Human A&P II

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Hemostasis leads to

Hemostasis leads to stoppage of bleeding. The hemostasis response is fast, localized, and controlled. It involves clotting factors and substances released by damaged tissue and platelets.

The first step in hemostasis is

The first step of hemostasis is vascular spasm. In this step, the damaged vessel constricts to limit blood loss

The enzyme __________ digests fibrin clots

Plasmin is a fibrin-digesting enzyme.

What protein involved in coagulation provides the scaffolding for tissue repair?

The final steps in coagulation result in prothrombin activator catalyzing the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin and thrombin catalyzing the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin. Fibrin serves as the scaffolding for tissue repair.

Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)?

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can develop when an Rh- mother carries an Rh+ fetus. HDN is unlikely to develop in an Rh- female’s first pregnancy with an Rh+ baby. Rather, it is in a subsequent pregnancy with an Rh+ baby that HDN can develop. B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby

What is hematocrit a measure of

Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to osmotic pressure?

Albumin, produced by the liver, makes up 60% of plasma proteins and is the main contributor to osmotic pressure.

What "clot buster" enzyme removes unneeded clots after healing has occurred during fibrinolysis


Which of the following does NOT serve as a site for blood cell production in the developing fetus?

The intestines do not have a role in blood cell production.

A person with type O blood has

neither A nor B agglutinogens

With respect to ABO and Rh blood groups, there are __________ different blood types


A person with type AB blood has _______.

A and B antigens and neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

A person with A+ blood has _______.

* the A antigen on the surface of the red blood cells * Rh antigen on the surface of the red blood cells * anti-B antibodies * all of the above – Correct answer all the above

Which blood sample contained the universal recipient

sample 5

Which of the following terms can be used interchangeably?

antigen and agglutinogen

Blood type A- would give which of the following results?

agglutination with anti-A antibodies

Which of the blood samples tested could donate to a person with type A+ blood?

samples 1 and 4

Each hemoglobin molecule can carry ______________ oxygen molecule(s).


Which of the following does NOT result in an increase in hemoglobin levels?


Oxyhemoglobin _______.

has oxygen attached to the iron atom

Recall that the normal range for the hematocrit for a female is 37 – 47%, and the normal range for the hemoglobin level for a female is 12 – 16 g/100 ml. Describe hemoglobin and hematocrit values for the female with iron-deficiency anemia.

The hemoglobin was below normal, and the hematocrit was normal.

Which of the following blood samples did NOT have a normal ratio of PCV to Hb?

the female with iron-deficiency anemia

Which of the following individuals had the highest hemoglobin level?

the female Olympic athlete

Which of the following describes the blood sample for the female Olympic athlete?

Her hemoglobin level and her hematocrit were above normal.

What is in the beige-colored portion of the sedimentation tube?


Which of the following would indicate a worsening of the disease?

increased ESR with rheumatoid arthritis

Erythrocyte sedimentation relies upon _______


Rouleaux formation is characterized by _______.

an increase in ESR

ESR is useful in distinguishing between _______.

angina and a myocardial infarction as well as acute appendicitis and ruptured ectopic pregnancy

Which of the following had the fastest sedimentation rate?

the individual suffering a myocardial infarction

Which sample did NOT settle at all in one hour?

the individual with sickle cell anemia

In comparing the sedimentation rate for the individual with angina pectoris with that of the healthy individual, which of the following statements is true?

The sedimentation rates were the same for both individuals.

Which of the following explains the result for the individual with sickle cell anemia?

The shape of the red blood cells prevented them from settling.

Oxygen is attached to _______

an iron atom located on the heme portion of hemoglobin

The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is evaluated using _______.

hematocrit measurements and hemoglobin measurements

Release of which of the following hormones results in higher levels of erythrocytes?

testosterone and erythropoietin

Which type of anemia is a genetic disorder resulting in abnormally shaped erythrocytes?

sickle cell anemia

The blood sample from which of the following had the highest hematocrit?

a healthy male living in Denver

The blood sample(s) from which of the following displayed polycythemia?

a healthy female living in Denver and a healthy male living in Denver

Which of the samples are from patients that suffer from a condition in which insufficient oxygen is transported to the body’s cells?

samples 5 and 6

The hematocrit for the female with iron-deficiency anemia was _______

below normal

Leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes.


All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except

low blood viscosity

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?


Myeloid stem cells give rise to all leukocytes.


Which of the following is not a structural characteristic that contributes to erythrocyte gas transport functions?

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and causing an appearance of large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________

pernicious anemia

The immediate response to blood vessel injury is clotting.


Which of the following is not a cause of bleeding disorders?

excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

All of the following conditions impair coagulation except ________.

vascular spasm

Fred’s blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.

When neither anti-A serum nor anti-B serum cause clumping (agglutination) of donor cells on a slide, the blood type is ________.


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