Health Final

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Which of the following is NOT a health-related component of physical fitness?
cardiorespiratory endurance
flexibility
coordination
muscular strength

coordination

Flexibility is best described as
the ability to move without pain during exercise.
the ability to move joints through their full range of motion.
sustained motion without resistance.
the ability to move rapidly during exercise.

the ability to move joints through their full range of motion.

Exercise intensity refers to
the number of times per week you exercise.
how hard you work.
the length of your exercise session.
the total amount of exercise you do.

how hard you work.

Exercise duration refers to
the number of times per week you exercise.
how hard you work.
the length of your exercise session.
the total amount of exercise you do.

the length of your exercise session.

Which of the following activities is recommended for a beginning exerciser?
crossfit
walking
sprinting
intense power lifting

walking

Cooling down after exercise is important to
boost oxygen consumption.
increase lactic acid in the muscles.
restore circulation to its normal resting condition.
maintain blood flow to the extremities.

restore circulation to its normal resting condition.

Which of the following LEAST develops muscle strength?
push-ups
weight training
squats
running

running

Which of the following is regular physical activity linked to?
lower endorphin levels
increased anxiety
decreased need for sleep
improved mood

improved mood

Which of the following is an example of a sedentary activity?
watching television
doing bicep curls
cross-country skiing
cleaning your room

watching television

Which of the following is NOT an effect of serious dehydration?
reduced blood volume
muscle cramps
increased heart rate
torn ligaments

torn ligaments

Your target heart rate for endurance exercise is based on your
maximum heart rate.
weight.
exercise duration.
exercise frequency.

maximum heart rate.

Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is
quick and effortless.
planned, structured, and repetitive.
unrelated to physical fitness.
random and unrehearsed.

planned, structured, and repetitive.

Which of the following is NOT an effect of improving cardiorespiratory endurance?
The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat.
Resting blood pressure increases.
The body can do more exercise with less effort.
The heart can withstand the strains of everyday life.

Resting blood pressure increases.

Which of the following is a muscular strength exercise?
jogging
push-ups
stretching
cycling

push-ups

Application of muscular force without movement is called ______ exercise.
isometric
isokinetic
isotonic
dynamic

isometric

A health problem associated with bulimia is
dry skin.
muscle wasting.
fine body hair.
tooth decay.

tooth decay.

Which of the following is a way in which exercise affects metabolic rate?
It increases muscle mass.
It increases resting metabolic rate.
It burns calories during the exercise itself.
all of the above

?

Type 2 diabetes
is uncommon.
is best prevented by maintaining a healthy diet and exercising.
always requires insulin injections as a method of treatment.
has obvious symptoms in the early stages.

is best prevented by maintaining a healthy diet and exercising.

Which of the following is NOT an adverse effect of ephedra?
panic attacks
insomnia
seizures
lethargy

lethargy

Resting metabolic rate is the
energy required to maintain vital body functions.
sum of all the processes by which food energy is used by the body.
body’s daily energy expenditure.
energy required to digest food.

energy required to maintain vital body functions.

Even processed foods labeled "fat-free" or "reduced fat" may
be high in calories.
contain hidden fats.
be incorrectly labeled.
contain high levels of cholesterol.

be high in calories.

A person with a body mass index of 26.5 is classified as
underweight.
normal weight.
overweight.
obese.

overweight.

Frequently drinking diet soda
is an effective way to lose weight.
may increase risk of high blood pressure.
is associated with raising LDL.
creates low fasting blood sugar levels.

may increase risk of high blood pressure.

The largest component of metabolism is
metabolic equivalency rate.
resting metabolic rate.
base metabolic expenditure.
caloric expenditure rate.

resting metabolic rate.

Prescription drugs are usually recommended only to people with a BMI over
15.
20.
30.
40.

30.

A BMI value of 17.5 or less in women may be used as a diagnostic criterion for
obesity.
depression.
anorexia nervosa.
diabetes.

anorexia nervosa.

Hydrostatic weighing is used to predict percent body fat based on
body mass index.
body density.
fat weight.
height and total body weight.

body density.

An eating disorder characterized by a refusal to eat enough food to maintain a reasonable body weight is
voluntary starvation.
bulimia nervosa.
anorexia nervosa.
binge-eating disorder.

anorexia nervosa.

Most weight problems are problems of
metabolic disorders.
lifestyle.
emotional disorders.
childhood abuse.

lifestyle.

Which of the following would NOT benefit a person with diabetes?
increasing intake of refined carbohydrates
increasing physical activity
substituting monounsaturated for saturated fats
increasing fiber intake

increasing intake of refined carbohydrates

The body’s ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort denotes
physical fitness.
physical activity.
peak workload.
anaerobic capacity.

physical fitness.

Which of the following is NOT an illness that can be prevented or managed by exercise?
cardiovascular disease
cancer
congenital heart defect
osteoporosis

congenital heart defect

Which of the following statements regarding the effects of exercise is FALSE?
It enhances self-image.
It improves body image.
It creates mood swings.
It increases energy level.

It creates mood swings.

A recording of the changes in electrical activity of the heart is a(n)
ECG
CT
PET
EEG

ECG

Application of force with movement is called ______ exercise.
isometric
isokinetic
isotonic
static

isotonic

An individual considering using dietary supplements or drugs to enhance performance should understand that
supplements can help change an untrained person into a fit person.
anabolic steroids are a safe way to increase strength.
supplements are usually inexpensive ways to build strength.
the long-term effects of many supplements are unknown.

the long-term effects of many supplements are unknown.

