History and Systems Ch. 11

Skinner's former students demonstrated which of the following with the advent of the IQ Zoo?

Operant conditioning can be taken out of the lab and applied to the real world.

Watson's behaviorism ______.

was the first stage in the evolution of the behavioral school of thought.

The era of neobehaviorism consisted of the years _____.

1930-1990.

The dominant area of study for the neobehaviorists was _____.

learning.

A point on which the neobehaviorists agreed AND to which they gave much more emphasis than did Watson was _____.

operationism.

Operationism was ______. a) a major characteristic of neobehaviorism b) intended to rid psychology of pseudo-problems c) intended to to make the language of science more objective and precise d) all of the choices e) none of the choices

all of the choices are correct.

Operationism was formulated by _____.

Percy Bridgman.

Operationism means that a concept ______.

is synonymous with its methods of measurement.

The idea that a concept is the same as the corresponding set of procedures to measure it is called ______.

operationism.

If we define consciousness in terms of EEG output, then the construct of consciousness is _______.

acceptable to operationists.

For Bridgman, a construct was acceptable if and only if it ______.

could be objectively measured.

Bridgman argued that a construct must be ______.

measurable.

The concept of operationism can be directly traced to the theories of _______.

the British empiricists.

A primary reason psychology so quickly embraced operationism was that it ______.

was first adopted by physics.

Tolman's graduate training was in _____, as is reflected in his later work. a) philosophy b) structuralism c) Gestalt psychology d) behaviorism e) both b and c

both B and C.

Tolman's concept of cognitive maps, i.e., that the animal learns the "whole," might be traced to his work ______.

with Koffka on Gestalt psychology during graduate school.

Edward C. Tolman's system combining the objective study of behavior with the consideration of goal-orientation in behavior is called ______.

purposive behaviorism.

For Tolman, the obvious and objective behavioral evidence of purpose was ______.

learning.

Tolman described the conscious experience of the animal as ______.

having no influence on the animal's overt behavior.

Which of the following did Tolman not consider to be a cause of behavior?

motivation.

Tolman specified that the independent variables (stimuli) affect processes within the organism. These processes then control the occurrence of behavior (response). These internal processes are known as ______.

intervening variables.

In Tolman's system, intervening variables were _____.

the determinants of behavior.

The term intervening variable refers to _____.

internal processes that "connect" the stimulus with a response.

Tolman's position on Thorndike's law of effect was to ______.

reject it.

For Tolman, each experience with a task strengthens the relationship between cues in the environment and the organism's ______.

expectations.

In Tolman's system, the repetition of an act leads to _______.

sign Gestalts.

For Tolman, a cognitive map is ______.

a pattern of sign Gestalts

According to Tolman's learning theory, as a rat learns all of the sign-Gestalt relationships in a maze, the rat has acquired a ______.

cognitive map.

What is the primary difference between locus of control and self-efficacy?

The former emphasizes internal versus external attribution of success while the latter ignores it.

Whose system was a forerunner of contemporary cognitive psychology?

Tolman's

The pragmatic value of intervening variables is that they _____.

are essential for dealing with hypothetical constructs.

Tolman described ______ as alternatively "creepy" and "delightful."

white laboratory rats

From 1930 until the 1960s, the ______ was the primary research subject for the neobehaviorists and learning theorists.

white rat

It was assumed by Tolman and others that research on white rats would ______.

provide insights into the basic processes underlying the behavior of humans and other animals.

According to Schultz and Schultz, "perhaps no other psychologist was so devoted to the problems of the scientific method" than was ______.

Hull.

Hull had an immense knowledge of ______ and ______.

formal logic and mathematics.

Hull's form of behaviorism was ______ than _______.

more sophisticated and complex; Watson's.

Throughout his life, Hull ______.

suffered from poor health and eyesight.

According to Schultz and Schultz, Hull's "great asset was ______.

an intense motivation to succeed.

The learning theorist ______ persevered in the face of numerous obstacles to success.

Hull

Hull's work contributed to which of the following?

A, B, and C

Throughout his professional career, Hull emphasize ______.

objective methods and functional laws.

