GPSYCH 160 Test 3

For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is:

spermarche

In the twenty-first century, early puberty positively correlates with:

aggression and antisocial behavior in boys.

José enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. Which pair of influences will be MOST beneficial to him in reaching his full potential?

changes in myelination in his brain and the guidance of an experienced coach

Josefina is obsessed with her weight. She sometimes eats a whole package of Oreos at once and then makes herself vomit. Josefina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. She MOST likely suffers from:

bulimia nervosa

Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as, "Why can't I have wine with dinner? You do." or "I don't understand why I'll be able to vote when I'm 18, but I have to wait until I'm 21 to buy alcohol!" This demonstrates Justine's:

hypothetical thinking

Latisha experienced menarche when she was 8 years old. She experienced:

precocious puberty

Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating:

her belief in an imaginary audience

One reason adolescents' nutritional habits may be poor is:

anxiety about their body image

Piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence:

Formal operational thought

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines:

Hypothetical thought

Research has shown that adolescents who drop out of high school are strongly influenced by their:

middle school experiences

Since adolescents' prefrontal cortex is not fully developed, many of them tend NOT to:

exercise caution in most situations

Since adolescents regard themselves as uniquely special:

it is difficult for them to envision another person's perspective.

The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes:

creates a developmental mismatch

What-if propositions require:

hypothetical thought

Some teenagers seem able to skate, play basketball, or dance for hours without rest. This increased endurance is best explained by:

the growth of the heart and lungs

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a gut feeling is referred to as:

intuitive thought

Which is NOT a challenge associated with vocational education at the secondary level in the United States?

Graduates of vocational programs earn less than students who do not attend them.

Which statement is correct?

There is a positive correlation between body fat and early onset of puberty.

Xavier, 16, invites a group of his high school friends to swim in a neighbor's pool late at night while that neighbor is away. They climb the fence and jump in, playing wildly and loudly in the water. Just a few minutes later, the police arrive. How does adolescent brain development help explain Xavier's poor decision making?

his prefrontal cortex is underdeveloped

During psychosocial development, the adolescent is trying to figure out:

"Who am I?"

During the fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who isn't sure which role to adopt is said to be:

experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion.

It is typical for an adolescent experiencing __________ to sleep too much, care little about school, and be indifferent to parental criticism.

identity diffusion

In achieving full identity, an adolescent should understand his or her goals and values regarding:

religion and sex, politics and ethnicity and vocation

Today, vocational identity is postponed because:

many vocations require specialized skills that take years to develop

What is a gender role?

a pattern of behavior that society considers appropriate for only men or only women

Petty, peevish arguing that is usually ongoing is known as:

bickering

Adolescents are said to have closeness with family when:

there is open communication, support, emotional connectedness, and parental control.

"Facilitation," specifically in adolescent peer relationships, refers to the way that peers:

encourage each other to do things that most wouldn't do on their own.

In the past 50 years, teen births have _____ in every nation.

decreased

According to Dunphy, the third event in the sequence of male-female relationships is:

small mixed-sex groups

Ten percent of heterosexual adults report having had same-sex encounters during their adolescence.

true or false

The best sex-education programs are those that:

start before high school, require parent-child communication, focus on behavior, and last for years.

The belief that family members should support one another, sacrificing individual freedom if necessary, is called:

familism

Serious depression among adolescents is:

more common in males than females

Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not. True or False

True

Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that:

Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that:

The best predictor of drug abuse in adulthood is:

drug use before 18

Which psychoactive drug used during adolescence inhibits growth and may result in the adolescent becoming a shorter and heavier adult?

tobacco

Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to:

drop out of school, become teenage parents, be unemployed

What is Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development?

identity versus role confusion

Understanding oneself based on past experiences and future plans is called ________, and lack of commitment to any goals or values is called __________.

Identity Achievement; role confusion

Erikson's term for premature identity formation is:

foreclosure

Within which type of identity does society expect some debate and questioning during late adolescence?

religious identity

______ refers to a person's self-definition as male or female, and _______ refers to a person's erotic desires.

gender identity; sexual orientation

Parent and adolescent conflicts:

occur when a child's drive for independence clashes with the parents' supervision and control.

