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The effect of amphetamines on weight control:

is real, but small and limited in duration.

Paranoid psychosis can be produced by:

high doses of amphetamines.

What did the 1914 Harrison Act do

taxed importation and sale of coca, cocaine, and opium

What is cocaine still used for medically?

It is used as a local anesthetic for nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal surgeries.

Illicit use of intravenous amphetamines first became a big public concern in

the 1960s.

Although National Survey on Drug Use and Health data indicates greater prevalence of illicit drug use among white Americans, black Americans represented more than 80 percent of those arrested for

violation of federal crack cocaine laws.

The 1914 New York Times article, "Negro Cocaine ‘Fiends’ are a New Southern menace,"

erroneously said that cocaine increased homicidal tendencies and improved marksmanship.

The most common way cocaine is used recreationally is by

insufflation (snorting).

Dr. W. S. Halsted, the "father of American surgery," experimented with cocaine’s ability to produce

local anesthesia

The structure of the cocaine molecule closely resembles the dopamine molecule.


Which of the following is true about the current use of amphetamines to treat depression?

Amphetamines are used as mostly as an adjunctive therapy.

The most common drug used in treating ADHD is still Modafinil


Studies show that blacks are just as likely as whites to be arrested for violating crack cocaine laws


One "non-stimulant" medication that has been approved for ADHD does not appear to have abuse potential. Atomoxetine is sold under the brand name


During World War II, amphetamines

were used to decrease fatigue by several nations’ militaries.

Most illicit cocaine in the U.S. is powder cocaine (cocaine hydrochloride), which is

too stable to be smoked

Cocaine use during pregnancy now appears to be associated with

no consistent negative associations with physical growth, test scores, or language in children.

The earliest medical use for amphetamine was as a substitute for ephedrine in treating asthma.


Cocaine’s effects in the brain

all of the above

Illicit cocaine comes to the U.S. primarily from

south america

Sigmund Freud was always opposed to the use of cocaine for treating psychiatric conditions.



is formed in the body when cocaine and alcohol are used together.

Amphetamine was developed initially as a substitute for a closely related chemical derived from the Chinese herb ma huang. That chemical is


Crack cocaine is a very stable form of the drug also known as cocaine hydrochloride


The use of cocaine by members of the general public in Europe was initially in the form of

drinks,coca wine

Crystal meth refers to

methamphetamine crystals, which may be smoked.

Studies of the mechanism of action of the amphetamines have focused mainly on

The release of nonrepinephrine and dopamine.

Use of cocaine during pregnancy has been clearly linked to many kinds of birth defects and mental retardation.


Some of the emotional justification for the 1914 Harrison Act can be found in a New York Times article from that year, called "Negro Cocaine ‘Fiends’ are a New Southern Menace."


One of the more disturbing side effects of treating ADHD with amphetamines or methylphenidate (Ritalin) is

decreased height and weight gains in children.

In the text, the discussion of media depictions of powder cocaine use in the early 20th century and crack cocaine use in the 1980s was used to illustrate that

the U.S. media and drug policies may target people of color disproportionately.

The ability of stimulants to improve mental performance

depends on the complexity of the task and the dose.

Which of these was NOT one of the early medical uses for amphetamine first studied in the 1930s

treating anxiety

When laboratory animals are given unlimited opportunities to self-administer cocaine injection

they will readily self-administer it

Current theories of the antidepressant action of drugs focus less on the initial biochemical effects of the drugs and more on the

delay reaction of the neurons to repeated drug exposure

Sedative-hypnotic agents bind to which receptors in the brain


Anecdotally, __________ (or "poppers") are used to enhance sexual pleasure

amyl nitrite

The antipsychotic drugs that have been marketed in the past ten years, such as Zyprexa (olanzepine), are referred to as

atypical antipsychotics.

When barbiturates were the most popular sedative-hypnotics, low doses of the long-acting types were used as sleeping pills


Volatile solvents that act as CNS depressants are found in a wide variety of household products


How are barbiturates usually classified

duration of action

The major advantage of the benzodiazepines over the barbiturates seems to be the

greater safety margin

A chronic psychotic condition with no known physical cause is likely to be diagnosed as schizophrenia.


The perspective that symptoms of a mental disorder lead to a diagnosis that illuminates both the underlying cause and a cure for the disorder is referred to in the text as the

medical model

GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid)

occurs naturally in the brain.

The acceptance of the mood stabilizer _____________ was slowed by a series of overdose poisonings and by the fact that the drug is one of the basic elements and could not be patented.


What has kept paraldehyde from being widely used

bad taste and odor

The four most widely sold benzodiazepines are all longer-acting drugs sold primarily as


A major disturbance of intellectual and social functioning in which there is a loss of contact with reality is called


Modern antidepressants cure depression by treating the known underlying biological cause of the disorder.


Librium (chlordiazepoxide) and Valium (diazepam) were the first widely sold


Which of these is NOT one of the early sedative-hypnotics used in medicine?


The usual recreational dose of GHB when taken alone is about

1-5 grams

The most recent (2013) version of the American Psychiatric Association’s classification system for mental disorders is called the


Tricyclic antidepressants work by

inhibiting reuptake of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin

In the DSM-V, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is now listed as an anxiety disorder.


Sodium pentathol is long-acting barbiturate used to treat insomnia.


One of the oldest gaseous anesthetics, popularly known as "laughing gas," is

nitrous oxide

Each year, more mentally ill persons are _______ than are admitted to state mental hospitals


Two drugs that were introduced as being safer than the barbiturates, but in the long run proved to be not much safer, were

meprobamate and methaqualone.

Animal self-administration experiments and studies of drug choice among humans indicate that

short-acting barbiturates are more likely to lead to dependence than any of the benzodiazepines.

Zolpidem (Ambien) is:

not a benzodiazepine chemically, but it has similar effects

The modern era of abuse of volatile solvents by young people can be traced to a 1959 newspaper report of

glue sniffing.

What is the mechanism of action for typical antipsychotics

block D2 dopamine receptors.

Among the sedative-hypnotic drugs, short-acting barbiturates seem to be the most likely to lead to drug dependence


Both depressed and manic symptoms appear in the general classification of

mood disorders.

One side effect common with the older antipsychotics, but less common with the newer ones, is


The FDA now requires a printed warning on several selective reuptake inhibitors because they increase the risk of

suicide in children and adolescents.

The majority of "huffers" (users of inhalants) are above age 25


tricyclics treat depressive symptoms by

notdecreasing monoamine neurotransmitters in the synapse by inhibiting metabolism not increasing monoamine neurotransmitters in the synapse by inhibiting metabolism.

The MAO inhibitors are considered to be atypical antipsychotics


Paraldehyde is a CNS depressant that is currently available in several over-the-counter medications


Phenothiazines and neuroleptics were terms used to describe the early forms of


One of the symptoms of a major depressive episode is decreased or increased appetite.


All selective reuptake inhibitors work primarily by blocking serotonin reuptake


The introduction of chlorpromazine in the U.S. in 1955 marked the last year in which

the population of mental hospitals increased.

Inhalant use has traditionally been more common among

poor Hispanic and Native American youth.

The fastest, and probably the most effective, treatment for severe cases of depression is

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

In the early part of the 20th century, a cure was found for a syphilitic infection that caused a psychosis called

general paresis

the mood disorders include specific phobia.


What is the average lag period for antidepressants to begin to be effective?

2 weeks

People taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors for depression must avoid

foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses

Nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") is a Schedule I controlled substance.


Lithium was the first effective mood stabilizer.


A recent study of the long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs found that

three-fourths of the patients stopped taking their medication within 18 months

One indirect consequence of effective drug treatment for serious mental disorders is that more mentally ill people are now in jail or prison than in mental hospitals.


One of the most dangerous acute effects of taking depressants in combination with alcohol is

respiratory depression

The acceptance of the mood stabilizer _____________ was slowed by a series of overdose poisonings and by the fact that the drug is one of the basic elements and could not be patented.


When benzodiazepines bind to their receptor site, they

enhance the inhibitory effects of GABA

Ambien (zolpidem) is a popular benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety.


Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was first used to treat schizophrenia, it is now used primarily to treat

severe depression

The CNS depressants include various prescription drugs referred to as


Which of the following drugs could theoretically be used to treat barbiturate withdrawal?


The latest evidence on the effectiveness of antidepressants is that they are only slightly better than placebos


According to the DAWN data set, zolpidem-related emergency room visits declined between 2005 and 2010


Withdrawal from long-term use of sedative-hypnotic drugs is characterized by

anxiety, impaired concentration, insomnia, convulsions.

Bipolar I Disorder refers to

manic episodes with possible alternating depression.

Prozac was one of the early

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

A patient presents with these symptoms: irrational beliefs, incoherent speech, and a severe lack of emotional response. He has had these symptoms for over 9 months and they interfere with his social function. He would most likely be diagnosed with _______ and treated with __________

schizophrenia; aripiprazoledurati

The first antipsychotic drugs were the phenothiazines, introduced in the 1950s.


The latest evidence on the effectiveness of antidepressants is that they are only slightly better than placebos.


How are barbiturates usually classified?

duration of action

Benzodiazepines replaced barbiturates primarily because they were believed to be safer.