From the 1940s to the 1960s, who dominated American psychology?

Hullians

Who authored an early study of the effects of tobacco on behavioral efficiency?

Hull

Hull's background in mathematics and engineering was demonstrated in ______.

all of the choices.

Which of the following men devoted 10 years to the experimental investigation of hypnotic suggestibility?

Hull

Hull's primary research focus was grounded in ______.

Pavlov's laws of conditioning

Hull's system sought to describe and explain ______.

all behavior

Of all the neobehaviorists, the one who most obviously espoused mechanism was _____.

Hull.

Hull intended to express the laws of behavior in the language of _______.

mathematics.

Hull's training in engineering was manifest in his belief that all behavior could be reduced to the language of ______.

mathematics.

Hull's experiments were directed by ______.

deduced theorems and corollaries.

Contemporary path analysis techniques let us test theoretical propositions. Such as an approach appears similar to whose research method?

Hull's

The technique that Hull added to the then-accepted battery of experimental methods was _____.

the hypothetico-deductive method.

Hull proposed that to achieve a paradigm (in Kuhn's sense of the term) in psychology, one would have to implement which method?

the hypothetico-deductive method

Hull proposed the hypothetic-deductive method as the means to develop learning theory. Which of the following statements is the best explanation of Hull's method?

From a set of theoretical postulates, deductions are made. These deductions become hypotheses that are tested experimentally. The experimental results are then used to confirm the postulates or change them if necessary.

"A state of tissue need that arouses or activates behavior" is a definition of _______.

drive.

For Hull, drive reduction is _____.

the sole basis for reinforcement.

Hull's concept of motivation is grounded in the doctrine of ______.

biology.

In Hull's system, a drive is a(n) ______.

all of the choices are correct.

Which of the following is NOT an example of a primary drive?

exercise

In Hull's system, drive _______.

energizes behavior.

In Hull's system, the reduction or satisfaction of a drive is the sole basis of _______.

reinforcement.

Secondary drives are ______.

learned drives.

Hull's law of primary reinforcement is a restatement of ________.

Thorndike's law of effect.

Thorndike and Hull agreed that, in order for learning to occur, the organism must ______.

experience reinforcement occurring after a response.

Secondary drives are _______.

a result of pairing with a primary drive.

If seeing McDonald's golden arches decreases your hunger, then the arches are ______.

secondary reinforcement.

In Hull's system, habit strength is _____.

the strength of the S-R connection.

This person claimed that his own life was "predetermined, lawful, and orderly" just as his system would predict.

Skinner

Skinner pursued graduate work in psychology at Harvard ______.

because he was awed by the work of Watson and Pavlov.

Skinner defined a reflex as a(n) ______.

S-R correlation and nothing more.

The author of The Behavior of Organisms was ______, who did not receive acclaim for the text until 50 years later.

Skinner

The success of Skinner's The Behavior of Organisms can be attributed to ______.

the application of his principles in education and clinical psychology.

To the end of his life, Skinner questioned whether psychology could be a science if it _______.

was a science of the mind.

Skinner was the complete opposite of Hull with regard to the ______.

lack of theoretical framework.

Skinner's research was unique among that of the major neobehaviorists in his _______.

all of the choices are correct.

For Skinner, was is the primary characteristic of living things?

behavior

Which of the following philosophers is discussed by Skinner in the "In Their Own Words" section of the text?

Descartes

Who first distinguished between respondent and operant behavior?

Skinner

Who drew a distinction between operant behavior and respondent behavior?

Skinner

Skinner claimed that he studied ______ while Pavlov studied ______.

operant behavior; respondent behavior

For Skinner, the dependent variable is the ______.

rate of response

The law of acquisition states that the key variable in learning is ______.

reinforcement.

The central difference between Skinner's law of acquisition and Thorndike and Hull's position on learning that ______.

Skinner's law is strictly descriptive while Thorndike and Hull's positions are explanatory.

A schedule of reinforcement ______.

determines when reinforcement occurs.

Parents and employers must determine when and under what conditions children will be rewarded and employees will be paid. In both cases, they must select ______.

schedules of reinforcement.