Parents' ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom is called:

parental monitoring

Mr. Sanchez gives the car keys to his son and asks, "Who is going to the movies with you, and what time will you be home?" This questioning is an example of:

parental monitoring

Peer pressure or encouragement to conform to a friend's behavior or fashion style:

can be positive

High school romances:

are short-lived, rarely lasting more than a year.

From 1991 to 2001, the rate of sexual activity among U.S. high school students:

decreased

In many nations of Africa and the Middle East, same-sex behaviors are considered:

criminal and psychological

Which immigrant youth seem to suffer from lower self-esteem than the other groups?

Asian

Research has shown that the dip in self-esteem during adolescence:

is experienced by both sexes

Two causes of depression in adolescence are:

genetics and having a mother who is often belligerent and disapproving.

Thinking about suicide is called _________, and a failed suicide is called __________.

suicide ideation; parasuicide

Early neurological impairments increase the risk of a child becoming a(n) _________, and a teen experiencing a negative psychosocial development is at greater risk of becoming a(n) ___________.

life-course-persistent offender; adolescence-limited offender

The only drug(s) used by more eighth-graders than twelfth-graders is

inhalants

The most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers is:

alcohol

Longitudinal research on marijuana use suggests that:

drug use causes more problems than it solves

Biologically, the years from 18 to 25 are the ideal time for:

physical work and successful reproduction

According to the text, the term used to describe a person between the ages of 18 and 25 is:

emerging adult

Approximately what percentage of young adults in the United States rate their health as good, very good, or excellent?

96

Young adults rarely die from

heart disease

In the United States, how many people in their mid-20s feel that premarital sex "is not wrong at all"?

53%

Half of all new cases of STIs occur in people:

younger than 26

Which of the following nations are making progress in its effort to halt AIDS

Brazil

The possibility that one's appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person's prejudice is known as:

stereotype threat

Massification is the idea that establishing higher learning institutions and encouraging college enrollment could:

benefits everyone

In every developed nation, _____ of college students are female.

more than half

During which stage did Erikson believe that adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment?

intimacy versus isolation

Worldwide, emerging adults think about their identities in terms of:

politcial loyalties and religious commitments,

During late adolescence and early adulthood, people are _____ to be proud of their ethnic background

likely

Research reveals that personality is:

genetically influenced, environmentally influenced and not fixed; plascity is evident

In general, emerging adults experience:

increasing self-esteem

Severe anxiety and depression are not unusual during adolescence and emerging adulthood, especially for:

young women

Distorted thinking, lack of energy, and flat affect can all be signs of:

schizophrenia

After age _____, few people are newly diagnosed with schizophrenia.

30

In which of the following countries is cohabitation considered unusual?

Ireland

The period of emerging adulthood occurs between __________ years old.

18 and 25

According to your text, _____ percent of young adults in the United States rated their health as good, very good, or excellent.

95

According to the text, by age ____, the immune system can fight off just about everything from the sniffles to cancer.

20

Historically, most couples had their first child as teenagers, whereas now most women are having their first child at age _____.

25

Most people over age 65 think that premarital sex is:

wrong

What percentage of emerging adults has at least one sexually transmitted infection?

50

The leading cause of death for young men in South Africa is:

AIDS

Which of the following may be a destructive risk common in emerging adulthood?

driving fast without a seatbelt, carrying a loaded gun and abusing drugs

Forms of recreation that risk causing injury or death, and are attractive and thrilling as a result, are referred to as:

extreme sports

The possibility that one's appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person's prejudices is:

stereotype threat

U.S. Census data confirm that a college degree adds about _____ per year to a worker's salary.

20,000

College trends indicate that:

more girls than boys

Erikson's fifth stage of development, identity versus role confusion, starts in adolescence and is completed:

during late adulthood

A longitudinal study found that students at four-year colleges were more likely to be involved in _____ than were students at two-year colleges.

extra-curricular activités

Personality patterns of adults are affected by:

cultural norms, social context and genetic continuity

Aggressive young adults:

rated themselves as quite conscientious

Social phobia is most likely to be diagnosed in women around age:

20

Which disorder is characterized by having irrational thoughts, delusions, and hallucinations?

schizophrenia

A commonality among intimate relationships is that they:

progress from attraction to close connection to ongoing commitment.

