HIST 140 – exam 1

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Around 7000 B.C.E., agriculture developed in the Americas around:

A) the Mississippi Valley.
B) Mexico and the Andes.
C) the Yucatan.
D) Chesapeake Bay.
E) Brazil.

B) Mexico and the Andes.

The city situated along the Mississippi River with between 10,000 and 30,000 residents in the year 1200 is today known as:

A) Poverty Point.
B) Cahokia.
C) Pueblo Bonita.
D) Iroquois.
E) Tenochtitlan.

B) Cahokia.

Before the arrival of Columbus, Native North Americans:

A) had elaborate trade networks.
B) were entirely agricultural and rural.
C) were very similar in their political and religious beliefs across the continent.
D) always lived in small family units.
E) lived only in coastal areas.

A) had elaborate trade networks.

Which statement about the Indians of North America is FALSE?

A) Indians were very diverse.
B) The idea of private property was foreign to Indians.
C) Many Indian societies were matrilineal.
D) Indians did not covet wealth and material goods as the Europeans did.
E) Indians lacked genuine religion.

E) Indians lacked genuine religion.

Which one of the following is TRUE about Native Americans and material wealth?

A) Chiefs were expected to share some of their goods rather than hoard them.
B) Eastern Native Americans were more materialistic than those who lived west of the Mississippi.
C) Wealth mattered less to them than to Europeans, but inherited social status was equally important to both peoples.
D) Native Americans actually suffered more social inequality than Europeans did.
E) Native Americans had no material wealth.

A) Chiefs were expected to share some of their goods rather than hoard them.

Europeans—particularly the English, French, and Dutch—generally claimed North American Indian land as their own based on:

A) the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494.
B) the Biblical story of Noah’s division of the world among his sons.
C) financial transactions between Indian peoples and themselves.
D) their view that Indians did not use the land properly.
E) various papal decrees that privileged the claims of European Christians over those of Indian "heathens."

D) their view that Indians did not use the land properly.

"Coverture" refers to:

A) a woman’s responsibility to wear a scarf covering her head when in public.
B) knowing your place in society, especially at church when sitting in the pews.
C) a tax one pays on one’s property that is assessed quarterly.
D) a woman surrendering her legal identity when she marries.
E) a binding legal agreement between an indentured servant and his or her master.

D) a woman surrendering her legal identity when she marries.

Slavery in Africa:

A) resulted from the arrival of Europeans.
B) included no form of rights for the slaves.
C) was the only kind of labor on that continent.
D) involved the enslavement of criminals, debtors, and war captives.
E) accelerated with the arrival of the French in the 1520s.

D) involved the enslavement of criminals, debtors, and war captives.

Which statement about gender relations is FALSE for most Native American societies?

A) Men and women engaged in premarital sex.
B) It was acceptable for a woman to seek a divorce.
C) Tribal leaders were almost always women.
D) Women owned dwellings and tools.
E) Societies were matrilineal.

C) Tribal leaders were almost always women.

What geographic error did Columbus make?

A) He grossly underestimated the size of the Earth.
B) He thought the Earth was not round, but flat.
C) He was certain that India was east of the Americas.
D) He expected the weather in India to be the same as in the North Atlantic.
E) He confused the Atlantic Ocean with the Indian Ocean.

A) He grossly underestimated the size of the Earth.

Amerigo Vespucci:

A) named the New World after himself.
B) helped to correct Columbus’s theory that he had found a route to Asia.
C) agreed with Columbus that Native Americans were East Indians.
D) was funded by the English.
E) actually named the continent Vespucci, but it was changed.

B) helped to correct Columbus’s theory that he had found a route to Asia.

In 1519, who became the first European explorer to encounter the Aztec empire?

A) Vasco da Gama
B) Ferdinand Magellan
C) John Cabot
D) Hernán Cortés
E) Francisco Pizzaro

D) Hernán Cortés

The Columbian Exchange was:
A) the agreement that documented what Christopher Columbus would give to Spanish leaders in return for their sponsorship of his travel to the New World.
B) the transatlantic flow of plants, animals, and germs that began after Christopher Columbus reached the New World.
C) John Cabot’s exploration of the New World, which brought more of the goods that Columbus had found back to the Old World.
D) responsible for introducing corn, tomatoes, and potatoes to the Americas.
E) the first store in the New World, named for the man who founded it.

B) the transatlantic flow of plants, animals, and germs that began after Christopher Columbus reached the New World.

The government of the Spanish empire in America:

A) established the principle of the separation of church and state by keeping the Catholic Church out of civic affairs.
B) was dominated by the conquistadores, who had conquered lands and retained control over them.
C) included local officials who over time came to hold more power.
D) was troubled due to constant turmoil and local divisions back in Spain.
E) operated out of Monterey, California.

C) included local officials who over time came to hold more power.