Skinner raised his daughter in an "air crib" with the result that she _____.

was not adversely affected.

The use of positive reinforcement to control the behavior of individuals and groups is called ______.

behavior modification.

A criticism of Skinner's work is his _______.

willingness to extrapolate from the data, especially with regard to human behavior.

Animals tend to substitute instinctive behaviors for behaviors that have been reinforced. This tendency is called _____.

instinctual drift.

From the 1950s to the 1980s, American Psychology was shaped more by the work of _____ than by the work of any other psychologist.

Skinner

The "third stage" of behaviorism refers to ______.

sociobehaviorism.

Bandura proposed that reactions to stimuli ____.

are self-activated.

A type of reinforcement identified by Bandura is ______.

vicarious

Bandura argues that what changes a person's behavior is ______.

what the organism thinks the schedule of reinforcement is.

For Bandura, the agent who controls the ______ controls behavior.

models

A concept of Bandura that reflects one's beliefs about one's own adequacy is ______.

self-efficacy.

Whereas a concern of Skinner was improvement of society through his technology of behavior, Bandura's is more specific, namely the _____.

alleviation of abnormal behavior.

The main criticism of Bandura's system is _______.

the notion that cognitive processes cause behavior.

The term social learning theory was coined by ______.

Rotter

People who believe reinforcement depends on their own behavior have ______.

an internal locus of control.

Rotter has suggested that locus of control ______.

is acquired in childhood.

The neobehaviorists signed that the essence of psychology is learning.

true

Bridgman argued that a construct is the same as its corresponding set of operations.

true

If a concept can be measured and manipulated under controlled conditions to determine its effects on behavior, then it is not a pseudo-problem.

true

For Tolman, the sheer fact of learning was evidence of purpose in animals.

true

Tolman proposed ten causes of behavior in addition to environmental stimuli.

false

Tolman argued that factors within the organism are the actual causes of behavior.

true

In Tolman's system, learned relationships are sign Gestalts.

true

In experiments that tested the presence of rats' cognitive maps, Tolman found that rats "learned to turn right" rather than learning the location of food.

false

Tolman is recognized as the forerunner of contemporary applied psychology.

false

Tolman's intervening variables were not accepted by mainstream psychology because they could not be operationally defined.

false

Tolman hated rats throughout his entire career.

false

Tolman recognized that research on rats could not uncover basic processes of human behavior.

false

Hull's behaviorist approach to psychology dominated American Psychology from the 1940s to the 1960s.

true

Hull was interested in developing a theory of behavior based on Pavlov's law of conditioning.

true

For Hull, behavior could be reduced to the language of physiology.

false

Hull's system is exemplary in the degree to which it is quantifiable.

true

The method least unique to Hull's system of psychology is the hypothetico-inductive method.

false

In Hull's theory, primary reinforcement results in drive reduction.

true

In Hull's system, the strength of a drive can be empirically determined.

true

For Hull, habit strength is wholly dependent on the number and size of the reinforcements.

false

Skinner defined a reflex as a correlation between a stimulus and a response.

true

Skinner's behaviorism is devoted to the study of responses.

true

Skinner borrowed the term empty organism approach from Descartes's concept of the undulatio reflexa.

false

Skinner stressed the importance of individual differences.

true

For Skinner, the dependent variable is the rate of response.

true

The key variable in Skinner's system is vicarious reinforcement.

false

A key aspect of Skinner's behavior modification is a reliance on punishment.

false

In vicarious reinforcement, learning can occur in the absence of personal reinforcement.

true

Bandura suggested that there is not a direct link between stimulus and response.

true

In Bandura's system, social interaction is a critical factor in human learning.

true

Self-efficacy is defined by Bandura as a sense of self-esteem and competence in dealing with life's problems.

true

Bandura believes that using modeling techniques was ineffective to change behavior.

false

The term social learning theory was coined by Bandura.

false

In Rotter's system, our subjective expectations and values are not important.

false

Locus of control is variable and changes for everyone daily.

false

A major cognitive variable in Bandura's system is locus of control.

false

History and Systems Ch. 11 - Subjecto.com

History and Systems Ch. 11

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Skinner’s former students demonstrated which of the following with the advent of the IQ Zoo?

