human anatomy chapter 15

Which type of nerve fibers make up the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?

sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers

Where do sympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse?

sympathetic trunk and collateral ganglia

Where are cell bodies of somatic motor neurons located?

ventral horn of spinal cord

Which region of the spinal cord does NOT contain any autonomic neurons?

cervical

The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is characterized by __________.

localized effects on specific organs and short postganglionic axons near organ of innervation

Which of these statements accurately describes how the general visceral motor system of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) differs from the general somatic motor system?

Motor units in the ANS include a chain of two motor neurons.

Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS ?

They innervate many of the same visceral organs.

The ANS is the system of __________ neurons that regulates such functions as __________.

motor / heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers to sweat glands and peripheral blood vessels secrete _________.

acetylcholine

The general visceral motor division of the peripheral nervous system describes the

ANS

Cell body of this autonomic neuron lies outside the CNS.

post-ganglionic neuron

Cell body of this autonomic neuron lies within the CNS.

pre-ganglionic neuron

Division that is dominant during exercise, excitement, or emergencies.

sympathetic

Which of these is not innervated by the ANS?

skeletal muscle

Another name for the ANS is the

general visceral motor system.

Which of these descriptions is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?

contraction of the bladder wall in urination constriction of the pupils ==production of goose bumps increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera

The trunk ganglia contain what kind of cell bodies?

postganglionic sympathetic

Cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located within the

lateral gray horns of the spinal cord.

Which autonomic division increases heart rate?

sympathetic

Preganglionic fibers are myelinated, whereas postganglionic fibers are unmyelinated.

true

Which cranial nerve carries parasympathetic innervation to the thoracic and abdominal viscera?

CN X

Which of these organs/tissues are NOT innervated by parasympathetic fibers, or do not exhibit parasympathetic effects?

sweat glands, arrector pili muscles, and adipose tissue

Division of the ANS responsible for the fight-or-flight response describes the

sympathetic division

Division of the ANS most active during vigorous exercise describes the

sympathetic division

Division of the ANS most active when the body is at rest describes the

parasympathetic division

thoracic duct

...

vagus nerve

...

thoracic lymph nodes

...

sympathetic trunk gangli

...

cardiac nerves

...

right lymphatic duct

...

sympathetic trunk

...

Which statement is true concerning the innervation of adrenal medulla?

Preganglionic sympathetic axons terminate in the adrenal medulla and stimulate the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Sympathetic innervation to the head follows which pathway?

Preganglionic fibers travel to synapse in the superior cervical ganglion. Postganglionic fibers travel with blood vessels, and innervate structures of the head.

If you were very nervous about speaking in front of a group of people, which of the following would be likely to develop?

dry mouth, due to sympathetic inhibition of secretions from the salivary glands

What is the role of the gray rami communicantes?

They are the postganglionic sympathetic axons that direct impulses to intended peripheral organs.

The sympathetic pathways to the extremities, direct impulses to which of these structures/tissues?

arrector pili muscles and sweat glands

Short nerve branches that connect the ventral rami of spinal nerves to the sympathetic ganglia.

rami communicantes

Ganglia of this structure are connected to the ventral rami of spinal nerves through the rami communicantes.

sympathetic trunk

Which division of the autonomic nervous system innervates the sweat glands in skin?

sympathetic

The gray and white rami communicantes attach to the

ventral rami

dorsal root ganglia.

...

ventral rami

...

spinal nerves

...

dorsal roots

...

What stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete its excitatory neurohormones?

preganglionic sympathetic neurons

Which of these statements concerning gray rami communicantes is incorrect?

They contain all the preganglionic fibers traveling to the sympathetic chain.

Cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located within the

lateral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord.

Identify the pathway that correctly traces the movement of preganglionic sympathetic fibers.

ventral root to white ramus communicans to sympathetic trunk ganglion

The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of

sympathetic stimulation

Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?

in the armpit

Sympathetic trunk ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons and are located in the dorsal root of the spinal cord.

false

Because the fibers of the sympathetic division arise from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, they cannot innervate structures of the head or pelvis.

false

Parasympathetic fibers innervate the sweat glands, arrector pili, and smooth muscles of the arteries.
`

false

This division can also be called the craniosacral division.

parasympathetic division

Division that is dominant during rest, digestion, and excretion.

parasympathetic

Which division of the autonomic nervous system has preganglionic fibers within the facial nerve?

parasympathetic

All of the following have only sympathetic innervation except the

arrector pili. sweat glands. salivary glands. blood vessels.