The Spanish justified their claim to land in the New World through all of the following EXCEPT:

A) believing that their culture was superior to that of the Indians.
B) violence.
C) a missionary zeal.
D) a decree from the Pope.
E) defeating the English fleet in 1588.

E) defeating the English fleet in 1588.

The New Laws of 1542:

A) led Protestant Europeans to create the "Black Legend" about Spanish rule in the Americas.
B) introduced the encomienda system.
C) were adopted at the urging of Gonzalo Pizzaro, brother of Peru’s conqueror.
D) commanded that Indians no longer be enslaved in Spanish possessions.
E) forbade the enslavement of Africans in New Spain.

D) commanded that Indians no longer be enslaved in Spanish possessions.

Which one of the following lists the events in proper chronological order, from first to last?

A) Pueblo Revolt, the Dutch settle Manhattan, Quebec founded, Spain adopts New Laws
B) Spain adopts New Laws, Pueblo Revolt, Quebec founded, the Dutch settle Manhattan
C) Quebec founded, the Dutch settle Manhattan, Pueblo Revolt, Spain adopts New Laws
D) Dutch settle Manhattan, Spain adopts New Laws, Pueblo Revolt, Quebec founded
E) Spain adopts New Laws, Quebec founded, the Dutch settle Manhattan, Pueblo Revolt

E) Spain adopts New Laws, Quebec founded, the Dutch settle Manhattan, Pueblo Revolt

Spanish Florida:

A) attracted large numbers of settlers.
B) became a British colony in 1607.
C) was little more than an isolated military settlement.
D) was the site of Juan Oñate’s attack on the inhabitants of Acoma.
E) attracted mostly elderly Spaniards.

C) was little more than an isolated military settlement.

Which statement about the Pueblo Revolt is FALSE?

A) It resulted in a wholesale expulsion of the Spanish settlers.
B) It arose in part because the Indians tried to enslave the Spanish.
C) It resulted in a total renunciation of Catholicism by all of the Indians.
D) It was successful because the Apache drove out the Spanish.
E) It was inspired by the Pope, but he died before the actual revolt took place.

A) It resulted in a wholesale expulsion of the Spanish settlers.

Which one of the following was TRUE of New France?
A) It was the subject of a great deal of favorable publicity throughout Europe.
B) Its commitment to religious toleration was a source of great embarrassment for less tolerant powers like England and Spain.
C) Its population was limited at best, because France feared that a significant emigration would undermine its role as a great European power.
D) The only women allowed to reside there were nuns, a reflection of the French commitment to spreading Catholicism.
E) Seigneuries were the only democratic areas in the colony.

C) Its population was limited at best, because France feared that a significant emigration would undermine its role as a great European power.

Which one of the following was TRUE of French relations with Native Americans?
A) The French appropriated significant amounts of land for fur trading.
B) The French were proud that they were considered tougher on Indians than their English and Spanish counterparts.
C) The French sent nuns to try to Christianize the natives, because they understood that gender relations were different among Native Americans than they were among whites.
D) Native Americans resented that the French had no need for their help in the fur trade.
E) Jesuit missionaries tried to convert Native Americans but gave them far more independence than did Spanish missionaries.

E) Jesuit missionaries tried to convert Native Americans but gave them far more independence than did Spanish missionaries.

Which European country dominated international commerce in the early seventeenth century?

A) France
B) The Netherlands
C) Britain
D) Spain
E) Portugal

B) The Netherlands

Which one of the following is TRUE of freedom in New Netherland?

A) The colony’s elected assembly enjoyed greater rights of self-government than any English colonial legislative body.
B) The Dutch commitment to liberty prompted the colony to ban slavery there.
C) Religious intolerance led the Dutch to ban all Jewish peoples from the colony.
D) Of all of the colonies in the New World, New Netherland required the longest period of service from indentured servants.
E) Married women retained a legal identity separate from that of their husbands.

E) Married women retained a legal identity separate from that of their husbands.

How did the Dutch manifest their devotion to liberty?

A) They supported tolerance in religious matters in their colony.
B) Their colony was the first in the Americas to have a bill of rights.
C) They allowed freedom of speech.
D) They issued the Edict of New Netherland, declaring the Puritans to be heathens because they refused to allow religious freedom.
E) They gave men ownership of their wives, which gave married men the property ownership and independence they needed to participate in political activities.

A) They supported tolerance in religious matters in their colony.

What does the seal of New Netherland, adopted by the Dutch West India Company in 1630, suggest is central to the colony’s economic prospects?

A) tobacco
B) fish
C) silver
D) timber
E) fur

E) fur

The 104 settlers who remained in Virginia after the ships that brought them from England returned home:
A) were all men, reflecting the Virginia Company’s interest in searching for gold as opposed to building a functioning society.
B) included women and children, because the Virginia Company realized that a stable society would improve the settlers’ chances of success, economic and otherwise.
C) included representatives of several other countries, part of England’s effort to build a strong network of supporters in case of Spanish attack.
D) built the second permanent British settlement in North America after Roanoke.
E) were only half of those who originally set sail; the rest turned around and went back.