According to standards issued by the National Institutes of Health, a healthy BMI is between
12.5 and 19.5.
16.5 and 21.5.
18.5 and 24.9.
22.5 and 27.5.

18.5 and 24.9.

Recent research indicates that drinking more than one diet soda per day may be associated with
eating disorders.
nutritional deficiencies.
metabolic syndrome.
gum disease.

metabolic syndrome.

Which of the following describes measuring percent body fat by submerging a person in water?
skinfold measuring
bioelectrical impedance analysis
body mass index
hydrostatic weighing

hydrostatic weighing

Surgery for the severely obese is usually recommended only for individuals with a BMI over
30.
40.
45.
50.

40.

Which of the following is a serious disturbance in eating patterns?
eating disorder
amenorrhea
body dysmorphic disorder
overeating

eating disorder

Researchers frequently use BMI in conjunction with ______ to examine the health risks associated with body weight.
caloric intake estimates
activity assessments
resting metabolic rate
waist circumference

waist circumference

An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging is
voluntary starvation.
bulimia nervosa.
anorexia nervosa.
binge-eating disorder.

bulimia nervosa.

The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity is
anaerobic capacity.
adaptive capacity.
cardiorespiratory endurance.
cardiorespiratory capacity.

cardiorespiratory endurance.

Muscular endurance is the
ability to sustain a given level of muscular tension over time.
ability to move the joints through a full range of motion.
amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
amount of time required to contract a muscle completely.

ability to sustain a given level of muscular tension over time.

Which of these statements regarding the warm-up session is FALSE?
It enhances performance.
It is usually high intensity.
It raises muscle temperature slightly above resting level.
It helps to protect joint surfaces.

It is usually high intensity.

Which of the following is NOT an effect of exercise?
improved self-image
improved memory
decreased insulin sensitivity
decreased stress

decreased insulin sensitivity

Which of the following is NOT a cardiorespiratory endurance activity?
weight training
cycling
aerobic dancing
walking

weight training

Muscular strength is the
ability to sustain a given level of muscular tension over time.
ability to move the joints through a full range of motion.
amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
amount of force a muscle can produce repeatedly over 60 seconds.

amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.

Which of the following is an advantage of exercise machines over free weights?
They are safer.
They don’t require spotters.
They require less skill
All of the above

?

A health risk associated with anorexia nervosa is
low blood pressure.
eroded tooth enamel.
chronic hoarseness.
stomach rupture.

low blood pressure.

To lose one pound, you need to create a negative energy balance of ______ calories.
500
1,000
3,500
7,000

3,500

Which of the following best describes the relationship between genetics and obesity?
The genetic contribution to obesity is about 75 percent.
The weight of an adopted child is more closely related to the weights of the adoptive parents than those of the biological parents.
Researchers have identified a single gene responsible for obesity.
Genetic factors influence body fat distribution.

Genetic factors influence body fat distribution.

Premenopausal women most often store fat in their
arms.
abdomen.
hips.
breasts.

hips.

An example of a snack low in energy density is
an apple.
crackers.
a cookie.
an ice cream cone.

an apple.

A person with a body mass index of 31.2 is classified as
underweight.
normal weight.
overweight.
obese.

obese

What is the recommended level of weight loss per week?
one-half to two pounds
five to seven pounds
eight to ten pounds
more than ten pounds

one-half to two pounds

The greater the amount of muscle mass, the
lower the resting metabolic rate.
higher the resting metabolic rate.
more fat that is needed in the diet.
easier it is to gain weight.

higher the resting metabolic rate.

Developing a fitness component by performing exercises that are designed for that component is referred to as
overload.
specificity.
mode.
structure.

specificity

Which of the following best describes body composition?
the amount of muscle mass in the body
the proportion of fat and fat-free mass in the body
the amount of fat in the body
the ratio of muscle to fat in the body

the proportion of fat and fat-free mass in the body

Which of the following best describes fat that helps cushion body organs and regulate body temperature?
essential
fat-free
subcutaneous
adipose

essential

Which of the following does a commercial weight-loss program NOT typically provide?
group support
behavior modification advice
outside recommendations for individualized nutrition plans
physical activity recommendations

outside recommendations for individualized nutrition plans

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of the female athlete triad?
abnormal eating patterns
premature osteoporosis
amenorrhea
muscle dysmorphia

muscle dysmorphia

Which of the following best protects against weight gain and is essential for maintaining weight loss?
certain nutritional supplements
a 1,000-calories-per-day diet plan
physical activity
at least eight glasses of water per day

physical activity

People who tend to store body fat in the ______ are at increased risk for chronic disease.
thighs
buttocks
abdomen
hips

abdomen

Which of the following describes a psychosocial factor that contributes to weight gain?
eating high-sugar, high-fat foods
watching more than four hours of television each day
having a low resting metabolic rate
eating to alleviate loneliness or boredom

eating to alleviate loneliness or boredom

Which one of the following is most closely associated with anorexia nervosa?
a belief that one is overweight even when dangerously thin
uncontrollable binge eating
near-normal body weight
self-induced vomiting

a belief that one is overweight even when dangerously thin

Cerebrovascular accident is another name for a
cerebral thrombosis.
stroke.
cerebral hematoma.
ruptured blood vessel.

stroke

High blood pressure is a health risk when it is
high most of the time.
the product of emotional excitement.
the product of exercise.
low most of the time.

high most of the time.

