child’s intelligence and achievement test scores during the school years

About _________ percent of U.S. mothers report drinking at some time during their pregnancies


Low-level radiation, resulting from industrial leakage or medical X-rays

Can increase the risk of childhood cancer

Regina eats a mostly vegetarian diet, but she eats a lot of fish. When she becomes pregnant, what should Regina know about environmental pollution in fish?

Long-lived predatory fish, such as swordfish, albacore tuna, and shark, can be heavily contaminated with mercury.

High levels of prenatal lead exposure are related to

Prematurity, low birth weight, and brain damage

Men affected by even tiny amounts of dioxin in their bloodstream father

Nearly twice as many girls as boys

Which of the following statements about prenatal rubella is true?

The organ damage inflicted by prenatal rubella can lead to lifelong health problems in adulthood

Untreated HIV-infected expectant mothers pass the deadly virus to the developing organism ____________ percent of the time

20 to 30

To avoid exposure to toxoplasmosis, Kaye should ask other family members to

Change the litter box

Frequent, vigorous exercise, especially late in pregnancy, results in

Lower birth weight than in healthy, nonexercising controls

Dana is pregnant with her first child and wonders how much weight she would gain during the pregnancy. You should recommend a healthy diet that results in a weight gain of ______________ pounds.

25 to 30

The poorer the mother’s diet, the ______________, especially if malnutrition occurs during the last trimester.

Greater the loss in brain weight

Prenatally malnourished babies frequently

Catch respiratory illness

Taking a ____________ supplement around the time of conception greatly reduces by more than 70 percent abnormalities of the neural tube.

Folic acid

The effects of stress on the developing organism can be greatly reduced if the mother

Has access to social support during stressful periods

One of the goals of the Nurse-Family Partnership, currently implemented in hundreds of countries across 42 U.S. states, to

Improve family conditions, thereby protecting children from lasting difficulties

Twelve-year-old children of mothers who were home visited as part of the Nurse-Family Partnership _________ than comparison-group agemates.

Reported less alcohol and drug use

When the inherited blood types of mother and fetus differ, the most common cause of difficulties is

Rh factor incompatibility

Samantha is a first-time expectant mother at age 35. You can tell her that healthy women in their thirties have _____________ as those in their twenties.

About the same rates of pregnancy complications

If untreated, toxemia can cause

Convulsions in the mother and fetal death

Which of the following mothers is most likely to have had inadequate prenatal cca

Rachel, who is single and 16

The longest stage of labor is the

First, dilation and effacement of the cervix

The second stage of labor lasts

About 50 minutes for a first birth and 20 minutes with later births

Ursula is in the second stage of labor. She can expect ______________ during this stage.

Her baby to be born

During the third stage of labor,

The placenta is delivered

The force of contractions during childbirth causes the infant to produce high levels of stress hormones that

Help infants withstand oxygen deprivation during contractions by sending a rich supply of blood to the brain and heart

Which of the following statements about the infant’s production of stress hormones during childbirth is true?

Stress hormones prepare the baby to breathe effectively by causing the lungs to absorb any remaining fluid and by expanding the bronchial tubes

Lily weighed 8 pounds and was 21 inches long at birth. Which of the following statements about her size is true?

She was heavier and longer than the average baby

Which of the following statements about the newborn baby’s appearance is true?

Their found faces, chubby cheeks, and big eyes make adults feel like picking them up

The Apgar Scale

Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration

Andrew received a combined Apgar score of 5. This means that Andrew

Needs assistance in establishing breathing and other vital signs

Two Apgar ratings are given in the minutes following birth

Because some babies have trouble adjusting immediately but do quite well after a few minutes

Before the late 1800s, childbirth usually took place

At home and was a family-centered event

Most freestanding birth centers

Permit a choice of delivery positions

Natural childbirth experts Grantly Dick-Read and Fernand Lamaze recognized that cultural attitudes about childbirth had

Taught women to fear the birth experience

Mothers who ______________ have fewer birth complications and shorter labors

Are supported by a trained companion during childbirth

A certified nurse-midwife

Has a degree in nursing and additional training in childbirth management

About 10 percent of cases of cerebral palsy are the result of ___________ during labor and delivery.