A) were all men, reflecting the Virginia Company’s interest in searching for gold as opposed to building a functioning society.

Just as the reconquest of Spain from the Moors established patterns that would be repeated in Spanish New World colonization, the methods used in which one of the following countries anticipated policies England would undertake in America?

A) Ireland
B) India
C) China
D) Scotland
E) Wales

A) Ireland

Why did England consider Spain its enemy by the late 1500s?
A) because of religious differences: England had officially broken with the Roman Catholic Church, while Spain was devoutly Catholic
B) because of the Spanish Armada’s successful invasion of Great Britain in 1588
C) because Spain had allied with France to invade English colonies in the New World
D) because one of Henry VIII’s beheaded wives was a Spanish princess, and the Spanish government announced it would be at war with England until Henry apologized
E) because both the English and Spanish royal families laid claim to the Irish throne

A) because of religious differences: England had officially broken with the Roman Catholic Church, while Spain was devoutly Catholic

Which one of the following is TRUE of poverty in seventeenth-century Great Britain?

A) The unemployed sometimes faced physical punishment for not having a job.
B) The problem was so bad that Henry VIII authorized judges to order the jobless to work.
C) Poverty rates were worse in British colonies than in the mother country.
D) John Winthrop solved the problem by creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
E) Queen Mary’s failure to address the problem helped lead to her overthrow.

A) The unemployed sometimes faced physical punishment for not having a job.

Most seventeenth-century migrants to North America from England:

A) arrived with other members of their families.
B) were single, middle-class men.
C) were lower-class men.
D) had been released from debtors’ prisons.
E) sought to escape the Black Death then ravaging England.

C) were lower-class men.

Intermarriage between English colonists and Native Americans in Virginia:

A) began with the wedding of John Smith and Pocahontas.
B) was common.
C) was very rare.
D) created a mixed race of Native Americans who often wound up enslaved.
E) produced a member of a British royal family who became an Indian chief.

C) was very rare.

In the economic exchanges between the English colonists and eastern Native Americans:

A) the arrival of new English goods had no impact on how Indians lived.
B) Native Americans initially welcomed the colonists’ goods.
C) Native Americans sought to keep English goods from influencing their religious ceremonies.
D) Native Americans never became integrated into the Atlantic economy.
E) Native Americans soon saw that the colonists’ goods were shoddier than their own.

B) Native Americans initially welcomed the colonists’ goods.

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the early history of Jamestown?
A) The colony’s problems were due largely to its leadership: the same people remained in charge for the first two decades and refused to change their methods.
B) The first settlers were farmers and laborers who were so eager to make money that they refused to work and could not be controlled.
C) The death rate was extraordinarily high.
D) The supplies from England were excellent, but the colonists wasted them.
E) John Smith took the credit, but he had nothing to do with Jamestown’s success.

C) The death rate was extraordinarily high.

To entice settlers to Virginia, the Virginia Company established the headright system, which:

A) granted religious freedom.
B) provided land to settlers who paid their own and others’ passage.
C) brought slavery to the colony.
D) promised every single man a bride.
E) enslaved Indians.

B) provided land to settlers who paid their own and others’ passage.

It can be argued that conflict between the English settlers and local Indians in Virginia became inevitable when:

A) the Native Americans realized that England wanted to establish a permanent and constantly expanding colony, not just a trading post.
B) Pocahontas married John Rolfe.
C) the House of Burgesses passed a law ordering Native Americans out of the colony.
D) Powhatan led an attack against the English settlers in 1644.
E) Spain formed a military alliance with Powhatan.

A) the Native Americans realized that England wanted to establish a permanent and constantly expanding colony, not just a trading post.

What was Virginia’s "gold," which ensured its survival and prosperity?

A) cotton
B) fur
C) tobacco
D) indigo
E) sugar

C) tobacco

Maryland’s founder, Cecilius Calvert:

A) had a charter that granted him absolute power.
B) supported total religious freedom for all of the colony’s inhabitants.
C) gave a great deal of power to the elected assembly but not to the royal governor.
D) lost ownership of the colony and died a pauper.
E) actually hated Catholics, which is why he set up a colony for them in a swamp.

A) had a charter that granted him absolute power.

Why did Puritans decide to emigrate from England in the late 1620s and 1630s?

A) Because so many of them had become separatists, they had to leave England to save their church.
B) Charles I had started supporting them, creating conflicts with Catholic nobles.
C) The Church of England was firing their ministers and censoring their writings.
D) Puritan leader John Winthrop wanted a high-level position, and leaving England was the only way for him to get it.
E) The Poor Law of 1623 banned non-Catholics from receiving government aid.

C) The Church of England was firing their ministers and censoring their writings.