Which of the following cranial nerves does not supply parasympathetic fibers to the head?

vagus

The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by

peripheral ganglia near the organs, and short postganglionic fibers.

The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the

brain stem and the sacral region of the cord.

Cranial parasympathetic outflow is contained in all of the following cranial nerves except the

accessory

In which autonomic division do nerve cell bodies lie closest to the organs being innervated?

parasympathetic

Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers of the head travel within the

trigeminal nerve.

Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the

thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine.

Over 90% of all preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are in cranial nerve

X

What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation of respiratory bronchioles in the lungs?

constriction

Parasympathetic stimulation of blood vessels causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure.

false

Fibers from the cranial and sacral regions of the spinal cord contribute to the sympathetic division.

false

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers are relatively long compared to those of the parasympathetic division.

true

The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions can be distinguished by the amount of branching of the post-ganglionic fibers.

true

Referred pain from the small intestines would be felt in the __________, whereas referred pain from the liver would be felt in the __________.

umbilical region / superior right thoracic region and superior right quadrant

Control of temperature, of autonomic nervous reflexes, of hunger, and of sleep are functions associated with the

hypothalamus

The part of the brain that exerts more control over autonomic functioning than any other part is the

hypothalamus

The overall integrating center for the ANS.

hypothalamus

Stimulation of the vagus nerve in the baroreceptor reflex causes __________.

decreased heart rate

The enteric nervous system functions __________.

entirely within the wall of the digestive tube

What influence does the cerebral cortex have on the ANS?

Voluntary sympathetic activation occurs when the cerebral cortex acts on the amygdala when one remembers a scary event.

Which region of the central nervous system integrates the activities of the autonomic nervous system?

hypothalamus

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Which type of nerve fibers make up the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?

sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers

Where do sympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse?

sympathetic trunk and collateral ganglia

Where are cell bodies of somatic motor neurons located?

ventral horn of spinal cord

Which region of the spinal cord does NOT contain any autonomic neurons?

cervical

The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is characterized by __________.

localized effects on specific organs and short postganglionic axons near organ of innervation

Which of these statements accurately describes how the general visceral motor system of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) differs from the general somatic motor system?

Motor units in the ANS include a chain of two motor neurons.

Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS ?

They innervate many of the same visceral organs.

The ANS is the system of __________ neurons that regulates such functions as __________.

motor / heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers to sweat glands and peripheral blood vessels secrete _________.

acetylcholine

The general visceral motor division of the peripheral nervous system describes the

ANS

Cell body of this autonomic neuron lies outside the CNS.

post-ganglionic neuron

Cell body of this autonomic neuron lies within the CNS.

pre-ganglionic neuron

Division that is dominant during exercise, excitement, or emergencies.

sympathetic

Which of these is not innervated by the ANS?

skeletal muscle

Another name for the ANS is the

general visceral motor system.

Which of these descriptions is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?

contraction of the bladder wall in urination constriction of the pupils ==production of goose bumps increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera

The trunk ganglia contain what kind of cell bodies?

postganglionic sympathetic

Cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located within the

lateral gray horns of the spinal cord.

Which autonomic division increases heart rate?

sympathetic

Preganglionic fibers are myelinated, whereas postganglionic fibers are unmyelinated.

true

Which cranial nerve carries parasympathetic innervation to the thoracic and abdominal viscera?

CN X

Which of these organs/tissues are NOT innervated by parasympathetic fibers, or do not exhibit parasympathetic effects?

sweat glands, arrector pili muscles, and adipose tissue

Division of the ANS responsible for the fight-or-flight response describes the

sympathetic division

Division of the ANS most active during vigorous exercise describes the

sympathetic division

Division of the ANS most active when the body is at rest describes the

parasympathetic division

thoracic duct

vagus nerve

thoracic lymph nodes

sympathetic trunk gangli

cardiac nerves

right lymphatic duct

sympathetic trunk

Which statement is true concerning the innervation of adrenal medulla?