The "date-rape" drug Rohypnol (flunitrazepam)

is sold as a hypnotic agent (Sleeping pill) in many countries other than the US

Many of the new atypical antipsychotics are known to cause

significant weight gain and metabolic changes

What household product contains nitrous oxide?

whipped cream

Among the barbiturates, when prescribing a sleeping pill (hypnotic), physicians would usually choose a

higher dose of a short-acting drug


cocaine and heroin

Which IS NOT one of the beneficial uses of depressant drugs

pain reliever

This category of drugs includes dental anesthetics, Whippets, and other ‘locker room deodorizers:

gaseous inhalants

Volatile solvents are drug abuse choices because of each of the following reasons except:

ease of accessibility WRONG

Haloperidol, Desipramine,and beta-adrenergic blocking drugs are all used in varioius ways to treat problems with which drug?


How does prescription drug abuse differ from street drug abuse

abusers are rearly teens, but more typically are older adults WRONG

Prescription and other drugs intended for recreational abuse are often administered by routes other than those recommended as a pharmaceutical drug.


A type of panic disorder associated with environmental or social situations – intense fear of being in an environment from which it is difficult to escape or get help.


What drove the development and evolution of the progression of depressant drugs, specifically the benzodiazapines?

a search for safer, less addictive therapies

This narcotic drug is often crushed to deliver a stronger but more dangerous effect. It is also known as hillbilly heroin:


What is considered moderate intake of caffeine – the March of Dimes and the American Heart Association recommend this as an upper limit?

200 mg per day

Metamphetamine labs are sophisticated and require a trained chemist to manufacture the drug.


Due to the conflicting nature of research studies, individuals with pre-existing heart conditions are advised to limit caffeine consumption.


"Smart pill" stimulant drug abused by student to enhance academic performance:


Which is a faster administration of cocaine?


A federal prevention and punishment act was enacted in 1996 to increase the punishment for:

using a controlled substance in a sexual assault

Cocaine still has a limited role in medical use.


The additional electrolytes found in many energy drinks are known to cause dangerous increases in blood pressure.


There is no proof of health threats from small, occasional use of cocaine.


In the 1960s and 1970s, college student’s abuse of Quaaludes was known as:

luding out

When people die from cocaine use, it is usually due to:

cardiac failure

Valium, Librium, and Xanax are categorized as barbiturate drugs.


Opioids are prescribed for their analgesic (pain killing) properties


Memprobamate and methaqualone are what types of drugs


Depressant drugs work primarily by enhancing the effect of which neurotransmitter?


Cocaine treatment has a very high recovery rate.


This drug changes the color of a drink if placed in the drink for safety and awareness purposes. It is considered a primary date rape drug:


Huffing, bagging, and sudden death syndrome are associated with this category of drugs:

volatile solvents (vapors)

Cocaine use increases appetite so users often gain weight.


Benzodiazepines have primarily replaced barbiturates because they are effective drugs with a lower risk of dependence and overdose.


Which is NOT TRUE about cocaine?

it is a synthetic drug manufactured in clandestine labs

Poppers are methamphetamine capsules


What is anterograde amnesia?

the inability to recall events taking place while under a drug’s influence

Which drug was used by Japanese pilots, truck drivers, and college students to increase alertness and wakefulness?


Amphetamine dependence is powerful and develops rapidly with repeated high doses


Mayo clinic research suggests that women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of caffeine than men.


What over-the-counter drug is now regulated under 2006 federal law because it is a component in the cooking of methamphetamine?


This drug is also known as snow, nose candy, toot, and blow


What is maceration?

crushing coca leaves in order to process cocaine

This category of drugs fights fatigue and includes speed and crank


While cocaine does have detrimental effects on the unborn, the crack baby alarm from the 1980’s was likely overstated.


Snorting cocaine results in a high that lasts 8-12 hours.


The effects of cocaine and other stimulant drugs are the result of the drugs’s effects upon several neurotransmitters, including dopamine and nor-epinephrine.


Mixing drugs, usually prescription drugs, for the interactive affects


The junior high drug


The effects of combining two or more drugs that result in an effect greater than their sum:


Ritalin is a stimulant drug used to treat ADHD, and is often a prescription drug of abuse.


The most commonly abused category of prescription drug is


This drug affects not only young people, but the elderly as well. Mixing these drugs is known as pharming:

prescription drugs

Tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal can occur with opioids


Suppose a person is prescribed an opioid medication (similar to heroin) to treat a painful injury. But after her injury heals, she takes the drug primarily to feel euphoria. Based on this information alone, what term would you use to describe her drug use?

drug misuse

According to results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which of these ethnic groups reports the highest rate of use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana?


Drug use that is not common within a social group and that is disapproved of by the majority, causing members of a group to take corrective action when it occurs, is

deviant drug use

One of the general principles of psychoactive drugs is that "every drug has ____________."

multiple effects

One of the most important protective factors for drug use is

believing that there are strong sanctions against substance use at school.

The best information we have about which illicit drugs are most widely used comes from police arrest reports


Among college students, fewer than one-fourth have ever tried


Some drugs have the effect that, every time you take the drug, you increase slightly the probability that you will take it again. This process is referred to as


Factors that are correlated with lower rates of drug use are known as

protective factors.

One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that

drugs, per se, are not good or bad.

Despite the limitations of survey questionnaires, they can be especially informative

if they are done year after year, because we can then look for changes over time.

It appears that the highest rates of use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs in the United States occurred from about 1979-1980


There are some drugs that we should just define as being bad drugs.


Drugs have played a significant role in human society

for thousands of years.

In one study, adolescents who smoked cigarettes were about twice as likely as nonsmokers to later use marijuana. For this reason, cigarettes have been referred to as


The Monitoring the Future survey collects drug use information from students ages 10 and older.


According to data from Monitoring the Future, an effective public policy would be to increase the perception of the risk of marijuana use because increased perception of risk causes a decrease in marijuana use.


The use of a substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occurring is


One of the most important risk factors for drug use is

having friends who use marijuana or other substances.

In the past 100 years, the introduction of vaccines to prevent diseases and antibiotics to cure some types of infections laid the foundation for

our acceptance of medicines as the cornerstone of our health care system

Being willing to fight seems to be an important protective factor against substance use.


One very consistent finding is that students who report ______________________ are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug.

having more involvement with religion

Deviant drug use is defined as use of a drug in greater amounts or for other purposes than intended by a prescribing physician.


One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that "the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on ___________________."

the individual’s history and expectations

Methamphetamine, crack cocaine, ecstasy, and glue sniffing were given as examples of media reports on

the "drug du jour."

Based on two large surveys, it appears that the percentage of young people reporting current marijuana use

is about half the percentage reporting current use in the late 1970s.

Factors that are correlated with higher rates of drug use are known as

risk factors

Compared to young adults who finished high school only, those with college degrees

are much more likely to drink alcohol and much less likely to use tobacco

According to the text, the word "addiction" is a controversial term that has different meanings for different people.


One personality variable that has been consistently associated with higher rates of substance dependence is

high impulsivity.

When we examine changes over the years in the percentage of high school seniors who say they have smoked marijuana, we find a clear inverse (mirror-image) relationship to

perceived risk of harm in using marijuana.

An example of a longitudinal study of drug use would be

following the same group of people at intervals over several months or years.

In 2009, methamphetamine was the most frequently cited drug associated with emergency-room visits.


The occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome is evidence of

physical dependence.

The drugs that are most likely to lead to dependence are the ones that have reduced effects after repeated use.


Recent brain imaging data indicates that drug dependence is caused by an underlying biological abnormality.


A 2010 analysis of drug-related deaths conducted by the CDC indicates that __________ is responsible for more than half of drug overdose deaths.

pharmaceutical drugs

One example where the U.S. interest in international drug control has conflicted with national security issues is

opium growing in Afghanistan.

What is a Drug Recognition Expert?

A police officer trained to recognize drug-related behavioral impairments

Substances with high abuse potential and no currently accepted medical use are listed in

Schedule I.

The drugs with which people are most likely to develop psychological (behavioral) dependence are generally also found to have

reinforcing effects in laboratory animals.

According to the text, which of following most accurately describes the recent drug laws in Portugal?

Possession for personal use of all drugs is decriminalized.

Precursors refers to substances like pseudoephedrine that can be chemically altered to make a controlled substance.


The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that it is legal to use urine tests to screen students in public high schools for drug use

if they are involved in extracurricular activities.

Which is an example of chronic physiological toxicity?

high blood pressure from smoking

To receive diagnosis of substance use disorder an individual must satisfy at least 2 diagnostic criteria, one which has to be a symptom of physical dependence (tolerance or withdrawal).


Which of the following drugs has been clearly linked to crimes and violence


The DSM-V does not define addiction as such, but has diagnostic criteria for

substance use disorder

Chronic drug effects refer to those that are due to prolonged exposure to the drug.


In any given year, about _______ drug compounds are studied and about _________ will be approved by the FDA.

3000, 30

Rank the following drugs (from highest to lowest) according to the number of mentions in the 2009 DAWN emergency department dataset.

Cocaine, prescription opioids, heroin, antidepressants

The Marijuana Tax Act was passed in


As views of substance dependence have changed based on scientific research, the real driving force behind repeated excessive drug use is now believed to be

psychological dependence, based on reinforcement.

The 1906 U.S. law that prohibited interstate commerce in adulterated or misbranded foods and drugs was called the

Pure Food and Drugs Act.

Brain scan studies with drug users

so far can only show changes in response to drug administration.