Operant conditioning can be taken out of the lab and applied to the real world.

Watson’s behaviorism ______.

was the first stage in the evolution of the behavioral school of thought.

The era of neobehaviorism consisted of the years _____.

1930-1990.

The dominant area of study for the neobehaviorists was _____.

learning.

A point on which the neobehaviorists agreed AND to which they gave much more emphasis than did Watson was _____.

operationism.

Operationism was ______. a) a major characteristic of neobehaviorism b) intended to rid psychology of pseudo-problems c) intended to to make the language of science more objective and precise d) all of the choices e) none of the choices

all of the choices are correct.

Operationism was formulated by _____.

Percy Bridgman.

Operationism means that a concept ______.

is synonymous with its methods of measurement.

The idea that a concept is the same as the corresponding set of procedures to measure it is called ______.

operationism.

If we define consciousness in terms of EEG output, then the construct of consciousness is _______.

acceptable to operationists.

For Bridgman, a construct was acceptable if and only if it ______.

could be objectively measured.

Bridgman argued that a construct must be ______.

measurable.

The concept of operationism can be directly traced to the theories of _______.

the British empiricists.

A primary reason psychology so quickly embraced operationism was that it ______.

was first adopted by physics.

Tolman’s graduate training was in _____, as is reflected in his later work. a) philosophy b) structuralism c) Gestalt psychology d) behaviorism e) both b and c

both B and C.

Tolman’s concept of cognitive maps, i.e., that the animal learns the "whole," might be traced to his work ______.

with Koffka on Gestalt psychology during graduate school.

Edward C. Tolman’s system combining the objective study of behavior with the consideration of goal-orientation in behavior is called ______.

purposive behaviorism.

For Tolman, the obvious and objective behavioral evidence of purpose was ______.

learning.

Tolman described the conscious experience of the animal as ______.

having no influence on the animal’s overt behavior.

Which of the following did Tolman not consider to be a cause of behavior?

motivation.

Tolman specified that the independent variables (stimuli) affect processes within the organism. These processes then control the occurrence of behavior (response). These internal processes are known as ______.

intervening variables.

In Tolman’s system, intervening variables were _____.

the determinants of behavior.

The term intervening variable refers to _____.

internal processes that "connect" the stimulus with a response.

Tolman’s position on Thorndike’s law of effect was to ______.

reject it.

For Tolman, each experience with a task strengthens the relationship between cues in the environment and the organism’s ______.

expectations.

In Tolman’s system, the repetition of an act leads to _______.

sign Gestalts.

For Tolman, a cognitive map is ______.

a pattern of sign Gestalts

According to Tolman’s learning theory, as a rat learns all of the sign-Gestalt relationships in a maze, the rat has acquired a ______.

cognitive map.

What is the primary difference between locus of control and self-efficacy?

The former emphasizes internal versus external attribution of success while the latter ignores it.

Whose system was a forerunner of contemporary cognitive psychology?

Tolman’s

The pragmatic value of intervening variables is that they _____.

are essential for dealing with hypothetical constructs.

Tolman described ______ as alternatively "creepy" and "delightful."

white laboratory rats

From 1930 until the 1960s, the ______ was the primary research subject for the neobehaviorists and learning theorists.

white rat

It was assumed by Tolman and others that research on white rats would ______.

provide insights into the basic processes underlying the behavior of humans and other animals.

According to Schultz and Schultz, "perhaps no other psychologist was so devoted to the problems of the scientific method" than was ______.

Hull.

Hull had an immense knowledge of ______ and ______.

formal logic and mathematics.

Hull’s form of behaviorism was ______ than _______.

more sophisticated and complex; Watson’s.

Throughout his life, Hull ______.

suffered from poor health and eyesight.

According to Schultz and Schultz, Hull’s "great asset was ______.

an intense motivation to succeed.

The learning theorist ______ persevered in the face of numerous obstacles to success.

Hull

Hull’s work contributed to which of the following?

A, B, and C

Throughout his professional career, Hull emphasize ______.

objective methods and functional laws.

From the 1940s to the 1960s, who dominated American psychology?

