history of the world in 6 glasses questions

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– It was used socially and in rituals by hunter gatherers
– Caused the switch to farming because they needed a steady source of grains
– Helped aid the lack of good quality food.
– Those who drank beer had nutritional advantages
– MOST OF ALL: It showed that the ancient culture was intelligent enough to realize that traditional drinking water could be contaminated and they needed a safe sustainable source of a liquid nourishment

– The discovery of beer introduced the need for grain in everyday society. This led to the need for agriculture, which then led to permanent settlements, creating the first civilizations.

Beer: How was its discovery linked to the rise of the first civilizations?

– They had an understanding and were civilized enough to know what was potentially contaminated water sources.

Beer: What did beer’s history teach us about early civilization?

– Stone Age, because it was the first hand account of the rise of beer

Beer: What sources does he use about his information of beer?

-rituals (Sacred Drink)
-Religion (Used in Ceremonies)

Beer: What were uses of beer?

– It was a safe alternative to water

Beer: How did beer give nourishment?

– It was a sacred drink

Beer: How was beer used in rituals?

– Used in ceremonies, funerals, gifts to the gods

Beer: How was beer religious?

– It was a reason to begin agriculture
– it led to the birth of early civilizations in the Mesopotamia Region
– The birth of the first permanent settlements

Beer: How did beer civilize man?

-Writing: it was developed to keep track of the trade of beer, bread, and other goods
-Taxes: they were in the form of barley and wheat and then used to make beer
-Health: Drinking beer over water prevented many from coming down with dysentery.

Beer: What was the relationship between beer, writing, commerce, and health?

– About 6000 years ago in the Stone Age

Beer: When was it discovered?

– Mesopotamia

Beer: Where was it discovered?

– As a way to ensure the water they were drinking was safe because they had to boil it
– As a social drink

Beer: Why was it discovered?

– The advantage of it not being contaminated

Beer: How did the drink become important?

– In short in allowed the birth of out modern civilizations

Beer: What effect did beer have on history?

Beer was Barbaric, Wine was not

Wine: How did Wine and Beer differ in Ancient Greece and Rome?

– It was used when water quality couldn’t be guaranteed similarly to beer
– As a social symbol
– Used to make vinegar

Wine: How was wine used by the Greeks?

– Beer was a common drink where wine was a status of fancier living

Wine: How and why did wine develop into a form of a status symbol in Greece?

– Like Beer in Mesopotamia the drinking water was unsafe so it was used so they’d have a drink to kill the bacteria
– It was a drink of the superior

Wine: How was wine consumed and What does the way wine was consumed tell us about Greek Culture?

– In Rome, Wine was part of everyday life and even gave it to the slaves where in Greece, it was a symbol of the elite

Wine: How did it differ in Roman Culture compared to Ancient Greece?

– Religion: It was part of Catholic Ritual ((Eucharist)) and symbolized the blood of Jesus
– Medicine: It was used as a pain killer mostly due to the effects of alcohol
– Empire: Wine had a large presence in the rise of Christianity and with that the rise of the Holy Roman Empire

Wine: What was Wines relationship with the empire, medicine, and religion?

– 4100 BC when the wine press was discovered

Wine: When was wine discovered?

– Armenia

Wine: Where was wine discovered?

– Another source of a sustainable drink because of the water conditions

Wine: Why was wine made?

– Religious Importance
– The Rise of the Roman Empire
– Social Classes

Wine: How did wine become important?

– Bottled Water, they found how to process safe drinking water

Water: Water discovery in the 19th century brought the history of beverages full circle?

– Both are equally as safe and in a lot of cases bottled water is just bottled tap water

Water: Which water quality is more tightly controlled tap or bottled?

– 1.2 billion

Water: How many people do not have safe drinking water?

– It has sparked global conflicted including the 6 Day War in 1967.

Water: How has access to water affected international affairs?

– It was invented by Pemberton as a new medicine with traces of cocaine and kola.

Coke: What was the origin of coke?

– It was made by a patent medicine maker as a new medicine for head-aches, neuralgia, hysteria, melancholy, and more
– Coca Leaves, kola and Caffeine

Coke: How was this beverage used medicinally and what were the add additives?

– By the time World War II began, Coca-Cola was being bottled in 44 countries. During the war, 64 bottling plants were set up around the world to supply the troops.

Coke: What was the relationship of Coke and WW2?

– They viewed it as a sign of American Values

Coke: How was coke thought of by the communists in the cold war?

– Even Coca-Cola, widely seen as a standard-bearer of global business. It was a Coke CEO, the late Roberto Goizueta, who declared in 1996: "The labels ‘international’ and ‘domestic’…no longer apply." His globalization program, often summarized under the tagline "think global, act global," had included an unprecedented amount of standardization.

Coke: What is meant by globalization in a bottle?

– Brilliant marketing can be credited with Coca-Cola being seen as a valued part of American culture. Commercials, advertisements, etc. have all helped to bring Coca-Cola into American homes and key moments in the country’s history. It also was negatively affected in communist countries because it was a view of American values

Coke: How did Coke materialize into an American Value? How did it help and hurt Coke?