Since the 1990s, HIV transmission rates among intravenous drug users have been reduced from about 50% to about 10%. According to the text, which of these factors led to this decrease?

syringe exchange programs

The single most important legislation that has shaped the federal government’s approach to controlled substances was

alcohol prohibition (the 18th Amendment).

According to recent DAWN data, which of these substances is near the top of the emergency room visits list?


One important factor that led Congress to adopt the first laws regulating what we now call controlled substances was the association of drug use with crime.


The U.S. government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a "hands-off" approach to government that has been referred to by the term


It is estimated that ______ percent of the illegal drug supply is seized by federal agencies each year.


An economic study of U.S. efforts to eradicate coca fields in South America indicated

that even if we produced massive disruption of one country’s supply, market forces would replace the supply within two years

The term "laissez-faire" refers to the tendency of news media to sensationalize drug problems.


The DAWN system tells us exactly how many ER visits are caused by a specific drug each year.


One concern that led to the initial passage of federal drug-control legislation in 1906 was

patent medicines.

The Analogue Drug Act of 1986 states that chemically similar drugs will be controlled under the same schedule.


The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970

established schedules of controlled substances and moved enforcement to the Justice Department

Before a new drug is released to the market, the FDA requires

three phases of clinical testing, with each phase involving more people.

A drug that does have an approved medical use but has a high potential for abuse would be listed on Schedule II.


In the early 1800s, _____________ was the medical doctor’s most reliable and effective medicine that was used for a variety of conditions, but mainly for pain relief.


The text lists three concerns that led to the adoption of the first U.S. laws regulating what we now call controlled substances. Which of these was NOT one of the three?

high profits for drug sellers

The data suggest that marijuana use increases the likelihood of a person committing a violent.


In comparing the relative toxicity of marijuana and cocaine, it is important to take into account

that many more people use marijuana than use cocaine

The 1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act required drug manufacturers to prove that their drugs were an effective treatment for some diseases.


In determining whether using a drug causes people to become criminals, it is important to remember that

longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior usually occur before the first use of any illicit drug

When the Pure Food and Drugs Act was first passed, drugs were legally required to be

pure and accurately labeled

Despite their potential medical benefits both marijuana and methamphetamine are Schedule I drugs.


The U.S. federal government’s budget for "drug control"

about $25 billion.

In an annual study done by the U.S. Justice Department, people arrested for various crimes are given urine tests to detect the presence of drugs. In 2012, about ____ percent of the adult male arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug.

between 60 and 80

Those who are diagnosed with a personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder,

have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder.

The FDA requires that a drug company report to them on the results of three phases of human testing before they will approve a new drug to be sold as a prescription medicine.


The Harrison Act of 1914

required pharmacists and physicians to register and pay a tax to dispense certain drugs

According to the text, what drug issue is currently at the center of a conflict between state and federal laws?

marijuana for medical use

The Drug Abuse Warning Network

monitors drug-related medical emergencies.

About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug-law violations?


Important changes to the regulation of drugs by the Food and Drug Administration occurred in 1938 and 1962, largely in response to

the Elixir Sulfanilamide poisonings and birth defects from thalidomide.

Which of the following drugs has been clearly linked to crimes and violence?


The Pure Food and Drugs Act and the Harrison Act were originally administered by the U.S.

Agriculture and Treasury Departments.

Before the FDA approves an IND for human testing of a new drug,

the drug has been tested in at least two species of nonhuman animals.

Acute drug effects are those that

are caused by the immediate presence of the drug in the body.

Physical dependence is often defined by the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is stopped.


When using a substance makes normal activities such as driving result in harmful accidents, this is called

behavioral toxicity

In the early 1900s in the U.S., fears about opium and cocaine were closely linked to

minority racial groups.

Our best estimate is that tobacco cigarettes are associated with over 400,000 deaths per year.


The Harrison Act of 1914 made it illegal to possess or use heroin or marijuana.


When repeated exposure to the same dose of a drug results in a lesser effect, this is called


DAWN data provides all of the following EXCEPT

clear measures of the toxicity of individual drugs general information about trends in drug-related ER visits. WRONG information about which drugs are associated with the greatest number of ER visits WRONG data regarding problems associated with alcohol-in-combination. WRONG

According to current federal law, a fine of up to $10,000 and loss of all federal privileges (including student loans and grants) can result from conviction

for possession of small amounts of a controlled substance.

Which of these substances has the highest lifetime estimate of dependence?


According to the text, current drug laws are effective in the sense that they drive up the prices of illicit drugs.


From the 1920s to the 1970s, about 1 out of 1,000 Americans was in prison at any point in time. By 2008, due largely to changes in drug laws and drug enforcement, that rate

increased to about 5 per 1,000

The period between 1890 and 1920 in the U.S. was characterized partly by being a low point in race relations.


Compared to urine samples, hair samples

can detect drug use for up to 90 days.

The group of psychoactive drugs called stimulants includes


Some drugs may act on all types of neurons by

altering the electrical potential across the cell membrane.

Unlike neurons, glial cells in the brain are purely for support and are incapable of communicating with each other.


Which of these is given its own classification category, due to its complex effects at different doses?


What kind of name is Provigil (an alerting drug)?

brand name

MRI and PET are two types of neurotransmitter chemicals.


Drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems in two main ways: either by altering the availability of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, or by

acting directly on the receptors.

Because the effects of stimulants and depressants counteract each other, taking these drugs in combination does not produce intoxication.


Most of our drugs originally came either directly or indirectly from


When neither the person taking the drug nor the person evaluating the effects of the drug knows which people are getting the experimental drug and which people are getting the placebo, this procedure is referred to as a(n)

double-blind procedure

It is possible to have an action potential that is relatively small in magnitude (if few channels are open)


Most psychoactive drugs taken orally go directly from the stomach to the brain.


The neurotransmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is


Neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in the

brain stem

According to the text, current drug laws are effective in the sense that they drive up the prices of illicit drugs


The year is 1907. A new drug has been marketed as a "blood energizer that will cure many ailments" with a label that accurately lists its ingredients. It has not been proven to be safe or effective. According to the laws of the time, this product is legal.


If you want to get very high concentrations of cocaine to the brain very rapidly, which route of administration would you probably use?


The text uses an example of overlapping dose-response curves for slowed reaction time, ataxia (staggering), and coma to illustrate

that different drug-related effects can have different thresholds

Cocaine selectively blocks Na+ (sodium) channels, which is the mechanism that leads to

local anesthetic effects.

The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc.) within certain limits is called


For many psychoactive drugs, such as nicotine and cocaine, the fastest way to get an effect is by inhaling the drug’s vapors.


______________ results from a loss of myelin wrappings.

Multiple sclerosis

Among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol can be classified as a(n)


Which chemical pathway appears to be important both in some types of psychotic behavior and in the reinforcing properties of various drugs?

mesolimbic dopamine pathway

Which of the following neurotransmitters is found in most parts of the brain and is considered inhibitory?


Suppose you wanted to prescribe a hypothetical drug that would have an overall excitatory effect on the nervous system. Which would you choose?

a GABA antagonist

The process in which enzymes within neurons convert precursors into neurotransmitter molecules is called


If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity of the CYP450 enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing that drug, then later doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example of

drug disposition tolerance

Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of the

autonomic nervous system

The blood-brain barrier

prevents many drugs from entering the brain

The most common way for drug molecules to be deactivated is by

CYP450 enzymes in the liver

Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are called


Parkinson’s disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to

dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway.

After oral administration, most absorption of the drug molecules takes place in the

small intestine

The time course of a drug’s action depends on

how the drug is administered. how rapidly the drug is absorbed. how the drug is eliminated from the body. all of the above.

Regardless of the route of administration, psychoactive drugs reach the brain tissue by way of the


The ______________ is an important link between the brain and the pituitary gland, and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior.


Specialized structures that recognize neurotransmitter molecules and, when activated, may cause a change in the electrical activity of the neuron, are called


The threshold on a dose-response curve is the

lowest dose at which there is an observable effect of the drug.

A drug’s generic name can only be used by one company.


When use of a drug interferes with normal behavior, experienced users may learn to compensate and show less impairment than new users. This is an example of

behavioral tolerance.

The brain imaging technique that involves injection of radioactive chemicals in order to measure brain function is called

positron emission tomography (PET)

Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on

the type of receptor.

Nonspecific effects of taking a drug are those that do not depend on its chemical activity. They are sometimes referred to as

placebo effect

One of the main ways that drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems is by cutting off blood flow to a specific brain structure.


In some cases, repeated use of a drug leads to pharmacodynamic tolerance, which is based on

reduced sensitivity of neurons

Of the following routes of administration, which will produce fastest onset of effects?


For most therapeutic effects, there is a maximum effect, and increasing the dose more just increases the number and type of side effects


The safety margin for a particular drug is based on the idea that

toxic doses will typically be larger than therapeutic doses.

Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between two neurons called the


GABA and glutamate are similar in that they are found throughout the brain and are primarily inhibitory neurotransmitters.


The potency of a drug is defined in terms of

the amount required to produce an effect

Parkinson’s disease patients are often treated with dopamine because L-dopa cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.


Alcohol has a low tendency, but THC has a high tendency, to

bind to blood proteins

In addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as


According to the text, inexperienced drug users should avoid taking a drug via a route that increases the drug’s potency.


Which of the following would be a reason for a drug company NOT to pursue expensive clinical trails with a new drug?