In adequate oxygen supply

Fetal monitors

Track the baby’s heart rate during labor

Critics worry that fetal monitoring

Identifies babies as in danger who, in fact, are not

Some form of medication is used in ____________ percent of U.S. births

more than 80

During her labor, Renae asks for a mild dose of painkillers to help her relax. Renae will probably be given a(n)


_____________, the stronger type of painkiller used in labor and delivery, block sensation


Epidural analgesia

Is the most common approach to controlling pain during labor

Vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery is

Associated with slightly increase rates of rupture of the uterus and infant death

____________ is the best available predictor of infant survivor and healthy development

Birth weight

Preterm infants

Are those born several weeks or more before their due date

Tiffany is a small-for-date baby. This means she

Was born below her expected weight considering length of the pregnancy

Small-for-date infants _________ than preterm infants

More often show evidence of brain damage

Kangaroo care

Involves placing the infant in a vertical position on the parent’s chest, under the clothing, so the parent’s body operates as a human incubator

Interventions that support parents of preterm infants

Generally teach them about the infant’s characteristics and promote caregiving skills

The United States has the most up-to-date health care technology in the world and is currently ranked _____________ i international infant mortality


In the United States, the second leading cause of mortality is ____________, which is largely preventable.

Low birth weight

Which of the following statements about the results of the Kauai study is true?

The impact of early biological risks often wanes as children’s personal characteristics and social experiences contribute increasingly to their functioning

A _____________ is an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stiumlation


The ____________ reflex protects an infant from strong stimulation

Eye blink

In response to a stroke on her cheek near the corner of her mouth, newborn Azalea should

Turn her head toward the source of stimulation

When Baby Ian is held horizontally on his back, he sometimes makes an "embracing" motion by arching his back, extending his legs, throwing his arms outward, and then bringing his arms toward his body. Ian is demonstrating the

Moro reflex

Reflexes can help caregivers comfort a baby because they

Permit infants to control distress and amount of stimulation

Although newborns sleep more at night than during the day, their sleep-wake cycles are affected more by ______________ than by ___________

Fullness-hunger; darkness-light

Baby Tyler’s limb movements are gentle. He stirs occasionally and facial grimacing occurs. Although his eyelids are closed, occasional rapid eye movements can be seen beneath them. Tyler is most likely in which of the following states?

Irregular sleep

Which of the following statements about REM sleep is true?

REM sleep is vital for growth of the central nervous system

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to experience the greatest percentage of REM sleep?

Cheryl, a preterm newborn

Newborn infants who are brain damaged or who have experienced birth trauma often

Display disturbed REM-NREM sleep cycles

Early medical records of SIDS babies reveal

Higher rates of prematurity and low birth weight, poor Apgar scores, and limp muscle tone

___________ doubles the risk of SIDS

Maternal cigarette smoking

Healthy babies often cry

At the sound of another baby crying

The strategy most Western parents first try to soothe a crying baby is

Lifting the baby to the shoulder and rocking or walking

Swaddling newborns

Reduces crying

Which of the following statements is supported by research on colic?

Newborns who react especially strongly to unpleasant stimuli are at risk for colic

____________ helps stimulate early physical growth and is vital for emotional development as well


What advice can you offer parents who want to reduce their newborn son’s discomfort during circumcision?

Offer a sugar solution while gently holding the baby

Which of the following statements is supported by research on newborn taste preference?

Not until 4 months do babies prefer a salty taste to plain water

The smell of ____________ causes a relaxed, pleasant facial expression in newborns


At birth, newborns prefer __________ to ________

Complex sounds; pure tones

Three month old Jefferson will probably listen longer to ___________ than to __________.

Human speech; nonspeech sounds

____________ is the last developed of a newborn baby’s sense


It takes about __________ months for color vision to become adultlike


T. Berry Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale evaluates

The newborns’ reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, and responsiveness to stiumlation

___________ provide the best estimate of a baby’s ability to recover from the stress of birth

Changes in neonatal assessment scores over the first week or two of life

Around the time of birth, fathers who are in contact with the mother and baby often show

Slight increases in estrogens

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