– Tea first created a mainstream drink in Asia in around 100 BCE. It later became a mainstream drink in Europe around 1610

Tea: When did tea become mainstream in Asia and Europe?

– Tea in Europe was consumed with milk and sugar, and was commonly black tea. On the other hand, tea in China and Japan was consumed without additives and included no additives It was also more spiritual in Asia

Tea: How did consumption of tea differ in Europe compared to China and Japan

– Tea did not find the immediate success that coffee had because it was more expensive

Tea: If tea and coffee arrived at the same time in Europe at the same time as coffee, why wasn’t it an immediate success?

– Because of the lack of potable water in England when tea (and coffee) was introduced around the year 1650, its use forced those drinking it to boil the water – sterilizing it. It caused people to rely less on alcoholic beverages and therefore quite likely lengthened people’s lives and allowed them to have better use of their faculties.
– Mainly the upper class and originally men
– Afternoon tea

Tea: How did tea transform English society? Who were the main consumers? What were the new rituals that surrounded tea?

– It was a major item of trade
– Tea farms allowed investment opportunities that propelled the industrial revolution to push forward

Tea: How was tea an integral part of the Industrial Revolution?

– Tea symbolized the idea of British Imperialism
– The British East India Company, which was a major supplier of tea, used its wealth and power to lobby for new government policy.

Tea: What was the connection between tea and politics?

– British merchants carrying no opium would buy tea in Canton on credit, and would balance their debts by selling opium at auction.
– To pay for the tea from China, the East India Company grew opium in India and sold it for silver in China. After a Chinese attempt to stop this, the Opium War broke out

Tea: How was tea connected to the opium trade and Opium Wars?

– They needed control over India to get the tea
– The tea trade was the only reason they wanted control of India
– They did not want a reliance on China for there tea and looked for an alternatives in India

Tea: What role did the tea trade and production play in British rule over India?

– Coffee was first made in Yemen. It was soon adopted throughout the Arab world. It later spread to Europe and was considered a more respectable alternative to alcohol.

Coffee: Who did Europeans get coffee from and how did it spread to Europe?

– Coffee makes the drinker more alert and, therefore, more productive. It sharpens the mind and focuses the drinker. Alcohol has the opposite effects.

Coffee: Why was it so important to Europe’s development that many people’s beverage of choice switched from alcohol to coffee?

– Coffee had lots of demand, but little supply. The country that could grow and export the most coffee had a substantial economic advantage over other countries in terms of commerce

Coffee: Describe coffee’s effect on the global balance of power (in terms of commerce).

– Coffee houses became a play for informal intellectual conversation. At coffee houses scientists could discuss and receive feedback on ideas. Lectures were also sometimes held at coffee houses.

Coffee: How did coffee play a pivotal role in the scientific revolution? (give lots of detail)

– Originally stocks were traded in the royal exchange, but the government passed laws placing limits on the trades. In protest, brokers moved to nearby coffee houses, which led to the creation of the London Stock Exchange.

Coffee: How did coffee play a pivotal role in the financial revolution?

– Coffee houses in Paris became meeting centers for intellectuals. The French government censored the media and imposed harsh restrictions on the people. Coffee houses were one of the few places where intellectuals could freely discuss trends and topics. As the financial crisis worsened, revolutionary speakers started to speak at coffee houses to others. After a failed convention, a lawyer successfully gathered a crowd to arms, starting the revolution.

Coffee: How did coffee play a pivotal role in the French Revolution? (give lots of detail and go into the Enlightenment)

– Distilled spirits were originally created by ancient Arab chemists by distilling wine and using the resulting fluid as medicine or as an alchemical ingredient.

Spirits: What is the origin of distilled spirits?

– Spirits were popular on long ocean voyages because they were both more compact and less likely to spoil than other alcoholic drinks. Additionally, many early colonies grew sugar cane. The byproducts of processing the sugar could be fermented and distilled to make a concentrated alcoholic drink.

Spirits: What is the connection between spirits and colonization?

– The African traders who sold slaves were paid in spirits (first in brandy, later in rum).

Spirits: How was the production of spirits connected to slavery?

– Spirits were more compact and less likely to spoil than other alcoholic drinks. They could also be mixed with water to make water more palatable.

Spirits: What role did spirits play on the high seas?

– British sailors drank grog, which contained lime juice. The vitamin C in lime juice helped prevent scurvy. Since the French sailors didn’t have a consistent source of vitamin C, they were more susceptible to contract scurvy.

Spirits: In the 18th century, how did spirits help Britain have a more superior navy than France?

– When the colonies were founded, there was no initial source of alcohol and the colonists were left drinking water. After the discovery of rum, it soon became the drink of choice in the colonies because it was inexpensive.

Spirits: Why were spirits an important staple in Colonial America?

– Molasses was used in rum production. The British tax on molasses drove up the cost of rum, angered the colonies, and set a precedent for the breaking of British tax acts.

Spirits: How did rum play a role in the American Revolution?

– Spirits strengthened the slave trade. The consumption of rum led to alcohol addiction in both settlers and natives

Spirits: What were the negative effects/uses of spirits? (Use entire chapter to answer this)

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