The therapeutic index is less than 1.

Caffeine and cocaine are both considered to be stimulant drugs.


With increasing doses of any useful drug, there is usually an increase in the number and severity of

side effects

Concussions and cerebral infections can decrease the effectiveness of

The blood brain barrier

Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with

serotonin pathways

The complex branching parts of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called dendrites.


Marijuana and heroin are both considered to be opioid drugs.


Most drugs have three different kinds of names. Which of them belongs to a specific manufacturer?

brand name

The story of the Michigan police officer who ate marijuana-laced brownies and then called 911, is a good illustration of which basic psychopharmacology fact?

Different routes of administration can producing markedly different drug effects.

Which of these is NOT one of the four important regions found in every neuron?


The National Survey on Drug Use and Health revealed that current alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use

hasn’t changed much in the past 15 years.

Much of our information about rates of drug use come from survey questionnaires. One important limitation of such questionnaires is

people may not answer honestly

Cocaine and methamphetamine are still used for medical purposes in the United States


Newer local anesthetics are simple modifications of the cocaine molecule that do not pass the blood-brain barrier and thus do not produce cocaine-like feelings of euphoria.


Which type of factor probably plays a bigger role in determining whether a person will try a drug in the first place, as opposed to determining which of those who try it will become dependent?


Gated ion channels for sodium and potassium open and close in rapid succession, causing the neuron to depolarize and then return to its normal resting level, during each

action potential.

In the neuron, neurotransmitters are stored in the myelin sheaths.


A drug that is unlawful to possess or use is defined in the text as

an illicit drug

Which neuro-transmitter most significantly affects aggression, depression, appetite, relaxation, and impulsivity


The primary reason (as emphasized in lectures) that psychoactive drugs are used

to feel good

The drug law that replaced or revised previous drug laws, placed drugs on a schedule, and still provides the primary basis for today’s drug laws

Controlled Substance Act of 1970

"Du jour" is a latin term meaning:

of the day

Which IS NOT one of the four basic principles of drug use?

Drugs tend to be harmful substances.

Which of the following are used to report the likelihood of drug use among groups and individuals?

longitudinal studies WRONG

Altered sensory perceptions are the primary result of:


Tolerance caused when the neurons become less sensitive to a drug – a physiological change in the brain

disposition tolerance WRONG

The set of symptoms that appears after discontinuing the use of a drug to which the user has developed physical dependence:


The use of a drug in such a way that the user has an increased chance of experiencing specific problems related to the drug use:

drug abuse

The brain and the spinal cord make up the somatic nervous system.


The Omnibus Drug Act of 1970 resulted in huge growth of prison populations due to:

increased arrests for drug dealers. WRONG

The neurons collect these substances from the bloodstream so they can be acted upon by the enzymes to manufacture neurotransmitters:


The long-term effects from repeated use of drugs are known as:

chronic efffects

Your drug has an ED50 of 50 mg., an ED 95 of 100 mg., and an LD 50 of 1000 mg. What is its therapeutic index?


Licit drugs cause more deaths each year than all illicit drugs combined.


Marijuana tends not to fit into any of the traditional drug classifications.


The use of common drugs including alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana peaked in:

1970 WRONG

The drug du jour never changes.


Which neuro-transmitter is most responsible for pleasure and pain regulation, reward properties, and muscle function?


Which of the following is least likely to be an indicator of a young drug abuser?

a non conformist WRONG

Which of the following represents the early attitude of the American government toward drug use known as "laissez-faire"?

dot get involved

What is the threshold dose of a drug?

the dosage amount that creates the first response to the drug

Which of the following is most likely to be a drug user?

an 18-25 year old male

The loss of touch with reality which can be brought on by some drugs of abuse:

delusions WRONG

Individual history and expectations play a significant role in the effects of psychoactive drugs.


Drug use has been shown to create brain chemistry changes which can create a lasting criminal personality.


Hormones are released by glands into the bloodstream, while neuro-transmitters work from neuron to neuron.


The let down, depressed feeling that follows the high of many drugs, especially stimulant drugs, is known as:


Greater amounts of a drug must be administered in order to attain the user’s desired effect:


Analgesics; relaxed, dream-like states; sleep inducers:


Gateway substances are drugs that:

create an initial comfort zone for use of psychoactive substances

An illicit drug is:


DAWN data comes from:

emergency room

The 18th ammendment was repealed because it was ineffective in accomplishing its intended purposes.


The great sense of well-being; the happy, elated feeling that drug users intend is called euphoria


Which of the following terms best captures the meaning of homeostasis?


Currently, more young people smoke marijuana than smoke cigarettes.


Most early drug regulation stemmed from racial and cultural biases in an attempt to protect and reform the morals of our society.


The most rapid method of drug administration is:

intravenous WRONG

Neuro-transmitters are stored in the _____________________ which are located in the __________________ of the neuron.

vesicles, terminal

Drug laws passed from the 1920s through the 1960s primarily addressed all of the following drugs except

opium WRONG

All other things being equal, the higher the therapeutic index, the more dangerous the drug.



difficulty walking

the effect of external, non-specific factors that contribute to the total effect of the drug on the individual is also known as the:

external index WRONG

The disease model of alcoholism was made popular by Alcoholic Anonymous.


Most drug abusers exhibit multiple identifiable signs and symptoms of their abuse


Which neuro-transmitter most significantly affects energy levels, arousal, and attentiveness

endorphins WRONG

Gateway drug theory holds that if a person starts using tobacco or alcohol in the teen years, it will cause them to progress to other illicit drugs


Acetylsalicyclic acid is the ______________________________ name for aspirin


Scientific data indicate that chronic methamphetamine use causes extreme tooth decay.


Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are characteristics of


One major similarity of freebase and crack cocaine is that they both can be smoked.


Which famous physician studied cocaine as a treatment for morphine dependence and depression?

Sigmund Freud

Which of these was NOT one of the early medical uses for amphetamine first studied in the 1930s?

Studies show that blacks are just as likely as whites to be arrested for violating crack cocaine laws.


The 1914 New York Times article, "Negro Cocaine ‘Fiends’ are a New Southern menace,"

erroneously said that cocaine increased homicidal tendencies and improved marksmanship

The 1914 New York Times article, "Negro Cocaine ‘Fiends’ are a New Southern menace,"

erroneously said that cocaine increased homicidal tendencies and improved marksmanship.

The passage of the 1986 Anti-Drug Abuse Act

came after over a thousand stories about cocaine had appeared in the national media

Before 1988, several states had minimum drinking ages lower than 21.


The biggest health concern for users of smokeless tobacco has been

cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus

In the U.S., national prohibition of alcohol sales was in effect from

1920 to 1933

Breath samples to determine BAC

provide an accurate indicator of BAC across a wide range.

One major factor determining individual differences in BAC after drinking alcohol is

proportion of body fat

In most commercial beers sold in the U.S., the alcohol content is about


There is no evidence indicating that cigarette smoking has skin-aging effects.


"Wailing of cats", "out of tune", "workmen in my head" all refer to

alcohol related hangover

In addition to alcohol-related accidental deaths, there are over 40,000 deaths each year in the U.S. from alcohol poisoning.


In studies relating homicide to alcohol use,

about half of all murderers and about half of all homicide victims had been drinking

Tobacco use became popular in European culture because:

it was associated with wealth and status.

About what percentage of college students reports drinking alcohol at least once within the past month?


In July 2011, the nicotine vaccine NicVax was

found to be no better than placebo.

The FDA has regulated nicotine content of cigarettes since 1964.


During the 18th century, which method of use of tobacco increased in England?


People who switch to low tar and nicotine brand cigarettes

typically take more and deeper puffs and probably get no safety benefit.

The total number of alcohol-related traffic fatalities per year in the U.S.

has declined from the peak year of 1980.

Reynolds was unable to market Premier, a plastic cigarette containing catalytic crystals coated with tobacco extract, because

the FDA considered them a "nicotine delivery device" rather than an agricultural product.

Hangover-prevention products sold on TV and over the Internet are actually pretty effective if they contain activated charcoal.


Scientific evidence supports both parts of Shakespeare’s 400-year-old statement concerning alcohol and sex: "It provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance."


Age 21 became the legal drinking age in all U.S. states in what year?


Through a one-step process in the stomach, alcohol is converted directly to acetic acid (a non-toxic chemical).


Which of these substances speeds up the absorption of alcohol?

carbonated liquids

Among women classified as problem drinkers, the rate of FAS is about

23 to 29 per 1,000 births

National prohibition of alcohol sales in the U.S. from 1920-1933 reduced alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths, and apparently reduced overall per capita consumption of alcohol.


In a typical person, intoxication to the point of staggering and greatly impaired sensory perception occurs at about what BAC?

0.25 percent

According to a 2010 report, 70% of R-rated movies (and 30% of G, PG, and PG-13 movies) in the U.S. contained some tobacco use. Compared to 2005, this represents a decrease in depictions of tobacco use.


New battery-powered electronic cigarettes (i.e., tobacco-less nicotine delivery systems) are quickly becoming one the largest U.S. exports.


In 2006, the FDA approved a nicotine partial agonist drug as a smoking treatment. The drug is

varenicline (Chantix).

Total per-capita consumption of alcohol

has declined considerably from its peak in 1981.

The liver enzyme primarily responsible for metabolizing alcohol is

alcohol dehydrogenase.