Hullians

Who authored an early study of the effects of tobacco on behavioral efficiency?

Hull

Hull’s background in mathematics and engineering was demonstrated in ______.

all of the choices.

Which of the following men devoted 10 years to the experimental investigation of hypnotic suggestibility?

Hull

Hull’s primary research focus was grounded in ______.

Pavlov’s laws of conditioning

Hull’s system sought to describe and explain ______.

all behavior

Of all the neobehaviorists, the one who most obviously espoused mechanism was _____.

Hull.

Hull intended to express the laws of behavior in the language of _______.

mathematics.

Hull’s training in engineering was manifest in his belief that all behavior could be reduced to the language of ______.

mathematics.

Hull’s experiments were directed by ______.

deduced theorems and corollaries.

Contemporary path analysis techniques let us test theoretical propositions. Such as an approach appears similar to whose research method?

Hull’s

The technique that Hull added to the then-accepted battery of experimental methods was _____.

the hypothetico-deductive method.

Hull proposed that to achieve a paradigm (in Kuhn’s sense of the term) in psychology, one would have to implement which method?

the hypothetico-deductive method

Hull proposed the hypothetic-deductive method as the means to develop learning theory. Which of the following statements is the best explanation of Hull’s method?

From a set of theoretical postulates, deductions are made. These deductions become hypotheses that are tested experimentally. The experimental results are then used to confirm the postulates or change them if necessary.

"A state of tissue need that arouses or activates behavior" is a definition of _______.

drive.

For Hull, drive reduction is _____.

the sole basis for reinforcement.

Hull’s concept of motivation is grounded in the doctrine of ______.

biology.

In Hull’s system, a drive is a(n) ______.

all of the choices are correct.

Which of the following is NOT an example of a primary drive?

exercise

In Hull’s system, drive _______.

energizes behavior.

In Hull’s system, the reduction or satisfaction of a drive is the sole basis of _______.

reinforcement.

Secondary drives are ______.

learned drives.

Hull’s law of primary reinforcement is a restatement of ________.

Thorndike’s law of effect.

Thorndike and Hull agreed that, in order for learning to occur, the organism must ______.

experience reinforcement occurring after a response.

Secondary drives are _______.

a result of pairing with a primary drive.

If seeing McDonald’s golden arches decreases your hunger, then the arches are ______.

secondary reinforcement.

In Hull’s system, habit strength is _____.

the strength of the S-R connection.

This person claimed that his own life was "predetermined, lawful, and orderly" just as his system would predict.

Skinner

Skinner pursued graduate work in psychology at Harvard ______.

because he was awed by the work of Watson and Pavlov.

Skinner defined a reflex as a(n) ______.

S-R correlation and nothing more.

The author of The Behavior of Organisms was ______, who did not receive acclaim for the text until 50 years later.

Skinner

The success of Skinner’s The Behavior of Organisms can be attributed to ______.

the application of his principles in education and clinical psychology.

To the end of his life, Skinner questioned whether psychology could be a science if it _______.

was a science of the mind.

Skinner was the complete opposite of Hull with regard to the ______.

lack of theoretical framework.

Skinner’s research was unique among that of the major neobehaviorists in his _______.

all of the choices are correct.

For Skinner, was is the primary characteristic of living things?

behavior

Which of the following philosophers is discussed by Skinner in the "In Their Own Words" section of the text?

Descartes

Who first distinguished between respondent and operant behavior?

Skinner

Who drew a distinction between operant behavior and respondent behavior?

Skinner

Skinner claimed that he studied ______ while Pavlov studied ______.

operant behavior; respondent behavior

For Skinner, the dependent variable is the ______.

rate of response

The law of acquisition states that the key variable in learning is ______.

reinforcement.

The central difference between Skinner’s law of acquisition and Thorndike and Hull’s position on learning that ______.

Skinner’s law is strictly descriptive while Thorndike and Hull’s positions are explanatory.

A schedule of reinforcement ______.

determines when reinforcement occurs.

Parents and employers must determine when and under what conditions children will be rewarded and employees will be paid. In both cases, they must select ______.

schedules of reinforcement.

