HIS 161 – Ch. 13

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Which of the following was the most common way slaves reacted to their bondage?

Small-scale resistance

Why were open slave revolts uncommon in the South?

Heavily armed whites outnumbered blacks two to one by 1860.

What percentage of nonslaveholding rural white men were landless and very poor?

25 percent

African American Christianity, created by slaves themselves,

emphasized justice.

How did yeomen in the plantation belt of the South feel about wealthy planters?

They relied on planters to ship and sell their cotton for them.

Most plantation mistresses kept their opinions on issues to themselves, but the diarist Mary Boykin Chesnut echoed most women in railing against


After 1820, what caused slavery to become more profitable, which in turn increased the South’s political power?

Cotton production expanded to the West.

Elite Southerners maintained their power over the yeoman majority by

convincing yeomen of their shared interests.

Which staple crop was grown almost exclusively along a narrow strip of coast stretching from the Carolinas into Georgia?


How important was agriculture to the economy of the North?

It combined with commerce and manufacturing in a mixed economy

How did the institution of slavery affect social relations in the South?

Whites were unified around race rather than divided by social class

What happened to slave men when they became elderly?

They moved on to new jobs, like cleaning stables.

Most free blacks in the antebellum South

lacked education.

How did powerful whites defend slavery from attacks by critics?

They used intimidation tactics to silence critics.

Which statement describes the daily lives of southern women on the plantation?

They worked long hours performing plantation duties.

In 1860, the largest number of white Southerners

were nonslaveholding yeoman farmers.

How did white Virginians respond to the violence of Nat Turner’s rebellion?

White Virginians blamed the revolt on outside agitators.

What was the primary cause of the growth in the southern slave population between 1790 and 1869?

Natural reproduction

Which statement characterizes white Southerners in the antebellum South?

Most white Southerners did not own slaves.

In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville observed that the major differences between the North and South revolved around

the southern institution of slavery.

How did slaves manipulate planters’ emphasis on paternalism?

Slaves sometimes negotiated concessions like small garden plots.

The rarest job on the plantation for slaves was that of driver, the person who

made sure all slaves worked hard.

In 1790, there were fewer than 700,000 slaves in the South; by 1860 that number had increased to about

4 million.

Which statement characterizes the religion of southern plain folk?

Southern plain folk enjoyed religious revivals.

What was a consequence of the South’s lack of economic diversity?

Newly arrived European immigrants tended to settle in the North.

Most upcountry yeomen focused on cultivating


The economy of the upcountry South depended on


As the price of slaves continued to rise, masters began to treat their slaves marginally better because

it was in the master’s best interest to treat his slaves well enough so they could have children.

According to South Carolina political leader John C. Calhoun, what happened in states where slavery was abolished?

The condition of blacks got worse.

What did plantation owners mean when they described the master-slave relationship in terms of "paternalism?"

A slave’s labor and obedience were exchanged for the master’s care and guidance.

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