History Chapter 11

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"Slave patrols" were

farmers who kept a lookout for runaway slaves.

A small number of African-Americans owned slaves in the Old South.


Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves, North and South, henceforth and forever more.


According to abolitionist and former slave, Frederick Douglass, "not to give a slave enough to eat, is regarded as the most aggravated development of meanness, even among slaveholders."


After a brief period of apprenticeship, the end of slavery in Britain came on August 1, 1838.


Although dueling was illegal, many southerners took part in duels to avenge supposed insults.


As acts of self-empowerment, enslaved individuals often

broke tools

Because of passages in the Bible about servants obeying their masters, all slaveholders firmly agreed that slavery was a legitimate institution.


Blacks, free and slave, took part in the Great Awakening of the colonial area, and even more were swept into these southern religions during religious revivals into the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries:

Baptist and Methodist

By 1860, more than half of the United States’ exports were in


By 1860, the economic investment represented by the slave population exceeded the value of the nation’s factories, railroads, and banks combined.


By the eve of the Civil War, free blacks in the South were allowed to own


By the mid-nineteenth century, all states had made it illegal to kill a slave except in self-defense.


Compared to Brazil and the West Indies, involving hundreds or even thousands of slaves, revolts in the United States were

smaller and less frequent

Cotton was the major agricultural crop of the South and, indeed, the nation, but slaves also grew rice, sugarcane, tobacco, and hemp.


During the early to mid-1800s, sugar produced in the slave South was America’s leading export.


During the mid-1800s, the roles of slave men and women were as divided as the roles for white men and women.


Following the Nat Turner Rebellion, the Virginia legislature discussed the possibility of abolishing slavery within the state.


For slaves, slavery meant constant fear that their families might be destroyed by sale, incessant toil, and brutal punishment.


Given the primitive nature of professional medical treatment, some whites sought out slave healers instead of trained physicians.


Henry "Box" Brown escaped slavery by

shipping himself in a crate from Georgia to the North

Improvements in the slaves’ living conditions were meant to strengthen slavery, not undermine it.


In 1839, fifty-three slaves took control of this ship in an attempt to reroute to Africa.


In 1850, most slave owning families owned five or fewer slaves.


In 1860, the South as a whole produced less than 10 percent of the nation’s manufactured goods.


In 1860, the largest economic investment in the United States was in


In 1860, three of four white families owned no slaves.


In American slave culture, jumping over a broomstick was associated with which of the following acts


In most Latin American nations, the end of slavery followed the pattern established earlier in the northern United States—

gradual emancipation accompanied by some kind of recognition of the owners’ legal right to property in slaves.

In the Old South, the percentage of white families that owned slaves was approximately


In the fifty years following the end of the international slave trade in 1808, the number of slaves in the United States fell by 50 percent.


In the mid 1800s, few plantations had dedicated buildings for slave worship so most slaves

worshipped in secret or in biracial churches with white ministers

In the midst of the American antebellum era, the British Parliament launched a program for abolishing slavery throughout the British empire in 1831.


John C. Calhoun of South Carolina considered "the most false and dangerous of all political errors"

that all men are created equal and entitled to liberty.

Labor on rice plantations in South Carolina and Georgia was generally done by

task labor

Most slaves who arrived in the North as a means of escaping slavery did so

on their own initiative

Nat Turner

led an 1831 slave uprising in Virginia, killing about sixty whites.

Often, many slaves supplemented the food provided by their owners with other food items including chickens and vegetables they raised themselves.


Paternalism meant

the master was the head of the system, including providing his slaves with protection and the right of care and attention in their sicknesses.

Perhaps the most powerful disciplinary weapon slaveholders possessed was

the threat of sale.

Slaveowners had many ways to enforce discipline among their slaves—from physical punishment, to material incentives, to the threat of sale.


Slavery for blacks, the South declared, was the surest guarantee of "perfect equality" among whites, as they liberated them from the "low, menial" jobs like factory labor and domestic service performed by wage laborers in the North.


Slaves had many ways to "quietly" resist the power of the slaveowners—from feigning illness, to wrecking tools, to performing inadequate labor.


Slaves knew little of Christianity or the Bible, and slave masters usually withheld access to religion from their enslaved labor.


Slaves on cotton plantations found harsher work conditions but greater autonomy than did those on rice plantations.


The "peculiar institution" of the South was

the issue of slavery

The Civil War did not provide any opportunities for mass slave escapes.


The Second Middle Passage was

the slave trade from the older states to the Lower South.

The Underground Railroad ran on steel tracks (after its iron ones were replaced) that were generally hidden in forest growth.


The Virginia writer George Fitzhugh believed that slaves and slaveowners shared a "community of interest." Yet since the slaves lacked economic cares

"the slaves of the South are the happiest, and in some degree, the freest people in the world."

The laws of almost all southern states recognized the legality of slave marriages.


The most influential African-American of the nineteenth century and the nation’s leading advocate of racial equality was

Frederick Douglass

The prevalence of plantation slavery kept the South from matching northern rates of immigration, industrial development, and urban growth.


The reliance on unfree labor extended to the use of renting slaves from plantation owners.


The southern state with the highest population of free blacks was


What happened to the 135 enslaved persons who in 1841 seized the ship, the Creole, and sailed to Nassau in search of freedom?

They were given refuge in the British Caribbean.

What was the result of the Missouri court case involving the "crime" of Celia?

she was sentenced to death.

Which is not part of the generally accepted account of the 1822 conspiracy led by Denmark Vesey?

Vesey and his followers killed or maimed 37 whites.

Which of the following was not a part of slavery’s impact on the northern economy?

Slave labor in the southern Cotton Belt undermined industrial production in the North.

While owners attempted to prevent slaves from learning about the larger world, slaves created neighborhood networks, such as

transmitting information gleaned on ships.

Whose name is most often associated with the Underground Railroad

Harriet Tubman

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