The idea that each of us enlarges our understanding, our experiences, and our resources through our intimate relationships is known as:

self-expanison

In his theory Piaget ____ young children and ____ older children.

underestimated; overestimated

The biological events that begin puberty are governed by the HPA and HPG axes. In these axis the hypothalamus sends a signal to the ___ gland.

pitutiary

Adolescents may have emotions that they have difficulty controlling because the growth of their _______ outpaces the growth of their ______ cortex.

Limbic system; prefrontal cortex

When faced with Piaget's balance scale problem, people in formal operations are most likely to

figure out a rule for solving the problem by testing hypotheses

Adolescents who have reached formal operations show an increase in

hypothetical deductive reasoning

Adolescents (and others!) who text while driving, believing that it is not dangerous for them, even though it might be for others, are showing evidence of

invincibility fable

Kayleigh joined the same sorority that her mother and grandmother joined. She says 'its just what we do' Kayleigh is showing evidence of

identity foreclosure

Diana is 16 years old. She is really not sure what she believes in. When she is asked she says 'I'm only 16, I don't have to think about that stuff'. Diana's identity status can be described as

identity diffused

Jacob broke his eyeglasses. The temporary ones he got are geeky. He refuses to go to school saying 'everyone will be looking at me'. Jacob is demonstrating the feature of adolescent egocentrism known as

the imaginary audience

Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget's theory of formal operations?

In everyday problem-solving, adolescents and adults tend to use intuitive thinking more than analytical thinking

Of the characteristics of family closeness, which two are generally helpful regardless of context?

communication and support

Tonya is just beginning to be comfortable with the fact that she is lesbian. She has begun the process of disclosure and coming out. Tonya is in the ___ stage of coming out.

tolerance

Darren is romantically attached to Melissa but he has no desire to have sex with her or with anyone else. Darren is likely to be

asexual

Compared to males, the dating script of females in adolescence tends to be

reactive

According to Savin-Williams' research, gay and lesbian adolescents tend to have ______ sexual experience than their heterosexual peers.

les

Dmitri didn't get invited to his friend Jason's party. He is upset but says to himself 'now I know what kind of a friend Jason is'. Dmitri is using the emotional skill of

reframing

In Arnett's study of ethnic differences in emerging adulthood, which group was most likely to say that they felt like adults

african americans

Which of the following is an example of 'epistemic space' in adolescent attachment relationships

Andrew is able to reflect on the positive and negative aspects of his relationship with his Dad

Ellie sees the teacher be really mean to her friend. She is very upset and wants to yell at the teacher but instead she calmly reports the incident to the principal. Ellie is using the emotional skill of

Managing strong emotions evoked by empathy

In Arnett's (2003) study of ethnic differences in emerging adulthood, which group of emerging adults emphasized complying with norms that encouraged good behavior towards others?

African-Americans, Asian-Americans and Latinos

In Arnett's (2003) study of ethnic differences in emerging adulthood, which of the following was seen as a marker of adulthood by most respondents in each of the groups?

independence

Harry's peer group like to cut class and party. Harry is rethinking this lifestyle and starting to pay more attention to class. To do so, he has to stand up to his friends. Which of Baxter Magolda's phases is he in?

becoming the author of your own ice

Lily feels that her professors know the right answers to life's questions?Where is she on Perry's scheme?

dualism

Barry thinks that since no authority has the right answer, everyone's opinion is equally right.?Where is he on Perry's scheme?

relativism

The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child's:

hypothalmus

Secondary sex characteristics are traits that:

are not directly related to fertility

For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:

nipple growth, the growth spurt, and menarche.