The Mayflower Compact established:

A) religious toleration and freedom in Massachusetts.
B) the right to emigrate to America.
C) a company chartered to settle New England.
D) a written government for the Plymouth colony.
E) peaceful relations between English colonists and Indians in Rhode Island.

D) a written government for the Plymouth colony.

The Puritans believed that male authority in the household was:

A) an outdated idea.
B) to be unquestioned.
C) so absolute that a husband could order the murder of his wife.
D) not supposed to resemble God’s authority in any way, because that would be blasphemous.
E) limited only by the number of children—the more, the better.

B) to be unquestioned.

In early seventeenth-century Massachusetts, freeman status was granted to adult males who:

A) owned land, regardless of their church membership.
B) had served their term as indentured servants.
C) were freed slaves.
D) were landowning church members.
E) voted.

D) were landowning church members.

How did most Puritans view the separation of church and state?
A) They were so determined to keep them apart that they banned ministers from holding office, fearing that they would enact pro-religious legislation.
B) They allowed church and state to be interconnected by requiring each town to establish a church and levy a tax to support the minister.
C) The Massachusetts Bay Colony endorsed the Puritan faith but allowed anyone the freedom to practice or not practice religion.
D) They had never even heard of the concept.
E) They invented the concept but refused to indulge in it.

B) They allowed church and state to be interconnected by requiring each town to establish a church and levy a tax to support the minister.

When Roger Williams established the colony of Rhode Island:

A) he required voters there to be members of a Puritan church.
B) the king refused to give it a charter, and it remained a renegade colony until Williams died.
C) he made sure that it was more democratic than Massachusetts Bay.
D) he felt that too much democracy would be bad because it might interfere with religious freedom.
E) the colony became a haven for Protestants of all kinds, but it banned Jews.

C) he made sure that it was more democratic than Massachusetts Bay.

For most New Englanders, Indians represented:

A) savagery.
B) teachers.
C) curiosities.
D) culture.
E) survival.

A) savagery.

Boston merchants:

A) challenged the subordination of economic activity to Puritan control.
B) refused to trade with anyone outside of the Puritan faith.
C) paid for Anne Hutchinson’s prosecution.
D) had enjoyed widespread freedom to trade since the establishment of the colony.
E) controlled John Winthrop.

A) challenged the subordination of economic activity to Puritan control.

In the battles between Parliament and the Stuart kings, English freedom:

A) played a minimal role.
B) greatly expanded amid the debate over which of these groups should be elected.
C) remained an important and a much-debated concept even after Charles I was beheaded.
D) was the excuse given for restoring Charles II in 1685.
E) led to the overthrow of James III in 1700.

C) remained an important and a much-debated concept even after Charles I was beheaded.

During the English political upheaval between 1640 and 1660:

A) new religious sects began demanding the end of public financing and special privileges for the Anglican Church.
B) groups began calling for the elimination of a written English constitution, on the grounds that kings merely abused its privileges.
C) writer John Milton called for an end to freedom of speech and press, because it caused too much controversy.
D) the execution of King Charles II led to new debates about crime and punishment.
E) thousands of American colonists returned to England to participate in the Civil War.

A) new religious sects began demanding the end of public financing and special privileges for the Anglican Church.

The Diggers of Great Britain:
A) proposed building a tunnel to Rome to surprise and overpower the Catholic Church, thereby eliminating a source of controversy in English society.
B) sought to eliminate male ownership of land as a means of promoting social equality for women.
C) influenced the development of the American colonies, because some of their members and ideas crossed the Atlantic to the New World.
D) executed King James I.
E) overthrew parliamentary forces in 1642.

C) influenced the development of the American colonies, because some of their members and ideas crossed the Atlantic to the New World.

Which one of the following is an accurate statement regarding the impact on Maryland of seventeenth-century England’s Protestant-Catholic conflict?

A) The conflict had no effect on far-off Maryland.
B) To win the favor of Protestant kings, Maryland gave all authority to Protestants.
C) It institutionalized the colony’s policy of religious toleration.
D) Maryland’s Catholic leaders banned Protestant worship in 1671.
E) The conflict eventually led to the Puritan government of the 1640s taking refuge in Maryland.

C) It institutionalized the colony’s policy of religious toleration.

In the 1650s who pushed England toward a policy of expanding territory and commercialism?

A) Oliver Cromwell
B) John Smith
C) Charles I
D) Charles II
E) James I

A) Oliver Cromwell

According to the economic theory known as mercantilism:

A) merchants should control the government because they contributed more than others to national wealth.
B) the government should regulate economic activity so as to promote national power.
C) the government should encourage manufacturing and commerce by keeping its hands off of the economy.
D) colonies existed as a place for the mother country to send raw materials to be turned into manufactured goods.
E) England wanted the right to sell goods in France but only to non-Catholic buyers.

B) the government should regulate economic activity so as to promote national power.