It is recommended that girls get an HPV/cervical cancer vaccine at what age?
11-12
15-17
18-25
over 25

11-12

High blood pressure is best described as a
warning sign of cancer.
side effect of cardiovascular disease.
risk factor for smoking.
disease.

disease.

Chest pain caused by lack of oxygen to the heart is called
thrombosis.
infarction.
hypertension.
angina.

angina

Which of the following best describes what occurs during atherosclerosis?
The artery walls are thinned by plaque.
The arteries become narrowed.
The output of blood flow from the heart increases.
The arteries become elastic and flexible.

The arteries become narrowed.

Blood cell fragments that are necessary for the clotting of blood are called
platelets.
erythrocytes.
leukocytes.
macrophages.

platelets.

Which of the following terms describes abnormal enlargement of an organ secondary to an increase in cell size?
hypertension
hypertrophy
hyperextension
hyperactivity

hypertrophy

A sign of colon and rectal cancer is
high fever.
headaches.
cramping.
rectal bleeding.

rectal bleeding.

Normal blood pressure for healthy adults is best defined as
below 80/120.
below 120/80.
above 80/120.
above 120/80.

below 120/80.

Leukemia is cancer of the
gastrointestinal tract.
lymph nodes.
urinary tract.
blood-forming cells.

blood-forming cells.

Which of the following is a noninvasive test that evaluates CVD by using sound waves to examine the heart?
electron-beam computed tomography
magnetic resonance imaging
echocardiography
angioplasty

echocardiography

The most common cause of cancer death in the United States is
breast cancer.
colon and rectal cancer.
prostate cancer.
lung cancer.

lung cancer.

Scraping cells from the cervix for examination to screen for cancerous changes is called
cryotherapy.
curetting.
a Pap test.
an endometrial smear.

a Pap test.

A diet high in ______ is linked to increased risk of colon, stomach, and prostate cancers.
fat and meat
fiber
carotenoids
nitrosamines

fat and meat

Exercise alters blood fat levels by
raising LDL levels.
raising triglyceride levels.
raising HDL levels.
lowering HDL levels.

raising HDL levels.

Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas
spread rapidly.
may be pearly nodules or red and scaly patches.
are usually painful.
are rare forms of skin cancer.

may be pearly nodules or red and scaly patches.

What do obesity and alcohol use have in common that increases breast cancer risk?
They increase glucose levels in the blood.
They increase estrogen levels in the blood.
They increase LDL cholesterol levels.
They slow the rate of cell growth.

They increase estrogen levels in the blood.

A hemorrhagic stroke may occur as a result of
a thrombosis.
an embolus.
an aneurysm.
low platelet levels.

an aneurysm.

Naturally occurring substances found in plant foods that help prevent chronic diseases are
nitrosamines.
anticarcinogens.
phytochemicals.
free radicals.

phytochemicals.

One type of cancer that seems to be linked to a diet high in red meat is
cervical cancer.
lymphoma.
leukemia.
colon cancer.

colon cancer.

Obesity increases a person’s risk of
breast and colon cancers.
oral and brain cancers.
lung and brain cancers.
oral and lung cancers.

breast and colon cancers.

The most dangerous form of skin cancer is
melanoma.
squamous cell carcinoma.
basal cell carcinoma.
actinic keratosis.

melanoma.

A blood pressure reading of 121/81 is classified as
normal.
prehypertension.
stage 1 hypertension.
stage 2 hypertension.

prehypertension.

Which of the following is NOT an environmental carcinogen?
alcohol
microbe
nitrate
UV rays

alcohol

In some cases, cervical dysplasia develops into
cervical cancer.
HPV infection.
vaginal clear cell cancer.
chlamydia infection.

cervical cancer.

Most deaths from heart attacks occur within ______ of the onset of symptoms.
30 minutes
1 hour
2 hours
3 hours

2 hours

Lymphoma is cancer of the lymph nodes, part of the body’s
blood-forming cells.
gastrointestinal tract.
connective and fibrous tissues.
infection-fighting system.

infection-fighting system.

The infection that puts women at risk for cervical cancer is
pneumonia.
hepatitis.
HPV.
strep throat.

HPV.

Prostate cancer is
the leading cause of cancer death in men.
the most common cancer in men.
not influenced by diet and lifestyle.
a disease that affects the liver.

the most common cancer in men.

Immunization is based on the
body’s ability to remember an encounter with a specific antigen.
body’s ability to tell a harmful pathogen from a harmless one.
introduction of unrelated pathogens into the body to stimulate antigen production.
introduction of helper T cells into the body.

body’s ability to remember an encounter with a specific antigen.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common complication of
syphilis and herpes.
herpes and gonorrhea.
genital HPV infection and chlamydia.
gonorrhea and chlamydia.

gonorrhea and chlamydia.

Neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells are part of the ______ response to invading pathogens.
natural
acquired
adaptive
cell-mediated

natural

White blood cells are produced in the
brain.
bone marrow.
heart.
gastrointestinal tract.

bone marrow.

The body’s first line of defense against invasion of organisms is
the skin.
chlorination.
white blood cells.
fever.

the skin.

The drug most commonly used to treat trichomoniasis is
Flagyl.
podophyllin.
tetracycline.
penicillin.

Flagyl.

The family of viruses that causes genital warts is
coronavirus.
norovirus.
human papillomavirus.
herpes simplex virus.

human papillomavirus.