Compared with younger children, when thinking about historical or other serious problems adolescents tend to:

consider more possibilities

Which change contributes to an adolescent's lessening susceptibility toward respiratory infections?

the shrinkage of the lymphoid system

The term imaginary audience refers to adolescents':

the belief that everyone is watching their behavior and appearance

In general, adolescent egocentrism refers to the:

view that one is noticed by everyone

Over the last two centuries, children have reached their adult height earlier and are taller than their ancestors. What is the official name of this phenomenon?

secular trend

_____ contributes to the poor fit between adolescents' needs and the traditional structure of high schools.

large school size

The sequence of puberty hormone production that originates in the brain and ends with glands located atop the kidneys is known by the acronym:

HPA Axis

Which pair of nutrients is MOST likely to be lacking in the adolescent diet?

iron ad calcium

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably:

put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale.

One physical change that typically occurs during adolescence is that the child's

their heart doubles and size

Changes in primary sex characteristics include:

growth of uterus and the testes

For boys, the first ejaculation generally occurs:

following the growth of the penis

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a gut feeling is referred to as:

intuitive thought

Spreading insults and rumors by means of e-mails, text messages, or Web postings is called

cyberbullying

The organ that produces the hormones that stimulate the adrenal glands is the:

pituitary

Studies indicate that adolescents worldwide share this problem.

They are dissatisfied with their bodies

One of the first signs of the growth spurt is:

growth of fingers and toes

As the United States moves increasingly toward high-stakes testing:

other nations are moving away from it

Rachel and Matt are in their first year of middle school. Statistically, one would expect their academic achievement to:

decline

Janet and Carlos are both experiencing a growth spurt. If they are typical adolescents, compared with Janet will have _____ than Carlos.

higher proportion of body fat

Once the primary sexual organs begin to function, adolescents are biologically capable of:

reproduction

According to research conducted in 2011, which student is MOST likely to be admired during middle school?

Louisa, who uses marijuana and frequently finds herself in physical fights

Bill noticed that he has some pubic hair. According to the usual sequence of puberty, his next growth event will probably be:

his penis is growing longer and wider

Bottom-up reasoning is also referred to as ______ reasoning.

inductive reasoning

The first outward sign of puberty in a typical girl is:

the onset of nipple growth

All Christians believe in the Bible, and Josiah is a Christian; therefore Josiah believes in the Bible. This is an example of:

deductive reasoning

Research indicates that female children who experienced a great deal of _____ while very young also experienced early puberty.

stress

A strategy to increase student motivation in middle schools is to encourage a belief in:

the incremental approach to learning

One of the most prominent aspects of adolescent thought is the ability to:

think in terms of possibilities

Fifteen-year-old Latrina has a 10 P.M. curfew. She asks her parents to extend her curfew to 11 P.M. on weekends. When her parents ask her why, Latrina replies, "I've never been late for my 10 P.M. curfew. You can trust me. Can we at least give it a try?" This is an example of what kind of thinking?

analytical

Garry is taking a weight-lifting class in high school. The weights he lifts should

match his size from his previous year

During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically:

take on a temporary role and postpone making career decisions

Luis was raised to believe that he is intelligent, skilled, and protected by his family. During adolescence, he will most likely exhibit _____ in self-confidence.

a decrease

Which statement does NOT reflect how culture and gender influence drug use?

Cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs can impact development.

Seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voice their disapproval, he replies, "Whatever." Andrew's response indicates:

role confusion

In Western cultures the idea that a certain amount of adolescent rebellion is normal and perhaps even healthy reflects a:

social construction

Restrictive and controlling parenting practices are associated with:

adolescent depression

_____ expressed the belief that adolescents must rebel in order to become healthy adults.

Anna Freud

Enrique believes that males should always be the ones to ask females out on dates. He thinks that if a man accepts an invitation for a date from a girl it makes him a wimp. This is an example of Enrique's:

gender identity

One reason that the teenage pregnancy rate in most European nations is less than half of that in the United States may be because:

most European schools begin offering sex education in elementary school.

Peer pressure usually leads to:

socially desirable behaviors

Which statement about child sexual abuse has research shown to be false?

Most cases are reported to authorities, even if not all abusers are prosecuted.