When England took over the Dutch colony that became New York:

A) the English eliminated all of the religious freedoms that the Dutch had allowed.
B) the English ended the Dutch tradition of allowing married women to conduct business in their own names.
C) the English respected Dutch antislavery laws, so that New York became a center for free African-Americans in North America.
D) the local population declined because of England’s new and repressive rule.
E) England tried to maintain Dutch culture but ordered residents to learn English.

B) the English ended the Dutch tradition of allowing married women to conduct business in their own names.

In its early years, Carolina was the "colony of a colony" because its original settlers included many:

A) former indentured servants from Virginia.
B) supporters of Anne Hutchinson seeking refuge from Massachusetts.
C) landless sons of wealthy planters in Barbados.
D) Protestants upset over Catholic rule in Maryland.
E) planters from Cuba hoping to expand their sugar cane empires.

C) landless sons of wealthy planters in Barbados.

Carolina grew slowly until:

A) rice as a staple crop was discovered to be extremely profitable.
B) slaves were brought into the colony.
C) an alliance with the Indians was signed.
D) cotton was introduced into the colony.
E) the king forced the English poor to settle the area.

A) rice as a staple crop was discovered to be extremely profitable.

Before founding Pennsylvania, William Penn assisted a group of English Quakers to set up a colony in what became:

A) New Hampshire.
B) North Carolina.
C) Delaware.
D) New Jersey.
E) Ontario.

D) New Jersey.

What was one of Pennsylvania’s only restrictions on religious liberty?

A) Settlers could belong to any denomination but had to sign an oath affirming that they would not oppress Quakers.
B) Holding office required an oath affirming a belief in Jesus Christ, which eliminated Jews from serving.
C) Atheists were welcome as long as they promised not to attack religion publicly.
D) Church attendance was mandatory, but the state did not specify which type of church.
E) There were no restrictions

B) Holding office required an oath affirming a belief in Jesus Christ, which eliminated Jews from serving.

Which of the following was not a factor that made African slavery appealing to English planters in the New World?
A) Since slaves’ terms of service never expired, unlike those of indentured servants, Africans could create a permanent labor force.
B) Europeans believed that Africans were more accustomed to hard agricultural labor than were Native Americans, and thus would be better workers.
C) Africans had long since developed a resistance to European diseases, making epidemics less likely than among Native American laborers.
D) Africans could not claim the protection of English common law.
E) A long English legal tradition of discriminating against dark-skinned peoples eased the legalization of slavery.

E) A long English legal tradition of discriminating against dark-skinned peoples eased the legalization of slavery.

What commodity drove the African slave trade in Brazil and the West Indies during the seventeenth century?

A) tobacco
B) indigo
C) silver
D) cotton
E) sugar

E) sugar

According to laws in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake:

A) black men were not permitted to marry white women, but black women could marry white men.
B) free blacks had the right to sue and testify in court.
C) free blacks were not permitted to serve in the militia unless they signed a loyalty oath.
D) the sale of any married slave was prohibited.
E) the children of enslaved women were free; the status of enslavement was not inherited.

B) free blacks had the right to sue and testify in court.

Which of the following was TRUE of small farmers in 1670s Virginia?

A) The economy was doing so well that even though they made less money than large-scale planters, their problems were too small to justify their rebellion.
B) They had access to the best land, but a glut in the tobacco market left them in poverty.
C) Their taxes were incredibly low—the one issue with which they were pleased.
D) They could count on the government to help them take over Native American lands and thereby expand their meager holdings.
E) The lack of good land, high taxes on tobacco, and falling prices reduced their prospects.

E) The lack of good land, high taxes on tobacco, and falling prices reduced their prospects.

Slave labor in the Chesapeake region increasingly supplanted indentured servitude during the last two decades of the seventeenth century, in part because:

A) the opening of the new colony of North Carolina attracted enough whites to make up for the loss of those who would have come to the New World as indentured servants.
B) Bacon’s Rebellion reminded leaders of the dangers of allowing racial intermarriage.
C) declining death rates made it more economical to purchase a slave for life.
D) a monopoly on the slave trade made it easier to import Africans.
E) indentured servants began forming associations that went on strike for better conditions.

C) declining death rates made it more economical to purchase a slave for life.

The English Bill of Rights of 1689:

A) was unwritten, like the English Constitution on which it was based.
B) was King William’s finest writing on the importance of liberty.
C) divided power in England between the king and Parliament.
D) was copied word for word into the U.S. Constitution a century later.
E) listed parliamentary powers and individual rights such as trial by jury.

E) listed parliamentary powers and individual rights such as trial by jury.

How did the new Massachusetts charter of 1691 change that colony’s government?

A) Puritans were required to permit religious tolerance of all Christian denominations.
B) It eliminated town government, which had been the heart of Puritan control of the commonwealth.
C) It made Massachusetts a royal colony rather than under the control of Puritan "saints."
D) It required all judges to be Anglican, greatly reducing Puritan influence over the three branches of government.
E) It moved the seat of government to Salem, which contributed greatly to the problems involving witchcraft.