Alcohol metabolism is a two-step process. In the first step, alcohol dehydrogenase converts alcohol into acetaldehyde.


One recent fad in tobacco use has been

hookahs (water pipes).

About 90 percent of the more than 40 million former smokers in the U.S. report that

they quit smoking without a treatment program.

Recent research on the dependence produced by nicotine has focused on genetic differences related to:

acetylcholine receptors.

All hangovers are most likely caused by the presence of congeners in the alcoholic beverage.


Fairly high doses of alcohol interfere with erection of the penis in males, probably because of

impaired processing of erotic signals.

After a 1998 tobacco settlement, many anti-smoking ads were paid for by the very companies that promote smoking.


Benjamin Rush, a physician who also signed the Declaration of Independence, was the first to

refer to alcohol addiction as a disease

Nicotine acts in the brain by

first stimulating and then blocking cholinergic receptors

The acronym GRAS stands for

generally recognized as safe.

All of the xanthines have similar effects. But which one has the greatest overall effect?


Caffeine has been shown to be an effective treatment for

migraine headaches

The textbook suggests that consumers are best able to choose from among the wide variety of OTC products by

knowing a fairly small number of ingredient names.

Aspirin was initially a brand name for Bayer’s acetylsalicylic acid.


According to current FDA rules on "cola" drinks,

they cannot contain more than 6 mg caffeine per ounce.

In 2009, Americans consumed more gallons of coffee than of soft drinks.


A typical cup of brewed tea contains just under half as much caffeine as a typical cup of brewed coffee.


In the 18th century, English coffeehouses were referred to as

penny universities

Which of the following has the highest amount of caffeine per serving?

Excedrin Migraine.

Suppose you had a fever, a headache, and a swollen knee. Which medication would be most appropriate to treat all three symptoms?


In 1970, Americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic beverage product. By 2009,

Americans drank approximately twice as many gallons of soft drinks as compared to coffee

A single species of tea bush is the basis for traditional green, black, and oolong tea.


Acetylsalicylic acid was developed in the Bayer laboratory in Germany in 1898 and sold under the brand name


Orlistat, found in the OTC weight control product alli, interferes with the absorption of fats from the intestine.


Most American coffee comes from China.


Suppose you have a cold and you choose to take Tylenol Cold to treat your symptoms (runny nose, congested nasal passages, and fever). Which of these ingredients in this OTC product is unnecessary?


SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) is a dietary supplement that has some research support for its possible use in treating


The 2006 revised PATRIOT Act required that products containing __________ be kept "behind the counter," and buyers must show identification and sign for their purchase.


The unique xanthine in chocolate is


The maximum CNS effect of caffeine is reached about _____ after drinking coffee.

2 hours

Why would you want dextromethorphan in a cold remedy?

It acts as a cough suppressant.

In 1909, the FDA seized some Coca-Cola syrup and filed charges against the company partly because

the syrup contained caffeine

Caffeine is thought to relieve headaches because it is

a vasoconstrictor.

If you buy a bottle of St. John’s wort 300 mg tablets, each tablet will contain 300 mg

total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients

The xanthine found in tea that is prescribed for asthma is called robusta.


_____________ is prescribed to asthma sufferers because it relaxes bronchial passages.


Cold viruses are usually transmitted

by being picked up on the hands and touching your eyes or nose

Large doses of caffeine have been shown to produce panic attacks in individuals with a history of panic disorder.


Theobroma, the genus name for the cacao tree, is Latin for

food of the gods

Often people who drink too much alcohol attempt to "sober up" by drinking coffee. Several studies support the idea that caffeine

is likely to lead to increased arousal, but the drinker is still impaired.

One important determinant of the behavioral effects of caffeine is

whether the person is a regular user.

The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act increased the FDA’s control over dietary supplements.


Green, black, and oolong tea are all prepared from leaves of

camellia sinensis

Aeroshot a recent product marketed as "breathable food" delivers caffeine rapidly to the brain because the drug is meant to be inhaled.


The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act

expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA’s regulatory authority over them.

Aspirin should not be used with children who have a viral infection because of increased risk of

Reye’s syndrome.

The generic ingredient in Advil is acetylsalicylic acid.


Dextromethorphan is an antihistamine used to dry up a runny nose.


Many of the capsules, pills, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA as

food products.

When alcohol is formed, other related substances are also formed, called


Although there are concerns about smoking during pregnancy, the research studies have not consistently demonstrated any specific risks.


Over 90 percent of all U.S. cigarettes sold are now

filter cigarettes.

Ambien (zolpidem) has recently been approved by the FDA for use in smoking cessation


Alcohol is involved in about one-third of all suicides.


Tremors, hallucinations, delusions, and seizures are all symptoms associated with

alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

As a potent poison, nicotine causes death by

paralysis of respiration muscles.

Heart attacks are

less likely for moderated drinkers compares to those who abstain

Per capita sales of cigarettes in the U.S. began to decline

after the 1964 Surgeon General’s report.

Americans drink most of their alcohol in the form of


At a BAC of 0.08, the relative risk of being involved in a fatal automobile crash is about

three times as great as for a sober driver.

In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency declared that

secondhand smoke is a known carcinogen that increases lung cancer risk.

Research studies in which half the participants are told they are drinking alcohol and half are not, with half of each group actually receiving alcohol and half not, are using the ___________ design.

balanced placebo

In balanced-placebo experiments with drinkers who meet the criteria of alcohol dependence, if they are given a beverage that they are led to believe has no alcohol, but that actually does have a small amount of alcohol in it, they

do not report intoxication and do not increase their drinking.

The risk of fetal alcohol syndrome is much greater among women who are classified as problem drinkers, but still occurs in fewer than 10 percent of births in the problem-drinking group.


In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products in specific ways.

If one member of a pair of identical twins is dependent on alcohol, the other twin

has about a 50 percent chance of also being dependent on alcohol.

Which of these states has the highest per-capita sales of alcohol?

New Hampshire

The major commercial species of Nicotiana that is grown for tobacco products is

Nicotiana tobacum.

Over one thousand people die in the U.S. each year from alcohol overdose. It is particularly dangerous to

begin drinking again after vomiting.

In 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the FDA

Had no authority to regulate tobacco products

Gum, patches, lozenges, and inhalers are all various forms of

nicotine replacement therapy

The psychological effect of cigarette smoking is

a combination of A and B.

Annual "smoking attributable mortality" in the U.S. is estimated at

. 440,000.

The major commercial species of tobacco is Nicotiana tobacum.


The U.S. market for over-the-counter drug products totals about

$18 billion.

According to the 2012 Monitoring the Future survey, more 12th graders reported using OTC cough medicines containing dextromethorphan compared to cocaine or methamphetamine.


Drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day

doubles the risk of a heart attack.

OTC drugs approved as sleep aids, like Nytol and Sominex,

contain an antihistamine such as diphenhydramine.

Starting in 2007, the only FDA-approved OTC weight-control ingredient is

orlistat (alli).

Because of the way the FDA reviews and approves OTC drugs,

various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients

Most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup?

40-60 mg (about 1/2 amount in coffee)

The most consistent withdrawal symptom after chronic caffeine use is


The evidence indicates that many dietary supplements enhance male sexual performance.


Caffeine works in the brain by

blocking adenosine receptors

A 12-oz. Pepsi or Coke contains more caffeine than a Vivarin tablet.


What dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in Alzheimer’s disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research?

Ginkgo biloba

Besides analgesia (pain relief), another important effect of aspirin is as a(n)

antipyretic (reduces fever).

The only active ingredient the FDA allows in OTC stimulants is


The heartburn drug Prevacid was recently moved from prescription only to OTC.


The FDA panels that review OTC drugs approve ingredients, not the actual products that often contain several ingredients.


NSAID stands for

-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Growth retardation, small head circumference, small eyes, flattened bridge of the nose, and mental retardation are signs of

fetal alcohol syndrome.

Many large commercial distilleries produce grain neutral spirits, which are

95 percent pure alcohol, the basis for gin and vodka.

One big factor associated with lower rates of cigarette smoking among adults is

Higher level of education

Although lung cancer is not common, about _______ percent of all lung cancers occur in smokers.


Cirrhosis of the liver can result from drinking alcohol

in large amounts (a pint of whiskey a day) for ten years or more.

The most popular form of tobacco use in America before 1900 was cigar smoking.


Ambien (zolpidem) has recently been approved by the FDA for use in smoking cessation.


Nicotine acts in the brain to first stimulate and then block several nicotinic subtypes of cholinergic receptor.


Chewing was the most popular form of tobacco use until about 1900, but by 1920 the most popular form was


One of the most consistent and best-documented effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy is

low birth weight.

The main active ingredient in Red Bull and other energy drinks is


OTC stimulants typically include pseudoephedrine.


The main proposed use for St. John’s wort has been for treating depression.


There are no consistent documented withdrawal symptoms from caffeine.


The world’s greatest per-capita consumers of tea are found in


The legend of the discovery of coffee relates to

Kaldi and his dancing goats

The FDA was given additional authority over dietary supplements in 2006 to set up

an "Adverse Events Reporting" process.

Per capita sales of cigarettes in the U.S. started to decrease in 1990.


Heavy drinkers with Wernicke’s disease (vitamin B1 deficiency) also usually exhibit memory deficits and other mental problems associated with

Korsakoff’s psychosis

Despite changes in alcohol-related laws and rules, rates of binge drinking and driving after drinking among college students have substantially increased in recent years.


