History – Unit 4 Test

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On what grounds did the US Supreme Court refuse to hear the 1831 Cherokee Nation v. Georgia case?

The court did not recognize the Cherokee tribe as a sovereign nation.

Who was Tecumseh?

a Shawnee leader who led American Indian resistance to US settlement in the Ohio River Valley

American Indian resistance in the Ohio River Valley ended with

Tecumseh’s death.

Why did the state of Georgia begin auctioning off Cherokee land in 1828?

Prospectors wanted to mine for gold on Cherokee territory.

Why was there so little settlement on the Great Plains in the early 1800s?

Conditions were not suitable for the kind of farming done at that time.

Which statement best describes the Indian Removal Act of 1830?

The act helped relocate eastern American Indians to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.

During the late 1700s, the Wilderness Road led to the settlement of


Who helped establish the Wilderness Road in the late 1700s?

Daniel Boone

How did the US government react to the Supreme Court’s finding in Worcester v. Georgia?

The US government pressured tribes into signing treaties accepting removal.

What was the cause of most conflicts between US troops and American Indians in the 1800s?

American settlement on American Indian lands

During the mid-1800s, the greatest danger to American Indians in the West was

a lack of immunity to certain diseases.

American exceptionalism can best be defined as the belief that

the United States had a duty to spread its ideals around the world.

Pioneers who crossed the western mountains in the mid-1800s were threatened by

snow and cold temperatures.

Which of the following challenges did travelers on the Oregon Trail often face in the mid-1800s?

crossing the Great Plains

In the mid-1800s, travelers faced a high risk of attack by Apache and Comanche groups on

the Santa Fe Trail.

American Indians who lived in the West

offered their services as guides to settlers.

As a believer in Manifest Destiny, President Polk promised to annex the territory in the Pacific Northwest known as

Oregon Country.

In the mid-1800s, about how far could pioneers travel on a good day?

15 miles

In the mid-1800s, pioneers who traveled through the Great Plains to the West faced

summer rainstorms and difficult terrain.

In the mid-1800s, Democrats believed that a policy of Manifest Destiny

would boost the American economy and open up economic opportunities.

In response to an increase in the number of immigrants in the early nineteenth century,

nativism grew.

How did changes in manufacturing in the late 1700s and early 1800s affect people living in cities in the North?

Factories employed more people, including women and children, for lower wages and longer hours.

In the 1800s, the Know-Nothing Party worked to accomplish which of the following?

restrictions on immigration

How did industrialization affect the American economy in the 1800s?

The total value of manufactured goods increased, and the number of people working in factories rose.

Which best describes conditions in factories in the 1800s?

Laborers worked long hours with few holidays.

By 1850, in the largest northern cities such as New York and Boston,

immigrants made up a large part of the population.

Why did the Know-Nothing Party want to prevent immigrants from voting?

Members of the Know-Nothing Party believed immigrants were undermining American society.

During the rise of industrialization in the 1840s, the majority of immigrants came from

Ireland and Germany.

In the 1800s, factories hired more women and children than they had in the past because

machines could now do the heavy labor formerly done by men.

Which of the following best describes nativism in the 1800s?

a policy favoring native-born Americans over immigrants

In the early and mid-1800s, how did the economies of the Northern and Southern states compare?

The North was industrialized, while the South was more agricultural.

Which best explains how the invention of corporations contributed to the economy in the 1800s?

Corporations allowed investors to invest without putting their personal property at risk, fueling the growth of new businesses.

By 1840, how much cotton did the United States produce per year because of changes in technology?

about 1.3 million bales

Why did many white Southerners hope to become slaveholders in the early 1800s?

They saw slavery as a sign of privilege.

White Southerners who defended slavery were called


Which is Eli Whitney known for?

inventing the cotton gin

Which best defines the Southern code during the slavery era?

White Southerners believed women should not do certain chores and gentlemen should not do manual labor.

Which was the most important cash crop in the South in the 1800s?


In what way was the South a paternalistic society during the days of slavery?

Slaveholders believed they helped enslaved people by providing food, shelter, and clothing while relieving them of responsibility.

In the early and mid-1800s, much of the Southern economy depended on

labor provided by enslaved workers.

Which states passed legislation to protest the Alien and Sedition Acts?

Virginia and Kentucky

Which politician proposed the idea of nullification?

John C. Calhoun

Nullification is best defined as

a state’s refusal to follow a federal law it opposes.

Who was known as "the Great Compromiser"?

Henry Clay

Which best describes Henry Clay?

a great orator who was nicknamed "the Great Compromiser"

In 1832, the Ordinance of Nullification declared that one state would

not collect tariffs imposed by the federal government.

In the early and mid-1800s, sectionalism was strongest

in the South, where people felt their economy depended on slavery.

Federalism gives both state and national governments the power to

pass legislation.

What was the purpose of Henry Clay’s American System?

to protect American goods from competition with foreign goods

Which legislator was seen as a symbol of the Old South?

John C. Calhoun

In the early 1800s, the empresario system was responsible for

more American colonists settling in Texas.

Which of the following events immediately followed the Battle of San Jacinto?

Santa Anna signed a treaty with Texas.

Which of the following best describes Sam Houston?