C) It made Massachusetts a royal colony rather than under the control of Puritan "saints."

Why did the accusations of witchcraft in Salem suddenly snowball in 1692?

A) The only way to avoid prosecution was to confess and name others.
B) When Tituba testified, the issue became racial and divided the town.
C) All of the accused were children, and Puritans were determined to force their young to accept their religious traditions or face death.
D) The colonial capital had just been moved to Salem, upsetting the normally staid town.
E) They did not; actually, the number of accusations was average and Salem was highly overrated as a place for charges of witchcraft.

A) The only way to avoid prosecution was to confess and name others.

As accusations and executions multiplied in Salem, what was the long-term impact of the witchcraft trials there?

A) Puritan leader Increase Mather encouraged juries to take testimony and accusations more seriously.
B) The idea of prosecuting witches gained widespread support.
C) The number of witchcraft prosecutions in Massachusetts declined markedly.
D) Colonial leaders saw something was seriously wrong with their judicial system and outlawed witchcraft trials in 1715.
E) Witchcraft prosecutions were put under the control of the Massachusetts General Court.

C) The number of witchcraft prosecutions in Massachusetts declined markedly.

Great Britain sought to attract which of the following to its American colonies in the eighteenth century?

A) Protestants from non-English and less prosperous parts of the British Isles
B) Catholics from France and Spain, thereby weakening England’s enemies
C) professionals and skilled craftsmen from England
D) members of nonmainstream religions, particularly Quakers and Anabaptists
E) wealthy merchants who could spur economic growth in the colonies

A) Protestants from non-English and less prosperous parts of the British Isles

The German migration to the English colonies:

A) was unusual because few Germans left their part of Europe during the American colonial era.
B) consisted mainly of single young males, as with their counterparts who migrated from England.
C) was mainly to Maryland, because most of the German immigrants were Catholic.
D) led to the formation of many farming communities.
E) led to the separation of church and state.

D) led to the formation of many farming communities.

The separation of church and state:

A) existed only in the southern colonies.
B) existed only in a few colonies.
C) was limited in the colonies and existed only to promote all forms of Christianity.
D) resulted in the colonies from the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
E) was due largely to the increasing German presence in the colonies.

B) existed only in a few colonies.

Indians in eighteenth-century British America:

A) were well integrated into the British imperial system.
B) benefited from the Walking Purchase of 1737.
C) were viewed in the same way by traders, British officials, and farmers.
D) never warred with the colonists.
E) had access to the liberties guaranteed to Englishmen.

A) were well integrated into the British imperial system.

The Walking Purchase of 1737:

A) sparked King Philip’s War.
B) was a deceitful deal for the Lenni Lenape Indians.
C) was part of the West Jersey Concessions.
D) was led by Nathaniel Bacon.
E) was rescinded by the governor of Pennsylvania the following year.

B) was a deceitful deal for the Lenni Lenape Indians.

By the eighteenth century, consumer goods such as books and ceramic plates:

A) were found in many colonial residents’ homes.
B) were specifically banned in the colonies by the Navigation Acts.
C) were rare in the colonies, thus demonstrating that the colonists lived in a pre-modern world.
D) were manufactured in several mainland English colonies but had to be shipped to England for sale.
E) were almost entirely Dutch-made.

A) were found in many colonial residents’ homes.

North American crops and products:

A) played only a small role in the British empire.
B) were consumed entirely overseas.
C) were part of a commercial trade network that knitted together a far-flung empire.
D) compared unfavorably with those throughout the rest of the empire.
E) led to numerous complaints to the parliamentary consumer advocate.

C) were part of a commercial trade network that knitted together a far-flung empire.

"Anglicization" meant all of the following EXCEPT:

A) colonists were determined to speak English as perfectly as those who lived in England.
B) colonists imported the latest London fashions and literature.
C) the colonial elite modeled their homes on the English gentry’s estates and townhouses.
D) those colonists who could afford to do so often sent their sons to England to be educated.
E) the upper-class colonists modeled their lives on British etiquette.

A) colonists were determined to speak English as perfectly as those who lived in England.

Which of the following was TRUE of poverty in the colonial period?

A) Poverty was greater in the colonies than it was in Great Britain, which had more economic activity.
B) The percentage of colonists living in poverty was great because the northern colonists considered slaves poverty-stricken.
C) Limited supplies of land, especially for inheritance, contributed to poverty.
D) Colonists differed greatly from the British back in England in how they viewed poverty and those living in poverty.
E) It declined in the cities because of the rise of consumer markets.

C) Limited supplies of land, especially for inheritance, contributed to poverty.

As English colonial society became more structured in the eighteenth century, what were the effects on women?