Distillation is the process in which yeasts transform sugars into alcohol.


The minimum BAC to be considered driving under the influence in most states is 0.15 percent.


Heating a solution of alcohol and water, then collecting the alcohol vapors and condensing them into a liquid with a higher alcohol content, is called


Which of the following are signs of alcohol poisoning?

all of the above.

Although the exact mechanisms for alcohol’s action in the brain are not completely understood, it is now believed that the most important of its many effects is

enhancing GABA’s inhibitory effects.

The generic name for Tylenol and Datril is


There has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing _________, which they take in high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations.


If a bottle of pills on a drug store shelf is being sold as a dietary supplement, the label will refer to "nutritional information" and "serving size."


The early history of coffee included a 1674 pamphlet from England titled

the womens petition against coffee

The alcoholic content of beverages is indicated by the term "proof," which is

twice the percentage of alcohol

Alcoholic beverages form when yeasts act upon sugars in the process of


Although national prohibition of alcohol did reduce alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations, it was repealed partly because of the growth of organized crime and partly because

of a desire to reduce the income tax.

Caffeine dependence is not in the DSM-V because the evidence indicates that there is no withdrawal syndrome.


Alcoholism is considered to fit the model of disease by the APA, NIH, and AA.


An alcohol-induced blackout is a period of drunkenness:

which the drinker does not remember

Each of the following is a common symptom of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome EXCEPT:


While cigar smoking is very dangerous, it does not carry the same lung cancer risk as smoking cigarettes if the cigar smoker "puffs" rather than "inhales"


College students drink more than non-college students in the same age group.


Averaging more than two drinks a day for men or one drink a day for women:

heavy drinking

If you become intoxicated, the best way to minimize the effects of alcohol is:

eat a heavy meal WRONG

The active ingredient in tobacco that provides the psychoactive effect:


Although similar, which beverage typically contains more slightly more alcohol than the others?

a twelve ounce beer

Prohibition failed to reduce alcohol availability and consumption.


Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contains higher levels of harmful toxins than the smoke inhaled by the smoker.


Licensed providers may be liable for damages caused by intoxicated patrons:

dram shop

Thre French report higher rates of alcohol consumption yet lower rates of alcoholism, suicide, and liver cirrhosis.


Alcoholism tends to run in families.


It is against the law to have an open container of alcohol in the passenger area of a motor vehicle located o a public highway, regardless of whether it is being operated or is stopped or parked.


Approximately what percent of American adults drink alcohol?


The most effective current smoking cessation approach is:

a combination of group and individual counseling WRONG

What percent of traffic fatalities are alcohol related?


Smoking is on the decline for men, women, and women during pregnancy.


The heating process that forms stronger alcohol through evaporation and condensation


The body disposes of alcohol

at a constant rate

Most smokers indicate that they want to quit.


The only safe recommendation for alcohol consumption during pregnancy is to abstain.


Adults can be held liable for the actions of an intoxicated minor if that minor was served or if they consumed alcohol on their property.


If a person does not have normal use of their mental and physical faculties due to the consumption of alcohol, what type of intoxication could they be found to experience?

presumptive intoxication

If a beverage is 90 percent alcohol, it is referred to as________proof:


Which is one of the reasons that prohibition was repealed?

it increased criminal activity and organized crime

A hand rolled, candy-flavored cigarette with high tar and nicotine content:


Which IS NOT one of the NIH indicators of alcohol dependence?

suicidal thoughts while influenced

Alcohol effects sexual arousal and performance in each of the following ways EXCEPT:

improves sex drive and enhances sexual performance

About what percent of college students, including SHSU students, drink alcohol?


Which of the following speeds absortion of alcohol into the bloodstream?


Alcohol must be digested like any other food product.


What is the harmful chemical that contains the carcinogens in burning tobacco?


Alternative smoking cessation approaches, such as acupressure, acupuncture, and aversion therapy are highly effective methods that help many smokers quit smoking.


What is a leukoplakia and an erythroplakia?

precancerous changes in oral tissue found in many spit tobacco user

The moral impetus behind prohibition was as a strike against:

ethnc groups considered to have lower moral standards

CAGE is:

used to identify problems with alcohol dependence

Disulfiram is a medication that reduces the cravings for alcohol.


The process of yeast and sugar that creates ethyl alcohol:


Early drinking initiation results in an increased risk of alcohol problems.


Tolerance, withdrawal syndrome, and reduction of activities due to alcohol use are indicitive of:

alcohol dependance

A minor cannot operate a motor vehicle with "any detectable level" of alcohol:


A minor cannot operate a motor vehicle with "any detectable level" of alcohol:

zero tolerance law

Males are more likely than females to be involved in an alcohol related traffic fatality.


What side effect from Chantix and Zyban recently caused the FDA to issue a "black box warning"?

they may cause mood alteration including depression

Most people treated for alcoholism relapse.


The physiological effects of alcohol include all of the following EXCEPT:

increases heat loss from the body WRONG

Which is not an exception to MIP violation?

at a private residence of an adult sponsored party

Social hosts are generally protected from liability when serving adult guests.


Drinking 5 or more drinks (men) or four or more drinks (women) in a two hour period:


The Native American Church includes aspects of Christianity and uses __________ as a sacrament.


Although pain relief is now the major medical use for opioids, they have been used to save many lives (especially in underdeveloped countries) because of their ability to

counteract diarrhea.

When evaluating drug-related data from animal studies, which of these questions should be asked?

all of the above

In a heroin user, negative reinforcement of drug-taking behavior can occur when

withdrawal symptoms are alleviated by another injection.

A drug that has been reported to produce an increase in sociability and euphoria, as well as an increase in blood pressure, body temperature, and pulse is:


The earliest recorded use of opium as a medicine was probably by

Egyptians, around 1500 BC.

Deadly nightshade is the common name for bufotenin.


Siegel and his colleagues have shown in animal studies that tolerance to opioids

is partly due to conditioned protective reflexes.

Peace pill and angel dust have been street names for


The anticholinergic plant with a forked root that is mentioned in the Bible is


Heroin is more potent than morphine because

it really crosses the blood brain barrier

Anticholinergic plants like datura have potent psychological effects but are not very dangerous physiologically.


Vicodin and OxyContin are examples of

prescription opioids that are being misused and abused at increasing rates.

Enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins are

three classes of endogenous chemicals that have effects similar to morphine.

During the 1950s, one U.S. government agency that conducted research with LSD was the

Central Intelligence Agency.

The two major active chemicals in opium are

morphine and codeine.

The indole originally found in toad skins, that turns out not to be a very potent hallucinogen, is


By the beginning of the 20th century, a greater percentage of Americans were addicted to opioids than at any time before or since. Opium smoking and medical use of injected pure morphine were important contributors to this, along with

patent medicines containing opium extracts or morphine

The early LSD researcher who was fired from his academic job, became a proponent of hallucinogenic drug use, and started a religion in which LSD was the sacrament is:

Timothy Leary.

"Black tar" is

a name given heroin from Mexico that is brown or black in its pure form.

LSD was synthesized from alkaloids derived from

ergot fungus.

The 16th century European physician Paracelsus, and later Dr. Thomas Sydenham promoted the use of


Besides hallucinations, mescaline also produces

pupil dilation and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

The fact that animals with no history of opioid withdrawal will press a lever to self-administer low doses of intravenous morphine or heroin demonstrates the importance of ____________ in developing opioid addiction.

positive reinforcement

The Opium War of 1839-1842 resulted, among other things, in

the island of Hong Kong becoming a British possession.

Although PCP was tested on humans, it was eventually adopted primarily for use in animals as an anesthetic and also in so-called "tranquilizer" guns.


One major grouping of hallucinogens typically allows the user to remain in some touch with the real world and to remember much of what he or she experienced. This group of drugs was referred to as the


Morphine and codeine are derived from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum.


At the current time, most of the heroin in the U.S. originates from poppy fields in

columbia and mexico

Unlike other hallucinogens, Salvinorin A acts as a kappa opioid receptor agonist


The combination of two plants, one containing DMT and the other containing harmaline (an MAO inhibitor), was originally used by indigenous cultures in South America and is called,


Which of these opioids is about 100 times as potent as morphine?


The majority of U.S. soldiers who used heroin in Vietnam did so through the intravenous route because the drug was relatively impure.


The psychological effect of LSD was first reported by

Albert Hofmann, the Swiss chemist who developed the drug.

The textbook says that opioid withdrawal is similar to

a bad case of intestinal flu.

The PCP experience differs from LSD and mescaline experiences in that PCP users

report more changes in body perception.

Withdrawal from opioid drugs is often fatal.


MDMA ("Ecstasy" or "molly") is a close chemical relative of methamphetamine.


The catechol hallucinogens include mescaline plus a variety of synthetic derivatives of


Long-term exposure to opioid drugs

has not been clearly shown to produce damage to any tissue or organ system.

Atropa belladonna is also known by the name

deadly nightshade.

Similar to psilocybin, salvinorin A produces mystical experiences with no adverse effects one month after administration in the laboratory.


Ayahuasca is a name for the cactus containing mescaline.


Heroin was originally a brand name for diacetylmorphine, manufactured by Bayer laboratories.


Heroin became the drug of choice for many opioid users

during the 1920s, because it was easier to smuggle the small amounts needed for an effective dose.