A fungus that causes vaginitis and thrush is
Histoplasma capsulatum.
Candida albicans.
Coccidioides immitis.
dermatophyte fungus.

Candida albicans.

Influenza is highly contagious and spread via
coughing.
respiratory droplets.
ingesting food that has been infected.
hand-to-hand contact.

respiratory droplets.

Macrophages
act as scavengers.
trigger the immune response.
counteract swollen lymph nodes.
are suppressor cells.

act as scavengers.

The organism that causes genital warts is
HPV.
HSV.
HIV.
HBV.

HPV.

Which of the following are chemical messengers released by immune system cells that help amplify and coordinate the immune response?
cytokines
antibodies
antigens
histamines

cytokines

A drug used to treat herpes is
podophyllin.
Flagyl.
doxycycline.
acyclovir.

acyclovir.

Genital herpes is most often caused by
HSV 1.
HSV 2.
HAV.
HBV.

HSV 2.

Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes is called
hemorrhage.
toxic shock.
jaundice.
impetigo.

jaundice.

Which of the following increases the inflammatory response and secretion of mucus following exposure to an allergen?
immunoglobulin E
histamine
interferon
memory T cells

histamine

Antibodies have complementary surface markers that work with ______ like a lock and key.
histamines
antigens
T cells
cytokines

antigens

Which of the following is NOT a pathogen?
prions
bacteria
protozoa
cancer cells

cancer cells

Which of the following infections is transmitted by a mosquito bite?
E. Coli O157:H7
West Nile virus
new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
hantavirus

West Nile virus

A person who is exposed to a disease and who is subsequently injected with antibodies produced by others has been given ______ immunity.
active
passive
innate
natural

passive

A negative test result for HIV infection means you
do not have the virus.
are infected with the virus.
should immediately retest to verify the result.
do not have HIV-related antibodies.

do not have HIV-related antibodies.

Which of the following groups of people should most consider being tested for HIV?
mutually monogamous partners
people who received blood transfusions after 1985
people who have not had an STD before
people who have had unprotected sex

people who have had unprotected sex

Malaria and trichomoniasis are caused by
protozoa.
bacteria.
viruses.
parasites.

protozoa.

Which one of the following is NOT a vector of disease?
contaminated soil
rats
ticks
mosquitoes

contaminated soil

Autoimmune diseases occur when
bacteria severely damage the immune system.
cancer creates an imbalance in the immune system.
the body erroneously recognizes its own cells as foreign.
a virus such as HIV destroys the immune system.

the body erroneously recognizes its own cells as foreign.

Which of the following is a common bacterium found on the skin of healthy people that can cause infection if it enters the body?
streptococcus
staphylococcus
mycoplasma
spirochete

staphylococcus

An organism that causes disease is a(n)
antigen.
toxin.
pathogen.
antibody.

pathogen

The mildest form of hepatitis is hepatitis
A.
B.
C.
EB.

A.

A marker on the surface of a foreign substance that triggers the immune response is called a(n)
antibody.
lymphocyte.
antigen.
enzyme.

antigen.

Generally, antibiotics are useful against
influenza.
colds.
bacteria.
viruses.

bacteria

The largest organisms that can enter the body to cause infection are
bacteria.
parasitic worms.
viruses.
protozoa.

Most ulcers are caused by
tickborne rickettsia.
Helicobacter pylori infection.
overconsumption of spicy food.
high levels of stress.

Helicobacter pylori infection.

A disease in which an individual’s immune system attacks his or her own body’s cells is called a(n)
autoimmune disease.
acquired immune response.
antibody deficiency disease.
natural immune disorder.

autoimmune disease.

Streptococcus and staphylococcus are examples of
rickettsiae.
bacteria.
viruses.
parasites.

bacteria

A chancre is a sign of
PID.
hepatitis A.
syphilis.
HIV infection.

syphilis.

Lyme disease is transmitted by
mosquitoes.
deer ticks.
black widow spiders.
dog fleas.

deer ticks.

Transmission of HIV occurs through
using the same toilet as someone with HIV.
sharing eating utensils with someone with HIV.
hugging someone with HIV.
unprotected sexual intercourse with someone with HIV.

unprotected sexual intercourse with someone with HIV.

Substances that provoke allergies are known as
parasites.
antigens.
bacteria.
allergens.

allergens.

Which of the following is not a mode of transmission of the hepatitis B virus?
toilet seats
toothbrushes
eating utensils
razor blades

toilet seats

There are now more than ___ drugs available to treat HIV.
10
20
30
40

?

An infection that travels throughout the body is referred to as
transmitted.
lymphatic.
localized.
systemic.

systemic.

The herpes virus associated with infectious mononucleosis is
herpes simplex type I.
herpes simplex type II.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
cytomegalovirus.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

Chlamydia is the most prevalent ______ STD.
viral
bacterial
fungal
protozoal

bacterial

The herpes virus most often responsible for cold sores is
HSV 1.
HSV 2.
EBV.
HSV B

HSV 1.

The secondary infection most often seen in people with HIV is
Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Pneumocystis pneumonia.
tuberculosis.
mycobacterium avium complex.

Pneumocystis pneumonia.

Which country has the highest STD rate of any developed nation?
Canada
France
United States
Holland

United States

Which of the following describes the body’s recognition of a relatively harmless substance as a dangerous antigen and subsequent mounting of an immune response?
passive immunity
active immunity
pathogenesis
allergic reaction

allergic reaction

Inflammation of the liver is known as
hepatitis.
jaundice.
Treponema pallidum.
epididymitis.

hepatitis.