A) They received more legal rights, such as the right to own property in their own names.
B) Women’s work became more clearly defined as tied closely to the home.
C) Their workloads decreased thanks to technological advances such as the spinning wheel and to declining infant mortality rates.
D) Women were permitted to practice law.
E) Women bore so fewer children that population levels slightly declined in the 1740s, then stabilized until the American Revolution.

B) Women’s work became more clearly defined as tied closely to the home.

All of the following statements are TRUE of the Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century EXCEPT:

A) Although important, slave-grown crops actually accounted for only a small portion of the value of the trade.
B) The profits from the slave trade in particular stimulated the rise of key English ports.
C) New England and the Middle Colonies exported fish, grain, and lumber to the West Indies.
D) Profits from the Atlantic trade helped finance the early industrial revolution.
E) Europe was the primary market for colonial-grown products such as rice and indigo.

A) Although important, slave-grown crops actually accounted for only a small portion of the value of the trade.

Tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region:

A) were so profitable that their owners became the wealthiest persons in British North America by the mid-eighteenth century.
B) did not have any slaves on small farms.
C) helped make the Chesapeake colonies models of mercantilism.
D) were far less successful than tobacco plantations that developed in the lower southern colonies.
E) were known throughout the world as models of how slaves should be treated.

C) helped make the Chesapeake colonies models of mercantilism.

The task system:

A) was the most widely used form of labor discipline in British North America.
B) allowed slaves to own a portion of the land they worked.
C) meant that slaves were strictly supervised and had little autonomy.
D) was created by the South Carolina assembly in response to the Stono Rebellion.
E) assigned slaves daily jobs and allowed them free time upon completion of those jobs.

E) assigned slaves daily jobs and allowed them free time upon completion of those jobs.

In the northern colonies, slaves:

A) lived in segregated but prosperous communities.
B) became more important in New England after the Half-Way Covenant.
C) were far less important in New England than the Middle Colonies.
D) were forbidden by law to display any aspect of African culture in public.
E) faced far harsher treatment than they did in the South.

C) were far less important in New England than the Middle Colonies.

Which of the following is TRUE of eighteenth-century slavery in South Carolina and Georgia?
A) The laws in those colonies created a very static institution with few differences between plantations, small farms, and cities.
B) Plantation slaves enjoyed far more autonomy than they did in other colonies, allowing them to maintain more of their African culture.
C) Because of the high death rates of Africans due to malaria, slave populations declined by 5 to 10 percent per decade during the 1700s.
D) Because the governments of South Carolina and Georgia strictly enforced laws preventing sexual contact between whites and blacks, a significant population of racially mixed individuals never developed.
E) Colonial law gave freedom to any slave who successfully escaped to Charleston or Savannah.

B) Plantation slaves enjoyed far more autonomy than they did in other colonies, allowing them to maintain more of their African culture.

The 1741 panic in New York City that led to 34 executions was sparked by:

A) a series of murders.
B) the seizing of the armory.
C) a rally of boisterous Irish.
D) the imprisonment of twenty free blacks.
E) plans to burn some of the city.

E) plans to burn some of the city.

The British concept of liberty:

A) allowed for unrestrained government authority, since restraints would contradict the very idea of liberty.
B) meant that liberty and power could be compatible.
C) was a constant reminder to the British that their governmental system was not the best means of preventing absolutism.
D) had no connection to how the British viewed their empire.
E) included both formal restraints on authority and a collection of specific rights.

E) included both formal restraints on authority and a collection of specific rights.

"Republicanism" in the eighteenth-century Anglo-American political world emphasized the importance of ___________ as the essence of liberty.

A) protecting the natural rights of all humans
B) active participation in public life by property-owning citizens
C) a strong central state
D) supporting royal authority as opposed to parliamentary authority
E) voting rights for all adult men

B) active participation in public life by property-owning citizens

The idea of liberalism in eighteenth-century British politics:

A) had the same meaning as liberalism in twenty-first-century American politics.
B) had mainly a civic and social quality.
C) brought great wealth and power to its main voice, John Locke.
D) was compatible with inequalities in wealth and well-being.
E) prompted two eighteenth-century leaders, Joseph McCarthy and Hugh McCarran, to demand independence for Ireland.

D) was compatible with inequalities in wealth and well-being.

The British Country Party:

A) declined in popularity as England became an increasingly urbanized country.
B) underwrote the expenses of a large number of the migrants to the American colonies.
C) opposed the power of the landed gentry in British politics.
D) sought to stop corruption in British politics.
E) required its leaders to dress in work clothes to promote the idea of being "of the people."

D) sought to stop corruption in British politics.

How did colonial politics compare with British politics?

A) British politics was far more democratic, befitting the British belief in liberty and the number of proprietary and royal colonies.
B) Colonists tended to agree with the British that owning property was related to having the right to vote.
C) Most colonies, unlike Britain, at least allowed propertied women to vote.
D) Elections throughout the colonies were more hotly contested than British ones, with many different candidates and parties represented on the ballot.
E) Colonial politics proved far more corrupt until the Licentiousness Act of 1694.