Skinner raised his daughter in an "air crib" with the result that she _____.

was not adversely affected.

The use of positive reinforcement to control the behavior of individuals and groups is called ______.

behavior modification.

A criticism of Skinner’s work is his _______.

willingness to extrapolate from the data, especially with regard to human behavior.

Animals tend to substitute instinctive behaviors for behaviors that have been reinforced. This tendency is called _____.

instinctual drift.

From the 1950s to the 1980s, American Psychology was shaped more by the work of _____ than by the work of any other psychologist.

Skinner

The "third stage" of behaviorism refers to ______.

sociobehaviorism.

Bandura proposed that reactions to stimuli ____.

are self-activated.

A type of reinforcement identified by Bandura is ______.

vicarious

Bandura argues that what changes a person’s behavior is ______.

what the organism thinks the schedule of reinforcement is.

For Bandura, the agent who controls the ______ controls behavior.

models

A concept of Bandura that reflects one’s beliefs about one’s own adequacy is ______.

self-efficacy.

Whereas a concern of Skinner was improvement of society through his technology of behavior, Bandura’s is more specific, namely the _____.

alleviation of abnormal behavior.

The main criticism of Bandura’s system is _______.

the notion that cognitive processes cause behavior.

The term social learning theory was coined by ______.

Rotter

People who believe reinforcement depends on their own behavior have ______.

an internal locus of control.

Rotter has suggested that locus of control ______.

is acquired in childhood.

The neobehaviorists signed that the essence of psychology is learning.

true

Bridgman argued that a construct is the same as its corresponding set of operations.

true

If a concept can be measured and manipulated under controlled conditions to determine its effects on behavior, then it is not a pseudo-problem.

true

For Tolman, the sheer fact of learning was evidence of purpose in animals.

true

Tolman proposed ten causes of behavior in addition to environmental stimuli.

false

Tolman argued that factors within the organism are the actual causes of behavior.

true

In Tolman’s system, learned relationships are sign Gestalts.

true

In experiments that tested the presence of rats’ cognitive maps, Tolman found that rats "learned to turn right" rather than learning the location of food.

false

Tolman is recognized as the forerunner of contemporary applied psychology.

false

Tolman’s intervening variables were not accepted by mainstream psychology because they could not be operationally defined.

false

Tolman hated rats throughout his entire career.

false

Tolman recognized that research on rats could not uncover basic processes of human behavior.

false

Hull’s behaviorist approach to psychology dominated American Psychology from the 1940s to the 1960s.

true

Hull was interested in developing a theory of behavior based on Pavlov’s law of conditioning.

true

For Hull, behavior could be reduced to the language of physiology.

false

Hull’s system is exemplary in the degree to which it is quantifiable.

true

The method least unique to Hull’s system of psychology is the hypothetico-inductive method.

false

In Hull’s theory, primary reinforcement results in drive reduction.

true

In Hull’s system, the strength of a drive can be empirically determined.

true

For Hull, habit strength is wholly dependent on the number and size of the reinforcements.

false

Skinner defined a reflex as a correlation between a stimulus and a response.

true

Skinner’s behaviorism is devoted to the study of responses.

true

Skinner borrowed the term empty organism approach from Descartes’s concept of the undulatio reflexa.

false

Skinner stressed the importance of individual differences.

true

For Skinner, the dependent variable is the rate of response.

true

The key variable in Skinner’s system is vicarious reinforcement.

false

A key aspect of Skinner’s behavior modification is a reliance on punishment.

false

In vicarious reinforcement, learning can occur in the absence of personal reinforcement.

true

Bandura suggested that there is not a direct link between stimulus and response.

true

In Bandura’s system, social interaction is a critical factor in human learning.

true

Self-efficacy is defined by Bandura as a sense of self-esteem and competence in dealing with life’s problems.

true

Bandura believes that using modeling techniques was ineffective to change behavior.

false

The term social learning theory was coined by Bandura.

false

In Rotter’s system, our subjective expectations and values are not important.

false

Locus of control is variable and changes for everyone daily.

false

A major cognitive variable in Bandura’s system is locus of control.

false

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