Naloxone and nalorphine are endogenous chemicals that have effects similar to morphine.


Possession of opium, morphine, or heroin without a prescription was made a crime by

a 1915 Supreme Court decision.

The major thrust of early research on LSD was for its

supposed ability to access the subconscious mind.

One of the major issues facing physicians today is that patients are not taking enough prescription opioids to manage their pain.


The vast majority of heroin-related deaths (about 70% or more) occur as a result of heroin alone.


Which of the following most accurately describes recent psilocybin research?

the acute effects on mystical experiences

Many terms have been used for hallucinogens. The term entheogen has been used for those drugs thought to create spiritual or religious experiences.


LSD and psilocybin belong to the chemical grouping of


One thing that apparently contributed to the spread of opium smoking in China was

a 1644 edict from the emperor forbidding tobacco smoking.

A close relative of LSD, d-lysergic acid amide, is found naturally in

morning glories and Hawaiian baby woodroses

The most popular prescription opioids are hydrocodone and oxycodone.


The red and white speckled mushroom that has been associated with an early Christian cult as well as with other religions all over the world is

amanita muscaria.

In rare cases, people who have used LSD experience similar symptoms weeks or months later. The common term for this has been


In hunter-gatherer societies, the shaman or medicine man (or woman) was important not only for understanding what we now call medicine, but also because he or she was

a spiritual, or religious, leader.

Which of the following hallucinogens has NOT received recent scientific interest as a psychotherapeutic agent?


In recent years, heroin use has been a rapidly spreading problem in the U.S. suggesting that it is becoming an epidemic.


There is a large body of evidence indicating that MDMA use results in a severely depressed mood that lasts several days.


Heroin first became popular among opioid abusers in the 1970s, due to returning Vietnam veterans.


DMT, a short-acting hallucinogen that is usually ineffective when taken orally, is found in

Cohoba snuff.

Although LSD has complex effects in the brain, the best evidence indicates that its hallucinogenic properties are due to stimulating

serotonin-2A receptors.

The sensation of experiencing sounds as pictures, or of seeing movements produced by musical rhythms, is known as


Papaver somniferum is the scientific name for

the opium poppy.

In 1898, Bayer laboratories marketed diacetylmorphine tablets under the brand name


Unlike other hallucinogens, Salvinorin A acts as a kappa opioid receptor agonist.


One name that has been used for hallucinogenic drugs is psychedelic, which means

mind-viewing, and implies a beneficial, visionary effect.

The U.S. Army experimented with the use of LSD in the mid-twentieth century.


Naloxone, nalorphine, and naltrexone are examples of

opioid antagonists.

Long-term use of opioid drugs has been clearly shown to damage both the liver and the brain.


Synesthesia refers to the experiencing of hallucinogenic effects even months after taking the drug.


PCP was patented as Sernyl and first tested as

a dissociative anesthetic.

Psilocybe mexicana and Psilocybe cubensis are examples of

hallucinogenic mushrooms.

LSD is considered to be the most potent psychoactive agent known to man because

it produces effects at such low doses.

One ingredient in dietary supplements was banned by the FDA in 2004 after a Major League Baseball pitcher died from heat stroke after using it. The ingredient was


Stimulant drugs like caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine are sometimes considered to increase energy output and are, therefore, called __________ drugs.


As part of the Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1990, anabolic steroids were

listed as Schedule III controlled substances, with limited prescription refills

Women who use steroids to increase their strength might produce some irreversible effects, including

increased facial hair growth.

Rimonabant is a CB1 receptor antagonist that was used as an anti-obesity agent. What was the drug removed from the global market in 2009?

concern about dangerous psychological side effects

The primary active ingredient in marijuana is delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).


The current shift in the U.S. public’s attitude towards marijuana laws is probably partly related to which of the following?

A and C.

Republican leaders, such as Ron Paul, have called for tighter legal restrictions on marijuana possession.


One side effect of the tougher 2006 drug testing policies in Major League Baseball is that

more players are diagnosed with ADHD so they can have therapeutic-use exemptions to take stimulant drugs.

Studies of the effects of marijuana on automobile driving show

significant impairments when inexperienced users are studied in a laboratory environment.

The natural substance in the body that has marijuana-like effects is called


An ideal body fat range for a healthy male is

14 to 20 percent

The 1944 LaGuardia report of the New York Academy of Medicine concluded that "those who have been smoking marihuana for a period of years…"

showed no mental or physical deterioration.

According to recent data, marijuana is a clear cause of psychosis.


Laboratory studies have not been able to document impaired driving performance after smoking marijuana.


The 70 chemicals that are known to be unique to the cannabis plant are called


In a study of heart rate changes following smoked marijuana with 4 percent THC or 20 mg oral THC

the peak effects were similar, but smoking produced a faster onset of effects.

Laboratory studies of endurance on stationary bicycles have found that caffeine

can significantly improve work output at doses of 300-500 mg.

It is a common misperception that marijuana smokers get "the munchies" and eat more, but laboratory studies have not supported this idea.


The primary active ingredient in marijuana is

delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Cannabis indica has more psychoactive potency, whereas Cannabis sativa is more associated with


One concern about the use of high doses of steroids is increased aggressiveness, known as "roid rage."


Clenbuterol was first detected in Olympic athletes in 1992. Originally developed as a bronchodilator for treating asthma, this drug is

a beta-2 agonist

Some beta-2 agonists sold for treating asthma have been used by athletes as "nonsteroidal anabolic agents."


Panic reactions can be a common reaction in inexperienced marijuana smokers.


Although testosterone and related anabolic steroids clearly increase muscle mass during puberty, it has been more difficult to determine scientifically whether adult men with normal testosterone can get much stronger from extra steroids, partly because

it would be unethical to expose research participants to the high doses of multiple steroids reportedly used by athletes.

The American public began to take interest in the new drug menace known as marijuana

after a New Orleans newspaper in 1926 associated its use with crime.

One of the early types of stimulant drug reported to be used by boxers and others was


Small amounts of the stimulant, caffeine, are allowed in most sports.


During and after World War II, it was found that malnourished people could gain weight more rapidly if they were treated with


It has been difficult to do double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on the effects of steroids because

they produce detectable psychological effects.

The natural substance found in the body that has marijuana-like effects is called ayahuasca.


At the highest level of athletic competition (such as the mile run), amphetamines are probably not beneficial as performance enhancers because they only improve performance by 1%.


Which of these was NOT mentioned as one of the psychological side effects of high doses of steroids?

memory loss

The abuse potential of THC

is higher for smoked than for oral THC

A great number of studies have consistently reported that smoked marijuana and oral THC both produce

increased total daily food intake

After the National Football League banned the distribution of amphetamines in 1971,

individual players could still get a prescription and use amphetamines if they wanted.

Stimulants are sometimes used as performance enhancers in academic settings as well as athletic competitions.


Extensive testing of the effects of amphetamines has concluded that they

can improve performances by a few percentage points.

CB1 receptors are found mainly outside the brain in immune cells.


Use of substances to enhance performance in athletic competition has been traced back to ancient Egyptians, early Greeks, and the Aztecs.


In the National Football League, use of both amphetamines and steroids by players was banned in 1971.


Rather than testosterone, athletes prefer to use more selective androgenic steroids.


Tolerance to the effects of smoked marijuana

allows experienced marijuana users to obtain euphoric effects with minimal cognitive impairment.

In the 1800s, the French cycling team endorsed Mariani’s "wine for athletes" that contained


The Marijuana Tax Act, the first federal law regulating cannabis, was passed in 1937.


College athletes who want to avoid failing a drug test

have to be very careful, because there are more than 3,000 products containing banned substances.

According to Major League Baseball records of the number of ADHD exemptions granted to players, it would seem that the prevalence of ADHD in baseball is double the prevalence in the general population.


Some bodybuilders are trying to appear not only big and strong, but also lean. This is sometimes referred to as looking

cut, ripped, or shredded.

Dronabinol, THC in a capsule, is legally available for prescription by physicians.


Which of the following stimulant drugs have been used as performance enhancers in athletic competitions?

All of the above

When applied to a drug, the word ergogenic means "energy-producing."


Mariani’s Coca Wine, which was sold as "wine for athletes," was an early version of a cola drink containing large amounts of caffeine.


So-called "pituitary giants" often die at an early age because their internal organs continue to grow due to excessive production of

human growth hormone.

The origin of the word "dope" is derived from the Dutch word used in South Africa to refer to

a cheap brandy used to impair the performance of racing horses

Which of the following has NOT been found as an effect of regular marijuana use?

Increased testosterone levels in men.

A consistent cognitive effect of marijuana, seen both in frequent users and in less experienced users, is

slowing of cognitive processing.

Cannabis sativa is grown primarily for its psychoactive resins.


We have had scientific evidence of the effectiveness of amphetamines in enhancing athletic performance for about 50 years.


In 1985, the FDA approved the sale of dronabinol (Marinol), which

is a capsule containing THC

As of mid-2014, at least _____ states and Washington, D.C. have passed ballot initiatives allowing the use of medical marijuana.

20 25 WRONG

An American physician came back from the 1956 Olympic games after learning about the Soviets’ use of a steroid drug and helped to develop and test more selective ____________ steroids.


One widely-used legal dietary supplement that has been shown to increase strength is


Studies show that marijuana increases which of the following?

Nonverbal social interactions.