B) Colonists tended to agree with the British that owning property was related to having the right to vote.

The assumption among ordinary people that wealth, education, and social prominence entitled leaders to public office was called:

A) liberalism.
B) Lockeanism.
C) Deism.
D) deference.
E) suffrage.

D) deference.

The most successful colonial governors:

A) blocked the rising power of colonial assemblies, thereby pleasing the king and Parliament.
B) used their appointive powers and control of land grants to win allies in colonial legislatures.
C) abolished the colonial judicial system, whose members frequently overturned their executive orders and legislative action.
D) were able to stay in office during the Revolutionary War and went on to enjoy political power after independence.
E) had to leave office after twelve years, because the king and Parliament imposed term limits.

B) used their appointive powers and control of land grants to win allies in colonial legislatures.

Which one of the following did NOT contribute to the expansion of the public sphere during the eighteenth century?

A) the establishment of literary and philosophical clubs
B) widespread literacy
C) the proliferation of newspapers and libraries
D) the trial of John Peter Zenger
E) the founding of the California missions

E) the founding of the California missions

John Peter Zenger’s libel trial:

A) resulted from his publication of news stories questioning the intelligence of the king.
B) probably would not have ended in his acquittal if he had attacked someone other than the colonial governor.
C) set back freedom of the press when it ended in his conviction and imprisonment for printing the truth.
D) showed that the public was not yet ready to accept the idea of freedom of speech.
E) led to the overturning of the Licentiousness Act of 1694.

B) probably would not have ended in his acquittal if he had attacked someone other than the colonial governor.

The American version of the Enlightenment:

A) produced no one who achieved world renown, unlike the English and French versions.
B) led to the increased popularity of Arminianism but not of Deism.
C) was exemplified by Benjamin Franklin.
D) had no impact on religion.
E) was sparked by Isaac Newton’s colonial tour in 1739.

C) was exemplified by Benjamin Franklin.

Deists concluded that the best form of religious devotion was to:

A) read the Bible.
B) attend revival meetings.
C) worship in organized churches.
D) study the workings of nature.
E) appeal to divine grace for salvation.

D) study the workings of nature.

The most famous Great Awakening revivalist minister was:

A) John Locke.
B) George Whitefield.
C) Cotton Mather.
D) John Peter Zenger.
E) James Oglethorpe.

B) George Whitefield.

In the eighteenth century, the Spanish empire in Texas:

A) consisted of a few small and isolated urban clusters until Great Britain conquered it by force.
B) established missions and military posts.
C) attracted thousands of settlers after Spain built a series of missions and presidios.
D) helped the Native American population to grow considerably through the mission system.
E) forced Spanish priests to choose between loyalty to the Pope and loyalty to the king.

B) established missions and military posts.

The French in North America:

A) had a rapidly expanding empire, in large part because of the strong encouragement the French government gave to citizens wanting to move to the New World.
B) made it a point to avoid competing with the British.
C) won control of the Ohio Valley in the Seven Years’ War.
D) were greatly outnumbered by the British on the continent.
E) were notorious for their poor relations with Native Americans.

D) were greatly outnumbered by the British on the continent.

The English finally became successful in defeating the French in the Seven Years’ War under the leadership of:

A) George Washington.
B) Edward Braddock.
C) Robert Carter.
D) John Locke.
E) William Pitt.

E) William Pitt.

Neolin, a Delaware Indian and religious prophet, helped inspire ___________ Rebellion in 1763.

A) Bacon’s
B) the Stono
C) Pontiac’s
D) the Yamasee
E) Leisler’s

C) Pontiac’s

Pontiac’s Rebellion:

A) greatly helped the British defeat the French in the Seven Years’ War.
B) although named for an Ottawa warrior, owed its origins as much to the teachings of a religious prophet.
C) established the Mississippi River as the western boundary of British North America.
D) ended with surrender of all the Indian forces only six months after fighting began.
E) led Britain to adopt the policy of salutary neglect in its American colonies.

B) although named for an Ottawa warrior, owed its origins as much to the teachings of a religious prophet.

What did the Paxton Boys want?

A) that liquor not be banned in Georgia
B) that slave codes be tightened in New York
C) that the Indians be removed from Pennsylvania
D) that the French be hanged in Quebec
E) that John Peter Zenger be tried for treason

C) that the Indians be removed from Pennsylvania

Which of the following was a consequence of the Seven Years’ War?

A) strengthened pride among American colonists about being part of the British empire
B) the founding of the new colony of Ohio in territory acquired from France
C) a weakening of liberties as France made gains in North America
D) the creation of a central colonial government under the Albany Plan of Union
E) increased popularity of the Anglican Church among ordinary colonists

A) strengthened pride among American colonists about being part of the British empire

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