Which one of the following is an example of a pathogen reservoir?
person
vaccine
T cell
prion

person

Swollen lymph nodes are an indication of
anemia.
poor diet.
hemophilia.
infection.

infection.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
is a member of the herpes virus family.
disables the immune function of the CD4 T cells.
survives by attacking B cells.
has been a source of human infection for over 200 years.

disables the immune function of the CD4 T cells.

A common sexually transmitted disease caused by a single-celled organism is
HPV infection.
pubic lice.
trichomoniasis.
scabies.

trichomoniasis.

An infection that progresses from the vagina and cervix to infect the pelvic cavity and fallopian tubes is called
a urinary tract infection.
an ascending pelvic inflammation.
endometriosis.
pelvic inflammatory disease.

pelvic inflammatory disease.

Typical symptoms of trichomoniasis in women include
lesions around the vagina.
fever and chills.
decreased appetite, nausea, and vomiting.
greenish, foul-smelling vaginal discharge.

greenish, foul-smelling vaginal discharge.

A highly contagious parasitic STD is
Candida albicans.
pubic lice.
pediculosis.
condyloma.

pubic lice.

Which of the following is true of the common cold?
It may be caused by any of more than 200 different viruses.
It may be caused by exposure to cold weather.
It most often occurs during the spring and fall.
It is usually treated with antibiotics.

It may be caused by any of more than 200 different viruses.

Gonorrhea is best described as a sexually transmitted disease
that produces a painful rash.
characterized by the appearance of dry, rough growths on the genital area.
caused by a bacterium that usually affects mucous membranes.
characterized by recurrent outbreaks of blister-like sores.

caused by a bacterium that usually affects mucous membranes.

The spiral-shaped organism that causes syphilis is a
chancre.
bacterium.
virus.
protozoan.

bacterium?

Chemicals responsible for the dilation and increased permeability of blood vessels in allergic reactions are called
histamines.
antigens.
antibodies.
lymphocytes.

histamines.

Which of the following best describes HPV infection?
It is the most common STD in the United States.
It cannot cause cancer in men.
Many people with HPV have some visible symptoms.
It only appears on the penis and vagina.

It is the most common STD in the United States.

Which of the following is a preparation of killed or weakened pathogens injected or taken orally to stimulate the body to produce antibodies?
gamma globulin
vaccine
antibody
immunoglobulin

vaccine

Which of the following describes the relationship between pregnancy and HIV?
More than 50 percent of infants born to untreated HIV-infected women are infected.
HIV is linked to infertility.
Infected women should not have cesarean deliveries.
Treatment with antivirals during pregnancy reduces risk of vertical transmission.

?

The most effective approach to avoiding STDs is
the use of condoms.
the use of contraceptive foams.
penicillin therapy.
abstinence.

abstinence.

Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for contracting HIV?
sex with multiple partners
alcohol and other drug use
using a condom lubricated with nonoxynol-9 during vaginal or anal sex
abstinence

abstinence

Dementia, cardiovascular damage, blindness, and death are possible complications of
primary syphilis.
pelvic inflammatory disease.
chlamydia.
tertiary syphilis.

tertiary syphilis.

One of the best ways to break the chain of infection is to
wash your hands frequently.
get 8 hours of sleep.
get boosters for immunizations every week.
drink water only if it is fluoridated.

wash your hands frequently.

Which of the following viruses has a vaccine available?
influenza
rhinovirus
Epstein-Barr
hepatitis C

influenza

Which of the following statements related to medication expiration dates has the FDA found to be true?
People who take medications after the expiration date are at higher risk of poisoning.
Expiration dates have little value; their purpose is to increase sales.
Almost all medications remain potent several years after the expiration date.
Medications won’t expire as long as they are stored in a cool, dry place.

Almost all medications remain potent several years after the expiration date.

The most commonly used form of manual healing is
acupressure.
Rolfing.
chiropractic.
massage.

chiropractic.

Biofield therapies are based around energy fields thought to originate from the
sun.
body of the patient.
environment.
body of the practitioner.

body of the patient.

Which of the following best describes a study in which researchers and participants are unaware of who is receiving a treatment?
controlled
randomized
double-blind
multicenter

double-blind

Which of the following best describes therapies and practices that are NOT part of conventional health care?
therapeutic treatments
complementary and alternative medicine
nonconventional medicine
holistic medicine

complementary and alternative medicine

Which of the following describes a health care professional who receives medical education similar to that of a medical doctor but whose training emphasizes musculoskeletal problems and manipulative therapy?
doctor of podiatric medicine
doctor of osteopathic medicine
doctor of chiropractic
physical therapist

doctor of osteopathic medicine

Which of the following contributes to the high cost of health care in the United States?
state-of-the-art equipment and treatments
expansion of the youth population
government profit demands
overuse of preventative medicine

state-of-the-art equipment and treatments

The National Institutes of Health has reported acupuncture to be effective in treating which of the following?
pain after surgery
blocked qi
menstrual cramps
carpal tunnel syndrome

pain after surgery

Which of the following best describes generic drugs?
They require a prescription from a physician.
They generally cost much less than brand-name drugs.
They do not have the same FDA effectiveness guarantee as brand-name drugs.
They may not contain the same active ingredients as the brand-name versions.

They generally cost much less than brand-name drugs.