Preganglionic sympathetic axons terminate in the adrenal medulla and stimulate the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Sympathetic innervation to the head follows which pathway?

Preganglionic fibers travel to synapse in the superior cervical ganglion. Postganglionic fibers travel with blood vessels, and innervate structures of the head.

If you were very nervous about speaking in front of a group of people, which of the following would be likely to develop?

dry mouth, due to sympathetic inhibition of secretions from the salivary glands

What is the role of the gray rami communicantes?

They are the postganglionic sympathetic axons that direct impulses to intended peripheral organs.

The sympathetic pathways to the extremities, direct impulses to which of these structures/tissues?

arrector pili muscles and sweat glands

Short nerve branches that connect the ventral rami of spinal nerves to the sympathetic ganglia.

rami communicantes

Ganglia of this structure are connected to the ventral rami of spinal nerves through the rami communicantes.

sympathetic trunk

Which division of the autonomic nervous system innervates the sweat glands in skin?

sympathetic

The gray and white rami communicantes attach to the

ventral rami

dorsal root ganglia.

ventral rami

spinal nerves

dorsal roots

What stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete its excitatory neurohormones?

preganglionic sympathetic neurons

Which of these statements concerning gray rami communicantes is incorrect?

They contain all the preganglionic fibers traveling to the sympathetic chain.

Cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located within the

lateral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord.

Identify the pathway that correctly traces the movement of preganglionic sympathetic fibers.

ventral root to white ramus communicans to sympathetic trunk ganglion

The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of

sympathetic stimulation

Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?

in the armpit

Sympathetic trunk ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons and are located in the dorsal root of the spinal cord.

false

Because the fibers of the sympathetic division arise from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, they cannot innervate structures of the head or pelvis.

false

Parasympathetic fibers innervate the sweat glands, arrector pili, and smooth muscles of the arteries.
`

false

This division can also be called the craniosacral division.

parasympathetic division

Division that is dominant during rest, digestion, and excretion.

parasympathetic

Which division of the autonomic nervous system has preganglionic fibers within the facial nerve?

parasympathetic

All of the following have only sympathetic innervation except the

arrector pili. sweat glands. salivary glands. blood vessels.

Which of the following cranial nerves does not supply parasympathetic fibers to the head?

vagus

The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by

peripheral ganglia near the organs, and short postganglionic fibers.

The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the

brain stem and the sacral region of the cord.

Cranial parasympathetic outflow is contained in all of the following cranial nerves except the

accessory

In which autonomic division do nerve cell bodies lie closest to the organs being innervated?

parasympathetic

Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers of the head travel within the

trigeminal nerve.

Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the

thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine.

Over 90% of all preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are in cranial nerve

X

What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation of respiratory bronchioles in the lungs?

constriction

Parasympathetic stimulation of blood vessels causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure.

false

Fibers from the cranial and sacral regions of the spinal cord contribute to the sympathetic division.

false

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers are relatively long compared to those of the parasympathetic division.

true

The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions can be distinguished by the amount of branching of the post-ganglionic fibers.

true

Referred pain from the small intestines would be felt in the __________, whereas referred pain from the liver would be felt in the __________.

umbilical region / superior right thoracic region and superior right quadrant

Control of temperature, of autonomic nervous reflexes, of hunger, and of sleep are functions associated with the

hypothalamus

The part of the brain that exerts more control over autonomic functioning than any other part is the

hypothalamus

The overall integrating center for the ANS.

hypothalamus

Stimulation of the vagus nerve in the baroreceptor reflex causes __________.

decreased heart rate

The enteric nervous system functions __________.

entirely within the wall of the digestive tube

What influence does the cerebral cortex have on the ANS?

Voluntary sympathetic activation occurs when the cerebral cortex acts on the amygdala when one remembers a scary event.

Which region of the central nervous system integrates the activities of the autonomic nervous system?

hypothalamus

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