History systems ch 13

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According to Freud, the "third shock" to the collective human ego was the realization ____.

that humans are not the rational commanders of their lives.

At the time of Freud’s death, the dominant form of American psychology was ____.


​A basic difference between psychoanalysis and the other systems of psychology was that ____.

the other systems had an academic background and a focus on pure science

The primary method of psychoanalysis was ____.

clinical observation

A topic addressed by psychoanalysis and essentially ignored by the other schools of psychology was ____.

the unconscious

Wundt’s system dealt only with consciousness because ____.

the unconscious cannot be introspected

Monads were defined as ____.

individual elements of all reality, similar to perceptions

The creator of monadology was ____.


​"Little perceptions" were ____.

below consciousness

The concept of threshold of consciousness is attributed to ____.


​For Herbart, like James Mill, ideas influence one another ____.


According to Herbart, if a new idea is incompatible with pre-existing ideas, the new idea will be ____.


Which of the following is an original idea created by Freud, and not his predecessors?

hypnosis b. the unconscious c. the mind as an iceberg d. All of the above. **e. None of the above.

The analogy that the mind is like an iceberg, with its bulk hidden from view (unconscious), is attributed to ____.


The notion of the pleasure principle was borrowed by Freud from ____.


Freud claimed that his discovery was ____.

a way to scientifically study the unconscious mind

​"A new movement requires something to revolt against"; Freud opposed the current trends in ____.

the treatment of mental disorders

The first person to argue for the humane treatment of the mentally ill was ____.


By the 18th century, abnormal behavior was deemed to be ____.

irrational behavior

The spirit of mechanism in relation to the treatment of mental illness portrayed mentally ill persons as ____.

merely needing to be repaired

The person who most strongly influenced humane reforms for the mentally ill in the United States was ____.


The first psychiatrist in formal practice in the United States was ____.


Rush’s treatment techniques reflect ____.

a. mechanistic theory b. the somatic approach c. what he thought were "humane" treatment innovations d. early crude attempts at shock therapy and sedation ***e. All of the choices are correct.

​By the era of Freud’s medical training, the dominant view in psychiatry about the cause of mental illness was ____.


The psychic approach to mental illness was encouraged in the U.S. by ____.

Emmanuel Church Healing movement

Franz Anton Mesmer contributed to which of the following?

He believed he was curing mental and physical illness by using magnetism

The techniques of Mesmer ____.

were investigated and he was discredited and often involved convulsions

Hypnosis garnered some scientific respectability through the work of ____.

Braid on neurology

Who was the first to argue that hysteria did not have a physical basis?


A major theme of Freud’s system, borrowed from Darwin, was the ____.

importance of the sex drive throughout life

The concept of childhood sexuality can be traced to ____.

Aristotle b. Romanes c. Darwin d. Patze ***e. All except Aristotle

Freud’s espousal of mechanism has been traced to the influence of ____.


The attitude toward sex in the Vienna of the Victorian era was ____.

permissive and open

Which of the following topics had already been discussed before Freud?

infantile sexuality b. libido c. catharsis d. the importance of dreams ***e. All of the choices are correct.

Charcot and Janet had practiced ____ prior to Freud’s work on the same idea.


​In common with functionalism and behaviorism, psychoanalysis bears the influences of ____.

mechanism b. determinism c. Fechner’s work d. Darwin’s theory ***e. All of the choices are correct.

​Freud’s interest in a scientific strategy to acquiring knowledge has been attributed to his reading of ____.


Freud’s early research was in ____.

biology and physiology

Freud’s infamous use of cocaine ____.

extended to middle age

Breuer’s fame was ____.

established by his discovery of the functioning of the semicircular canals

In the case of Anna O., the recollections she revealed while under hypnosis involved ____.

ideas or experiences she found disgusting

Freud’s use of hypnosis was a direct consequence of ____.

his association with Breuer and a research grant to study with Charcot

Currently known data fragments indicate that Freud was first apprised of the role of sexuality in hysterical symptoms by ____.


​The goal of Freud’s therapies was to ____.

make the unconscious conscious

The beginning of psychoanalysis is considered to be indicated by the publication of ____.

Studies on Hysteria

Freud proposed that neurotic behavior did not develop in persons who ____.

led a normal sex life

Freud argued that whether an event happened in childhood ____.

is less important than the patient’s belief that it occurred

Freud’s self-analysis was precipitated by ____.

the worsening of his own neurotic symptoms

As a result of Freud’s analysis of his own dreams, he recognized ____.

sexual longings toward his mother b. sexual wishes toward his daughter c. the outlines of the Oedipus complex d. hostility toward his father ***e. All of the choices are correct.

Freud’s major work is considered to be ____.

The Interpretation of Dreams

In 1909, Freud ____.

received an honorary doctorate in psychology from Clark University

The American public was primed for Freud’s work because of ____.

Bruce’s seven books and some five dozen magazine articles on the unconscious

Freud underwent a vasectomy ____.

as part of a cancer treatment

Psychoanalysis was eradicated in Germany by ____.

the Nazi party

Freud died as the result of ____.

a morphine overdose

According to Freud in his first lecture at Clark University, psychoanalysis originated with ____.


In the material presented at Clark University, Freud said that while hypnotized, Anna O. ____.

described the mental images that controlled her thoughts

During his Clark University lecture, Freud proposed that psychic traumas are ____.

affect-laden events

At the conclusion of his Clark University lecture, Freud stated that "hysterical patients suffer from ____."


Freud found that the free association method ____.

did not always operate freely because of resistance

____ is an unconscious inability to bring into conscious awareness memories that are too shameful or painful to be faced.


____ is the process of forcefully ejecting or excluding from consciousness any unacceptable ideas, memories, and desires.


Freud’s overriding goal was to ____.

describe and explain the dynamics of human behavior

Freud’s investigative approach was ____.

to consider evidence as he alone interpreted it

Freud conceived of Instinkts as ____.

unique to animals

Triebs were, in Freud’s system, ____.

humans’ motivating forces

Self-preservation as a major human motive was expressed by Freud in his notion of the ____.


Freud’s view of instincts is that they are ____.

sources of stimulation and motivation within the body

In his system of personality, Freud replaced the conscious/unconscious distinction with the concept of ____.

id, ego, and superego

According to Freud, the biological, need-related part of everyone’s personality is the ____.


Fear of being the victim of a violent crime while visiting a gang-infested area in the United States is an example of ____.

objective anxiety

In Freud’s system, personality development is built on the ____.

psychosexual stages

The Oedipal conflict occurs during the ____ stage of development.


Freud’s position on reductionism was that ____.

all phenomena can be reduced to the principles of physics

Freud proposed that the aim of psychology was to ____.

represent mental processes as quantitatively determined states

By the 1930s and 1940s, psychoanalysis ____.

was wholeheartedly embraced by the American public

The response of scientific psychology to psychoanalysis by the 1950s and 1960s was to ____.

reframe Freud’s concepts in behavioral terms

Experimental research on Freudian theory has shown that ____.

a.some of his concepts are testable by the methods of science b. some support for unconscious influences c. evidence for some Freudian concepts d. some concepts have resisted attempts at scientific validation ***e. All of the choices are correct.

The analyst ____ broke with Freud over his claim that women feel inferior to men.

Karen Horney

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