What over-the-counter medication should you NOT give to children with flu-like symptoms?
naproxen sodium
ibuprofen
aspirin
acetaminophen

aspirin

Which of the following is an appropriate reason to visit the emergency room?
skin rash
persistent abdominal pain
sore throat and chills
intense migraine

persistent abdominal pain

Herbal remedies are an example of which of the following domains of complementary and alternative medicine practice?
mind-body intervention
alternative medical systems
biological-based therapy
energy therapy

biological-based therapy

You should always consult with a doctor before taking an over-the-counter medication if you
are pregnant.
have a severe and persistent cough.
are taking a prescription medication.
are giving it to a child 12 or under.

are pregnant.

Reiki is an example of which of the following domains of complementary and alternative medicine practice?
mind-body intervention
alternative medical systems
biological-based therapy
energy therapy

energy therapy

The first step in the diagnostic process is
a physical exam.
taking medical tests.
a medical history.
a second opinion.

a medical history.

Which of the following best describes symptoms you should check with a physician about?
recurrent
familiar
transient
mild

recurrent

Which of the following herbals may be used to treat depression?
evening primrose oil
ginkgo
St. John’s wort
saw palmetto

St. John’s wort

The purpose of bioelectromagnetic-based therapies is to help patients
align chakras.
record body images.
manage pain.
control eating.

manage pain.

The CAM therapy that involves the use of highly diluted extracts is
traditional Chinese medicine.
qigong.
Reiki.
homeopathy.

homeopathy.

Which of the following health care professionals is NOT an allied health care provider?
psychotherapists
registered nurses
physical therapists
registered dietitians

psychotherapists

Why should consumers exercise caution when choosing a CAM therapy?
It may reveal aspects of their being that they are not ready to confront.
None of them work
Most alternative treatments don’t work and actually make conditions worse.
Not all CAM practices have been scientifically evaluated for safety.

Not all CAM practices have been scientifically evaluated for safety.

In traditional Chinese medicine, the life force contained in all living things is called
prana.
vis vitalis.
yang.
qi.

qi.

Which of the following is a type of CAM therapy?
biomedicine
osteopathy
vitamin therapy
chiropractic care

chiropractic care

Which of the following questions should you ask when evaluating the accuracy of media reports about a new health study?
"What kind of study was it and who conducted it"?
"Is the result relevant to me and my health situation"?
"To what extent do I wish the findings were true"?
"Do the findings conflict with what the medical community knows to be fact"?

?

Self-assessment of medical symptoms begins with
purchase of over-the-counter drugs.
awareness of your body.
medical self-tests.
a phone call to your doctor.

awareness of your body.

Spinal manipulative therapy can be particularly helpful in addressing which of the following?
heart disease
obesity
chronic headaches
bone fracture

chronic headaches

Western researchers might explain the effects of acupuncture as being the result of
correcting the flow of qi.
rebalancing yin and yang.
releasing hormones and neurotransmitters.
restoring equilibrium.

releasing hormones and neurotransmitters.

Prescription drug errors are especially prevalent among
children.
young adults.
older adults.
infants.

older adults.

Which of the following is a sign that an online pharmacy may not be safe to purchase medication from?
It requires a physical exam for many of the drugs it sells.
It is certified by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy.
It requires a prescription for all drugs, regardless of their classification.
It sells medications that have not been approved by the FDA.

It sells medications that have not been approved by the FDA.

Which of the following is a way to avoid health fraud when considering an alternative therapy?
Search Internet message boards for evidence that the treatment worked for at least some people.
Inquire with the attorney general or a health professional group about the therapy.
Buy therapeutic products online; they often work better than the ones sold in stores.
Remain skeptical of your physician’s advice; doctors are biased against alternative medicine.

Inquire with the attorney general or a health professional group about the therapy.

The primary treatment methods used in traditional Chinese medicine are
acupuncture and massage.
acupuncture and herbal remedies.
chiropractic and massage.
t’ai chi and chiropractic.

acupuncture and herbal remedies.

Which of the following sources of health information is probably most reliable?
findings presented at medical meetings
commercially funded research
the science and technology section of the newspaper
government agency publications

government agency publications

Which of the following is true of Chinese herbal remedies?
They are based on a system 150 different plant and animal parts.
They focus on applying individual botanicals to specific parts of the body.
They are often taken in liquid form such as a tea or broth.
They are inserted into the skin through thin needles at strategic points.

?

Western medicine traditionally relies on the use of ______ to treat and cure diseases.
phytochemicals
antioxidants
isoflavins
pharmaceuticals

pharmaceuticals

A government health insurance program for Americans over age 65 is
Medicaid.
Mediplan.
Medineed.
Medicare.

Medicare.

Which of the following is most likely to be a component of naturopathic treatment?
psychology
radiology
endoscopy
oncology

psychology

Which of the following herbals may have severe interactions with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or anticoagulants?
garlic
ginkgo
ginseng
valerian

ginkgo

A physician specializing in the diseases, disabilities, and care of older adults is a(n)
gerontologist.
geriatrician.
ageologist.
oncologist.

geriatrician.

Which of the following is a term for the sum of a person’s possessions?
will
testator
estate
testamentary letter

estate

Which of the following life-sustaining treatments did the U.S. Supreme Court rule on in the case of Terri Schiavo?
artificial respiration
artificial feeding
active euthanasia
forced medication

artificial feeding

Which of the following best describes the average length of time members of a species live?
life span
life expectancy
life cycle
lifetime

life span?