The 1999 report from the Institute of Medicine suggested that marijuana cigarettes should

be allowed for no more than six months for patients with intractable pain or vomiting

The flowering tops (buds) of unpollinated female cannabis plants produce a high-grade marijuana known as


Although regular marijuana smokers often show a slowing of cognitive processing, evidence for negative acute cognitive effects is less dramatic than it is for infrequent users.


The International Olympics Committee first established rules disqualifying competitors who failed or who refused to take drug tests in


Hashish refers to

pure cannabis resin.

Most of the resin is in which part of the cannabis plant?

flowering tops.

Which of these was NOT one of the three reasons given for why we focus so much attention on drug use by athletes?

Athletes make so much money

Which of the following did NOT occur in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s in the United States?

Marijuana use among high school students reached an all-time low.

The 2003 BALCO scandal involved a laboratory that was

selling a previously undetectable steroid to baseball players.

The 1999 report from the Institute of Medicine said that marijuana cigarettes should be made available to any medical patient on the recommendation of a physician.


Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist that has been approved for use in treating alcohol use disorder.


Giving the user rewards for drug-free urine samples

Is a form of contingency management

Beginning in 1986, the federal government launched a massive campaign based on anti-drug policies, locker searches, etc., to promote

"Drug-Free" schools

Drug use and abuse is a relatively recent development in our society.


Having students discuss their reactions to various moral and ethical dilemmas as a means to help them clarify their own values was one example of the general prevention approach known as

affective education.

The most effective potential medical treatment for cocaine use disorder appears to be the antidepressant drug citalopram.


Varenicline, approved in 2006 for smoking cessation

is a partial nicotinic-receptor antagonist.

Both drug agonist (substitution) and antagonist treatments are included in the __________ phase of treatment.


Prevention of withdrawal symptoms using medications would be considered part of the ____________ process.


Teaching students relaxation or meditation techniques was seen as one possible way of providing

Alternatives to drug use

The "therapeutic workplace" is an example of what approach to drug treatment?

Contingency management

The DSM-V provides diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and substance abuse.


Because of the potential danger of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, these symptoms are often prevented or treated by administering


The ad campaign Above the Influence targets which age group?


Teaching parenting skills and doing family interaction exercises are components of effective parent and family prevention programs.


In the early 1970s, the Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior model began to be questioned when it was learned that

students with more knowledge about drugs had a more positive attitude toward drugs.

Although no medication has yet received FDA approval for treating cannabis use disorder, one has shown effectiveness in relieving cannabis withdrawal symptoms. That medication is

oral THC

Moderate doses of dronabinol can be used to reduce the symptoms associated with marijuana withdrawal.


Tertiary prevention programs are aimed at

People who have completed treatment for dependence and need relapse prevention or follow up

The Institute of Medicine’s proposed prevention efforts are categorized primarily according to the age groups of the targeted populations.


Which of these is NOT one of the successful components included in the social influence model?

discussing the penalties for getting caught with cigarettes

Besides methadone, another substitute medication has recently been approved for maintaining opioid addicted patients. It is


One of the top programs on SAMHSA’s list of effective prevention programs is DARE.


The "Drug-Free Schools" approach has a big focus on drug laws and school policies, supporting the idea that illicit drug use is wrong and harmful.


In the public health model, programs designed to reach people who have started using some substances and to prevent them from abusing these substances or moving to more dangerous substances, would be classified as

secondary prevention

Although naltrexone has been used to treat alcohol use disorder, it

Is an opioid antagonist, and it is not clear how it works with alcohol users.

In discussing what we should be doing in drug prevention, the text says, "above all"

Avoid sensational scare stories and preachy approaches

Studies of school-based prevention programs in the 1970s showed that students who knew more about drugs and their effects were least likely to use those drugs.


One study of the Life Skills Training program found significantly lower use of

marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco after 6 years

Motivational enhancement therapy has as its goal

has as its goal helping the user move to another "stage of change."

The most consistent feature of workplace drug prevention programs has been

random urine testing

The opioid antagonist naltrexone can prevent heroin from having its normal effect if it is injected.


According to the textbook, a 2005 law concerning methamphetamine further restricted

the sale of pseudoephedrine.

A 1984 review of prevention studies concluded that values clarification approaches were clearly effective in actually preventing future drug use.


Which of these was NOT discussed as an effective family-based drug prevention approach?

providing urine test kits to parents

The DARE program stands for

Drug Abuse Resistance Education.

According to the text, the ultimate goal of workplace drug prevention programs is to

Prevent drug use by making clear that it is not condoned.

Primary prevention programs are aimed at

Young people who have not tried drugs

Studies of court-ordered referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous versus other types of interventions have

Not found differences in effectiveness between AA and other approaches

The substance that accounted for the most admissions in the Treatment Episode Data Set from 2011 was


The Social Influence Model was first developed in a prison setting with former heroin users.


In motivational enhancement therapy, drinkers are given antabuse so that they will be afraid to drink alcohol.


Out-of-school peer programs include peer influence approaches, as well as

Peer participation programs, such as community service

DARE is one of the most widespread drug prevention programs in schools. Research on DARE has shown that

It has not produced lasting reductions in drug or alcohol use

CBT may be ineffective for long-term methamphetamine users because of the many cognitive deficits caused by the drug.


The most common form of medical treatment for opioid addiction is

methadone maintenance

The Montana Meth Project, an ad campaign that exaggerates the effects of methamphetamine, has been shown to clearly reduce methamphetamine use.


Before we can evaluate the success of a drug treatment program, we have to understand the program’s


The majority of drug treatment takes place in an outpatient setting.


The social influence model grew out of a 1976 paper describing a successful prevention approach aimed at

Cigarette smoking

Is treatment for drug addiction effective?

Statistically, treatment does reduce crime and increase employment.

Rapid opioid detoxification is based on

Anesthetizing users and administering an antagonist, so that withdrawal occurs while they are asleep

Acamprosate, the most recent drug approved to treat alcohol use disorder, is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter GABA


Which of these is NOT one of the Institute of Medicine’s classifications for prevention programs?

affective prevention

Which of these has NOT received FDA approval for use during the maintenance phase of alcohol treatment?

bupropion (Zyban)

There is no documented cocaine withdrawal syndrome.


Marijuana does not produce withdrawal symptoms for most users.


Which is not normally classified as a club drug?


Which of the following are known health hazards of steroid abuse?

all of the aboe

Mood and behavioral effects of steroids include the following except:

experience of illusions

Which drug appears to permanently damage the neurons which release serotonin, holding the potential for serious neurotoxicity among users?


LSD use results in profound physicological changes.


Marijuana has been identified as a cause of brain damage and neurotoxicity.


What is a microdot?

a small LSD pill

The Supreme Court supports the idea that schools can dispense with a warrant for a drug test because they carry the responsibility to maintain order, safety, and security for students.


The love drug:


What are Marinol and Cesamet?

THC for medical uses

Sometimes used by Indian tribes as a spiritual experience:


The effects of marijuana administration peak after about _________________.

20 min

The combination of different steroids in an attempt to maximize their effects is called:


What is an ergogenic drug

one which is used to enhances athletic performance

Which is not true of PCP

it was synthesized as a stimulant drug for narcolepsy

Psilocybin is the drug found in:


Which is not true about the club drugs?

they are rarely used in combination with other drugs

Which athlete is most likely to benefit from creatine supplementation?

a shot putter

Most standard student drug tests test for MDMA, marijuana, and commonly abused prescription drugs.


Marijuana will reveal in a drug test weeks after last use because it is fat soluble.


As marijuana users gain experience with increased age, their euphoric experience is enhanced.


The respiratory effects of marijuana smoking include coughing, increased incidence of upper respiratory infections, and reduced lung capacity.


Which is not true about creatine supplementation?

it enhances endurance sport performance

Amotivational syndrome’s correlation with marijuana use is a myth.


Student drug testing is on more solid legal ground if there is no law enforcement involvement and if there is a concern shown over student welfare.


Because of their many similarities, the hazards of cigarette smoking and marijuana smoking are easily comparable.


Magic mushrooms most resemble:

a PCP trip WRONG

The desired effects of marijuana by the user include all except the following:


LSD produces no tolerance, dependence, or physical withdrawal symptoms.


While not conclusively shown to cause psychoses in mentally healthy individuals, marijuana use may precipitate neuroses or psychoses in those already at risk.


Psychological dependence does not develop to marijuana.


Albert Hoffman discovered:


Anterograde amnesia:


A recurrence of a psychedelic experience long after LSD has left the body:


The Pottawatomie v. Earls Supreme Court Case upheld student drug testing beyond the athletic setting.


The concentrated resin from the flowers of cannabis:


Expected reactions to PCP include all of the following except:

increased blood pressure, pulse and respiration rate

Positive drug tests for marijuana are likely for approximately 21 days because the metabolites remain in the body for 2-3 weeks


Female steroid use has recently climbed to match that of males


Dr. Timothy Leary specifically encouraged the use of:


Most experts believe that marijuana damages lung function.


Which is not true about steroids?

they result in increased breast size in females

An LSD trip marked by paranoia and confusion:


Which drug is an animal anesthetic?


Which is not true of creatine supplementation?

anecdotal evidence of side effects should warrant further research WRONG


an Ectasy high

There are no reported deaths from LSD overdose.


Which is not a usual reaction to marijuana?

loss of appetite

There are no known overdose deaths from marijuana


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