The urge to conform to one's peers in behavior, dress, and attitude is referred to as:

peer pressure

According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and making no commitment is:

diffusion

Angel's parents wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel planned to do so. Then, at age 21, he decided to leave the business to study to be a priest. Angel resisted:

identity foreclosure

The cultural norm of familism often:

requires family members to make sacrifices for the good of the whole.

Barrett is serving a 2-year mission for his church at the age of 19. When he returns home from his mission assignment, he will decide whether or not to attend college and will make decisions about career and family. Barrett's current status is identity:

moratorium.

Identity diffusion is typically characterized by:

apathy

A father's awareness of where his teenagers are, what they are doing, and with whom they are doing it is referred to as:

parental monitoring

What is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

completed suicide

The urge to conform to one's peers in behavior, dress, and attitude is referred to as:

peer presuure

Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is

part of a warm, supportive, relationship

According to the text, which is NOT a possible reason for the decrease in juvenile criminal behavior?

lenient drug laws

Which developed nation has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy?

the United States

Gender refers to:

the cultural or social attributes of being male or female.

A young boy experienced ongoing sexual abuse until he was 15. Now that he is a grown man, it is likely that he:

is depressed and has difficulty with sex or other psychosocial problems.

One study found that the short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to increased rates of depression in all girls, but only in boys who:

come from low-SES backgrounds.

People's acceptance of the roles and behaviors that they define as male or female is referred to as their _____ identity.

gender

Identify the accurate statement about adolescent crime.

Virtually every adolescent boy has broken a law by the age of 21.

According to the text, which are two of the aspects of family closeness?

support and connectedness

Identity politics refers to the tendency to:

vote for people of one's own race, religion, ethnicity, or gender.

According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of:

identity versus role confusion

Life-course-persistent offenders:

may show signs of neurological impairment.

Peer pressure usually leads to

socially desirable behaviors

An adolescence-limited offender refers to someone who:

someone who stops committing crimes by the age of 21

Abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. This is an example of:

parental monitoring

In typical relationships, one would expect the MOST bickering between:

mothers and daughters

According to Erikson, what is one of the four aspects of identity?

political

All of the following are reasons why the adolescent suicide rate seems worse than it actually is EXCEPT?

The rate is higher than it has been in past decades.

_____ adolescents totally reject the religion in which they've grown up.

Few

The two most common drugs used by adolescents are:

tobacco and alcohol

In general, as children become adolescents, their self-esteem:

declines

Parasuicide refers to:

a suicide attempt that does not end in death.

On average, emerging adults today show _____ compared to older adults.

less prejudice overall

Which behavior is NOT due to the risk taking so common in emerging adulthood?

avoiding contact sports

Which statement about personality in emerging adulthood is true?

college success can improve one's personality

Talal is 23 and works in an entry-level sales position at a local company. If he is typical, in the next few years, he will:

change jobs more than once

Approximately what percentage of 18 to 25 year olds in the United States and Canada are of African, Latino, Asian, or Native American descent?

50

Delilah is currently a 22-year-old college student. Like most of her peers she believes that premarital sex is:

acceptable

According to Erikson, the stage of intimacy versus isolation:

reflects the desire to share one's life with someone else

According to Erikson, once an emerging adult has established a sense of identity, he or she needs to resolve which crisis?

intimacy versus isolation

Which BEST describes the 2008 data on interethnic marriage in the United States?

The official data underestimate the rate of such marriages.

The increased diversity of the college atmosphere encourages cognitive development. True or False

True

Identify the possible reaction to stereotype threat

the high school drop-out rate for African American males

Janel is a 19-year-old who has developed a fear of interacting with people, particularly in crowded or unfamiliar settings. She has been diagnosed with:

social anxiety disorders

Jordan is a freshman in college and is at the very beginning of Perry's scheme of cognitive development. He believes that:

authorities know what is right

About _____ percent of females with AIDS contracted it through rape.

20

Which phenomenon has contributed to the worldwide spread of sexually transmitted infections?

easy international travel

According to the text, the relatively low rate of interethnic marriages is attributable to:

bonding due to similarities, which occurs most often in one's own group

In which nation do most unmarried young adults live in their childhood home, regardless of economic circumstances?