Why might a person with osteoarthritis (OA) take acetaminophen?
to obtain necessary calcium
to relieve pain without stomach upset
to prevent liver damage
to promote inflammation

to relieve pain without stomach upset

Which of the following is the best predictor of premature death?
poor fitness
smoking
diabetes
obesity

poor fitness

One method of disposition of a corpse is to subject the body to intense heat, a process commonly known as
embalming.
incarceration.
entombment.
cremation.

cremation.

Which of the following is a dimension of dying related to sustaining significant relationships?
physical
psychological
social
spiritual

social

Which of the following do hospice programs NOT provide?
support for dying at home
hospital-type services
emotional support for survivors
experimental medical treatments

experimental medical treatments

Which of the following describes a disadvantage of women’s longer life expectancy?
They begin to produce more testosterone, which leads to heart disease.
They develop higher rates of stress the longer they live.
They remarry more often than men.
They are more likely than men to suffer from chronic conditions like arthritis.

They are more likely than men to suffer from chronic conditions like arthritis.

Which of the following best describes the purpose of a living will?
To express your wishes for the medical care of family members
To avoid changing your mind about medical decisions later in life
To provide instruction for care under different medical contingencies
To appoint someone to make medical decisions for you

To provide instruction for care under different medical contingencies

Which dimension in coping with dying involves maximizing the sense of security, self worth, and autonomy?
physical
psychological
social
spiritual

psychological

Which of the following describes a comprehensive program that offers a set of services designed to support terminally ill patients and their families?
hospice
passive euthanasia
active euthanasia
advance medical directive

hospice

Which of the following describes the expression of a person’s wishes for the disposition of his or her property after death?
will
testator
estate
testamentary letter

will

Which of the following is an advantage of receiving end-of-life care at home?
Receiving state-of-the-art treatment from loved ones
Avoiding interaction with paid caregivers
Being among family and friends
Bypassing the need for a care program

Being among family and friends

Which of the following is NOT one of the tasks of mourning?
accepting reality
establishing a memorial for the deceased
working through the pain
adjusting to a changed environment

establishing a memorial for the deceased

Which of the following is a reason that women need to save for retirement?
They earn as much annual income as men.
They are more likely than men to be covered by pension plans.
They are more likely than men to suffer chronic illnesses late in life.
They invest as much money as men do in retirement plans.

They are more likely than men to suffer chronic illnesses late in life.

Which of the following best describes the symptoms of profound traumatic loss?
They are identical to those of normal grief.
They generally dissipate within days and then are replaced by normal grief symptoms.
They can include insomnia and recurring dreams.
They affect victims only after a flashback is triggered.

They can include insomnia and recurring dreams.

What is the most common type of arthritis?
rheumatoid arthritis
lupus
osteoarthritis
muscular arthritis

osteoarthritis

Fluid intelligence is best described as the ability to
move easily from situation to situation.
maintain short-term memory.
find solutions to new problems.
memorize information and repeat it later.

find solutions to new problems.

An individual who studies phenomena associated with the aging process is a(n)
gerontologist.
geriatrician.
ageologist.
oncologist.

gerontologist

When a physician administers medication to relieve severe pain in a terminally ill patient, and the medication also hastens the patient’s death, the situation is called
physician-assisted suicide.
passive euthanasia.
double effect.
active euthanasia.

passive euthanasia.

Helping a patient hasten death by knowingly providing lethal drugs or other interventions is called
physician-assisted suicide.
passive euthanasia.
active euthanasia.
palliative care.

physician-assisted suicide.

A condition of profound unconsciousness with no reasonable hope for improvement is best termed
clinical death.
a coma.
brain death.
a persistent vegetative state.

a persistent vegetative state.

How often should older adults perform muscle-strengthening activities to experience additional health benefits?
once a week
2 or more days per week
2-5 times per month
once a month

2 or more days per week

Which of the following is a reason to arrange funeral services before dying?
Few families will hold services if the deceased did not express a desire for services.
The deceased is the only person the services will benefit.
Making decisions about last rites helps reduce the burden on survivors.
It is an opportunity to make decisions without input from family and friends.

Making decisions about last rites helps reduce the burden on survivors.

Which of the following is most characteristic of retirement?
meeting deadlines
trying to find enough leisure time
learning how to enjoy leisure time
spending less time with family

learning how to enjoy leisure time

Which of the following best describes the ability to rapidly make decisions and solve problems?
fluid intelligence
common sense
mental alertness
critical thinking

fluid intelligence

The gradual decline in the ability to focus on nearby objects is called
cataracts.
presbyopia.
age-related macular degeneration.
glaucoma.

presbyopia

Which of the following must be done regularly in order to reduce the effects of osteoporosis?
using alcohol to reduce stress
getting plenty of sleep
lifting weights
avoiding exposure to the sun

lifting weights

Which of the following is a cause of the life expectancy gap between men and women?
retirement savings
estrogen
arthritis
osteoporosis

estrogen

Which of the following is NOT a stage of dying as defined by Elizabeth Kübler-Ross?
denial
vulnerability
bargaining
depression

vulnerability

Medicare pays for approximately ______ percent of older Americans’ nursing home costs.
2
30
62
90

?

The person who makes a will is called the
intestate.
testator.
estate.
will.

testator

Clouding of the lens in the eye due to oxidation damage is called
cataracts.
glaucoma.
age-related macular degeneration.
presbyopia.

cataracts.

