human anatomy chapter 24

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Which vessels in the nephron function in filtration?

glomerular capillaries

The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule __________.

clings to the glomerulus, consists of branching cells call podocytes, and plays an important role in the formation of filtrate

Which structure(s) is/are confined to the renal medulla?

The thin segments of the nephron loop (loop of Henle.)

Why is blood pressure in the glomerulus higher than in other capillary beds?

Arterioles are high-resistance blood vessels, and the efferent arteriole is narrower than the afferent arteriole.

Renal corpuscles __________.

consist of a glomerulus and a glomerular capsule

What happens in tubular resorption?

Most nutrients, water, and essential ions are returned to the blood renal capillaries.

Which of these statements concerning peritubular capillaries is FALSE?

They are low-pressure porous capillaries. – They are adapted for secretion. They are continuous from efferent arterioles draining the cortical glomeruli. They absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells after these substances are resorbed from filtrate.

Knot of capillaries that directs blood into the efferent arteriole.


The medial concave cleft in which vessels, ureters, and nerves enter/leave the kidney.


85% of nephrons are described by this term that relates to their location in the kidney.


The descriptive term for the location of the kidneys relative to the abdominal cavity.


Which of the following is not normally found in urine?


Vessels and nerves enter and leave the kidney through the

medial hilum.

The most superficial layer of the kidney is the


How much of the fluid filtered by the kidney actually becomes urine?


Before it enters the ureter, urine collects in the

renal pelvis

Which of the following is not part of the filtration membrane?

granular cells

Which of the following processes does not participate in the production of urine in the kidney?


The glomerular capsule and the glomerular capillaries together make up the renal corpuscle.


A network of peritubular capillaries surrounds the convoluted tubules and nephron loop for the purpose of filtration.


Cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons can be distinguished by the absence of a vasa recta in the cortical nephrons.


Where does blood flow immediately after it leaves the glomerulus in the renal corpuscle?

efferent arteriole

Which of these sequences correctly traces arterial blood as it flows from the renal artery to the renal cortex?

segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, cortical radiate artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillary

Which of these events occurs after the posterior pituitary gland secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

The collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules become more permeable to water, which results in additional water being resorbed into blood vessels from the filtrate.

Region of the distal tubule that monitors concentration of the filtrate.

macula densa

Blood vessel that contains granular cells involved in blood pressure regulation.

afferent arteriole

The function of the collecting duct is to

determine the final volume and concentration of urine.

Renin is produced in

the granular cells.

In the juxtaglomerular apparatus, the macula densa belongs to the

terminal nephron loop.

An increase in the permeability of collecting tubule cells to water is due to

an increase in the production of ADH.

What is the function of the macula densa?

These are specialized cells of the DCT that act as chemoreceptors for monitoring ion concentrations in the filtrate.

The ureters enter the bladder obliquely at the anterolateral corners.


In what way is the histology of the ureters the same as that of the urinary bladder?

Their luminal epithelium is transitional epithelium.

Contraction of this muscle forces urine from the bladder.


The mucosal folds in the bladder (rugae)

have the same basic function as transitional epitheliumaccommodating stretch as the bladder fills.

Which of the following statements about the urinary bladder is false?

In females, the bladder lies posterior to the uterus but anterior to the rectum.

The epithelium lining the urinary bladder that permits distension is


In females, the urinary bladder lies anterior to the vagina and uterus.


The urinary bladder, when empty, lies within both the abdominal and pelvic cavities.


The name of the inferior of the three openings in the trigone of the bladder is the

internal urethral orifice.

The longest of the three parts of the male urethra is the

spongy urethra.

Which urethral sphincter is innervated by somatic (voluntary) motor neurons?

external urethral sphincter

The oblique entry of the ureters into the bladder __________.

prevents backflow of urine into the ureters from the urinary bladder

The internal urethral sphincter is composed of smooth muscle and is under involuntary control.


The micturition center is located in the

pons of the brain stem.

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