Italy

During emerging adulthood, self-esteem and happiness _____ for most people.

increase

Recent research suggests that commitment to one career may _____ compared to vocational flexibility.

restrict vocational success

A longitudinal study showed that recent college graduates _____ in critical thinking, analysis, and communication as compared to graduates twenty years ago

made half the growth

Between the ages of 18 and 27, the average adult in the United States:

has had 8 jobs

Compared to college students 30 years ago, more students today are:

focusing on career preparation

According to recent research, agreement between parents and adult children regarding politics, religion, and controversial issues is MOST likely to be:

similar

Intimacy is the desire for:

social connection

Compared to 1970, today's college population in developed countries worldwide:

more diverse

Largely due to the sexual activities of young adults, _____ has become a worldwide epidemic in the past 20 years.

HIV

For most Western emerging adults, what is considered the primary prerequisite for marriage?

love

About _____ percent of all new cases of STIs worldwide occur in people under the age of 26.

50

The term massification means that:

college could benefit everyone

Patricia and Raul live together as a romantic couple, but they are not married. Their living arrangement is called:

cohabitation

EJ attends community college working on a degree in automotive technology. He plans to take a series of rigorous national exams in order to become a master technician. According to John Holland's six categories of people, EJ is MOST likely in the _____ category.

realistic

A shift from "problem solving" to "problem finding" reflects the development of:

post formal thought

According to the 2011 research conducted by Pryor et al, the number one reason more than 9 out of 10 U.S. students cite for selecting a major is based on:

getting a job

Statistically, which of these 20-year-olds would be the most likely to engage in extreme drinking?

Stanley, who is s college junior

Raul's family maintains a strong ethnic identity. To increase his chances of doing well in college he should:

resist both assimilation and alienation

When parents disagree with an emerging adult's choice of partner, the young adult in _____ will be MOST apt to stop dating that person.

China

In late adolescence and emerging adulthood, people are able to use both emotion and logic when grappling with personal and social problems; such thinking demonstrates _____ thought.

post formal

In 2008, members of which group were LEAST apt to marry someone of another ethnicity?

whites

GPSYCH 160 Test 3 - Subjecto.com

GPSYCH 160 Test 3

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For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is:

spermarche

In the twenty-first century, early puberty positively correlates with:

aggression and antisocial behavior in boys.

José enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. Which pair of influences will be MOST beneficial to him in reaching his full potential?

changes in myelination in his brain and the guidance of an experienced coach

Josefina is obsessed with her weight. She sometimes eats a whole package of Oreos at once and then makes herself vomit. Josefina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. She MOST likely suffers from:

bulimia nervosa

Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as, "Why can’t I have wine with dinner? You do." or "I don’t understand why I’ll be able to vote when I’m 18, but I have to wait until I’m 21 to buy alcohol!" This demonstrates Justine’s:

hypothetical thinking

Latisha experienced menarche when she was 8 years old. She experienced:

precocious puberty

Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating:

her belief in an imaginary audience

One reason adolescents’ nutritional habits may be poor is:

anxiety about their body image

Piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence:

Formal operational thought

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines:

Hypothetical thought

Research has shown that adolescents who drop out of high school are strongly influenced by their:

middle school experiences

Since adolescents’ prefrontal cortex is not fully developed, many of them tend NOT to:

exercise caution in most situations

Since adolescents regard themselves as uniquely special:

it is difficult for them to envision another person’s perspective.

The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes:

creates a developmental mismatch

What-if propositions require:

hypothetical thought

Some teenagers seem able to skate, play basketball, or dance for hours without rest. This increased endurance is best explained by:

the growth of the heart and lungs

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a gut feeling is referred to as:

intuitive thought

Which is NOT a challenge associated with vocational education at the secondary level in the United States?

Graduates of vocational programs earn less than students who do not attend them.

Which statement is correct?

There is a positive correlation between body fat and early onset of puberty.

Xavier, 16, invites a group of his high school friends to swim in a neighbor’s pool late at night while that neighbor is away. They climb the fence and jump in, playing wildly and loudly in the water. Just a few minutes later, the police arrive. How does adolescent brain development help explain Xavier’s poor decision making?

his prefrontal cortex is underdeveloped

During psychosocial development, the adolescent is trying to figure out:

"Who am I?"