Houston was the first president of the Republic of Texas.

What would have happened if Missouri had joined the Union as a slave state?

The balance of power in Congress would have shifted.

How did the concept of Manifest Destiny create the need for the Missouri Compromise?

As the US expanded, there needed to be a balance of power between the North and the South, which led to the Missouri Compromise.

When Texas joined the United States in 1845, Texas was

an independent nation.

The provisions of the Missouri Compromise stated in part that

Missouri would be admitted into the Union as a slave state.

It was difficult for the United States to annex Texas because

Texas was an independent nation.

What was one effect of the Missouri Compromise?

It was a temporary solution that did not fix the problem of slavery.

In the early 1800s, how was the belief in Manifest Destiny most likely to affect the admission of new states into the Union?

The belief in Manifest Destiny meant that the balance between free and slave states could shift as the United States expanded to the Pacific coast.

Why did the United States complete the Gadsden Purchase in 1853?

to build a railroad to the Pacific

Which of the following best states how the idea of Manifest Destiny contributed to the causes of the Mexican-American War?

Mexico’s claim to Texas stood in the way of American expansion to the Pacific Ocean.

How did the border dispute between Mexico and Texas affect the Mexican-American War?

It became a source of conflict once Texas became a part of the United States.

Which of the following best describes where land acquired through the Mexican Cession is located today?

the southwestern US

A challenge that Mexican citizens living in areas that were part of the Mexican Cession faced was that

their families lived in Mexico and the US.

During the Mexican-American War, the United States and Mexico fought over

land in the Southwest.

Which of the following groups were most likely to support the Mexican-American War?

Southerners who wanted to add new slave states

Which of the following best describes American troops who fought in the Mexican-American War?

volunteer soldiers

What did Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott have in common?

Both led troops US troops in the Mexican-American War.

Why was President Polk willing to go to war with Mexico?

to further the idea of Manifest Destiny

What did the Missouri Compromise of 1820 accomplish?

It created a dividing line between free and slave states.

How did the Compromise of 1850 increase tensions between the North and the South?

The North refused to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act.

Which of the following best describes Zachary Taylor’s position on slavery in new territories during his presidential campaign?


What political party was formed in 1848 to oppose the spread of slavery?

the Free-Soil Party

How did Congress attempt to maintain a balance of power between Northern and Southern states in the mid-1800s?

by keeping the number of free and slave states equal

What did the Compromise of 1850 postpone?

civil war between the states

The Wilmot Proviso called for

a ban on slavery in territories gained from Mexico.

What challenge did Congress face in 1850?

whether to allow slavery in new territories

Along with Henry Clay, who contributed to the Compromise of 1850?

Stephen Douglas

When California applied for statehood, Southern states feared

they would lose equality in the Senate.

In the 1855 election in Kansas, the settlers voted

to choose a territorial government in Kansas.

In the mid-1800s, the Kansas and Nebraska territories were located

above the Missouri Compromise line.

Who proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854?

Stephen Douglas

Why did Southern senators initially block the organization of the Kansas and Nebraska territories?

They were afraid the admission of new free states would tip the balance.

In the 1800s, why did the US government want to keep the number of free states and slave states equal?

to maintain a balance in Congress between the number of representatives who supported slavery compared to those who opposed it

How did the Missouri Compromise attempt to settle the issue of slavery?

It divided the land into areas where slavery would and would not be allowed.

In the 1800s, Border Ruffians and Free Soilers both wanted to

influence the territorial elections in Kansas.

Which statement best describes the two competing constitutions in Kansas in 1855?

Neither constitution agreed on the subject of making slavery legal.

Why did the federal government remove American Indians from the Kansas and Nebraska territories?

They wanted to extend the railroad and open the land to settlers.

What happened to Congressman Preston Brooks after he attacked Senator Charles Sumner?

Brooks resigned from office but was promptly re-elected.

Which of the following increased sectional tensions in the 1850s?

the Fugitive Slave Act

Who spoke out against adding land in the Southwest to the United States?

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Which of the following was a positive effect of westward expansion for American Indians?

new trade and economic opportunities

Who was the driving force behind the US Indian removal policy?

Andrew Jackson

The tract of land the United States received at the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848 was called

the Mexican Cession.

As a result of Manifest Destiny, westward expansion in the mid-1800s

increased dramatically.

Which statement best describes why many Southerners supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

It allowed the territories to enter the Union as slave states.

How were Southern plantations able to meet the demand for cotton in the 1800s?

by increasing the number of enslaved workers and using the cotton gin

Which statement about the Southern code, which was followed by many white Southerners in the 1800s, is true?

It held that enslaved workers did work that was considered "unladylike" or "ungentlemanly" for white Southerners.

At the time of the Missouri Compromise, there was conflict between the North and the South because of

differences in regional economies.

In the 1850s, many Northerners thought John Brown was a

noble hero.

Why was US acquisition of the Louisiana Territory significant?

It nearly doubled the size of the United States.

What happened in the first few years after Mexico won its independence in 1821?

Mexico allowed Americans to settle in Texas.

Which of the following men thought the Republic of Texas should remain independent?

Mirabeau Lamar

Which territory’s request to become a state sparked a battle over slavery in 1819?


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