Which of the following dimensions of coping encompasses satisfying bodily needs?
physical
psychological
social
spiritual

physical

All of the following describe a persistent vegetative state EXCEPT
responsiveness to external stimuli.
lack of normal reflexes.
lasting for an extended period.
no reasonable hope for improvement.

responsiveness to external stimuli.

Which of the following describes the slow disintegration of the tissue at the center of the retina?
glaucoma
cataracts
age-related macular degeneration
presbyopia

age-related macular degeneration

The most common method of body disposal in the United States is
cadaver donation to medical schools.
mummification.
burial or cremation.
medical harvesting.

burial or cremation.

Which of the following is a reason women live longer than men?
Estrogen protects women from early heart disease.
Women often reduce their stress by coping with it alone.
Women are less likely to be poor in their older years.
Men are more likely to suffer from chronic conditions like arthritis.

Estrogen protects women from early heart disease.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between physical activity and aging?
Physical activity cannot delay onset of mobility problems.
Physical activity has fewer benefits after a certain age.
Physical activity can reduce fall-related injuries in older people.
Physical activity can benefit older adults as long as they are already healthy.

Physical activity can reduce fall-related injuries in older people.

Active euthanasia is
withdrawing or withholding treatment.
a deliberate act intended to end another person’s life.
legal in the United States.
defined as "letting nature take its course".

?

Women can reduce menopause-related problems by doing which of the following?
working longer hours
doing mentally challenging puzzles
avoiding tobacco
getting tested for glaucoma

avoiding tobacco

When patients are on life support, doctors use the concept of ______ to determine if they have died.
brain death
clinical death
cessation of flow of bodily fluids
cellular death

brain death

Which of the following describes a disease in which the fluid inside the eye is under abnormally high pressure?
glaucoma
cataracts
conjunctivitis
presbyopia

glaucoma

Which of the following activities helps lower the risk of dementia in older adults?
reading
bathing
napping
eating

reading

Which of the following is a reason men have higher rates of mortality?
Men smoke and abuse drugs more often than women do.
Testosterone production slows as men grow older.
Men become less cautious as they get older.
Older men are more likely to live alone.

Men smoke and abuse drugs more often than women do.

Which of the following do researchers consider a component of a good death?
Not knowing how much pain will be involved
Limited interaction with health care providers
Dying before making funeral arrangements
Being able to say good-bye to loved ones

Being able to say good-bye to loved ones

The process of removing blood and other fluids and replacing them with chemicals to temporarily retard deterioration of a corpse is termed
entombing.
encoating.
embalming.
mummification.

embalming.

When someone dies without a will, the state distributes property according to
its own rules.
decisions made by a court-appointed administrator.
the wishes of the deceased, if known.
the wishes of the family.

its own rules.

A determination of death made according to accepted medical criteria is
cellular death.
observed death.
brain death.
clinical death.

clinical death.

Brain death is most reliably shown by flat tracings on a(n)
electroencephalogram.
electrocardiogram.
echocardiograph.
CT scan.

electroencephalogram.

Which of the following best describes bereavement?
The behavioral changes a person undergoes during the grief process
The physical symptoms of associated with grief
The objective event of loss
The emotional toll loss takes on a person

?

Which of the following will help reduce stress?
ignoring illnesses
getting adequate sleep
using substances
working longer hours

getting adequate sleep

Which of the following can arthritis cause?
hearing loss
loss of mobility
vision impairment
obesity

loss of mobility

The issue of a person’s right to die came to national attention in 1975 with the landmark case involving
Nancy Cruzan.
Karen Ann Quinlan.
Terri Schiavo.
Dr. Jack Kevorkian.

Karen Ann Quinlan.

The middle phase of grief is characterized by
numbness.
disorientation.
shock.
pain of separation.

disorientation.

The term that means "having made no legal will" is
intestate.
testator.
probate.
surrogacy.

intestate.

The functioning of a healthy human body remains essentially constant until about what age?
70
60
50
40

70

The medical term for severe deterioration of mental functioning resulting from a brain disorder is
dementia.
senility.
mental change.
age-related macular degeneration.

dementia

Which of the following can result from regular exercise?
reduced blood flow to the brain
improved memory
higher incidence of falls
lower mobility

improved memory

Clinical death in humans is characterized by the absence of
pain.
respiration.
digestion.
REM sleep.

respiration

In 2009, the average life expectancy for Americans was about ______ years.
58
68
78
88

78

Which of the following is a record of the electrical activity of the brain?
MRI
ECG
EEG
CT

EEG

Which of the following is a goal of hospice care?
to support the patient’s family
to prolong the patient’s life
to hasten the patient’s death
to find a cure for the patient

to support the patient’s family

A doctrine that states a harmful effect of treatment, even if it results in death, is permissible if the harm is not intended and occurs as a side effect of a beneficial action, is termed
multieffect.
palliative effect.
double effect.
active effect.

double effect.

People who get stuck in the grieving process and lose the ability to cope with daily living are experiencing
total grief.
complicated grief.
extreme grief.
mourning.

complicated grief.

Which of the following dimensions of coping involves identifying, developing, or reaffirming sources of meaning and fostering hope?
physical
psychological
social
spiritual

spiritual

In which of the following countries is voluntary active euthanasia legal?
England
Belgium
Sweden
France

Belgium

A ___ allows an individual to appoint another person as an agent in making health care decisions in the event he or she becomes unable to do so.
living will.
double effect.
testator.
health care proxy.

health care proxy.

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