During the fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who isn’t sure which role to adopt is said to be:

experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion.

It is typical for an adolescent experiencing __________ to sleep too much, care little about school, and be indifferent to parental criticism.

identity diffusion

In achieving full identity, an adolescent should understand his or her goals and values regarding:

religion and sex, politics and ethnicity and vocation

Today, vocational identity is postponed because:

many vocations require specialized skills that take years to develop

What is a gender role?

a pattern of behavior that society considers appropriate for only men or only women

Petty, peevish arguing that is usually ongoing is known as:

bickering

Adolescents are said to have closeness with family when:

there is open communication, support, emotional connectedness, and parental control.

"Facilitation," specifically in adolescent peer relationships, refers to the way that peers:

encourage each other to do things that most wouldn’t do on their own.

In the past 50 years, teen births have _____ in every nation.

decreased

According to Dunphy, the third event in the sequence of male-female relationships is:

small mixed-sex groups

Ten percent of heterosexual adults report having had same-sex encounters during their adolescence.

true or false

The best sex-education programs are those that:

start before high school, require parent-child communication, focus on behavior, and last for years.

The belief that family members should support one another, sacrificing individual freedom if necessary, is called:

familism

Serious depression among adolescents is:

more common in males than females

Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not. True or False

True

Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that:

Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that:

The best predictor of drug abuse in adulthood is:

drug use before 18

Which psychoactive drug used during adolescence inhibits growth and may result in the adolescent becoming a shorter and heavier adult?

tobacco

Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to:

drop out of school, become teenage parents, be unemployed

What is Erikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development?

identity versus role confusion

Understanding oneself based on past experiences and future plans is called ________, and lack of commitment to any goals or values is called __________.

Identity Achievement; role confusion

Erikson’s term for premature identity formation is:

foreclosure

Within which type of identity does society expect some debate and questioning during late adolescence?

religious identity

______ refers to a person’s self-definition as male or female, and _______ refers to a person’s erotic desires.

gender identity; sexual orientation

Parent and adolescent conflicts:

occur when a child’s drive for independence clashes with the parents’ supervision and control.

Parents’ ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom is called:

parental monitoring

Mr. Sanchez gives the car keys to his son and asks, "Who is going to the movies with you, and what time will you be home?" This questioning is an example of:

parental monitoring

Peer pressure or encouragement to conform to a friend’s behavior or fashion style:

can be positive

High school romances:

are short-lived, rarely lasting more than a year.

From 1991 to 2001, the rate of sexual activity among U.S. high school students:

decreased

In many nations of Africa and the Middle East, same-sex behaviors are considered:

criminal and psychological

Which immigrant youth seem to suffer from lower self-esteem than the other groups?

Asian

Research has shown that the dip in self-esteem during adolescence:

is experienced by both sexes

Two causes of depression in adolescence are:

genetics and having a mother who is often belligerent and disapproving.

Thinking about suicide is called _________, and a failed suicide is called __________.

suicide ideation; parasuicide

Early neurological impairments increase the risk of a child becoming a(n) _________, and a teen experiencing a negative psychosocial development is at greater risk of becoming a(n) ___________.

life-course-persistent offender; adolescence-limited offender

The only drug(s) used by more eighth-graders than twelfth-graders is

inhalants

The most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers is:

alcohol

Longitudinal research on marijuana use suggests that:

drug use causes more problems than it solves

Biologically, the years from 18 to 25 are the ideal time for:

physical work and successful reproduction

According to the text, the term used to describe a person between the ages of 18 and 25 is:

emerging adult

Approximately what percentage of young adults in the United States rate their health as good, very good, or excellent?

96

Young adults rarely die from

heart disease

In the United States, how many people in their mid-20s feel that premarital sex "is not wrong at all"?

53%

Half of all new cases of STIs occur in people:

younger than 26

Which of the following nations are making progress in its effort to halt AIDS

Brazil

The possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person’s prejudice is known as:

stereotype threat

Massification is the idea that establishing higher learning institutions and encouraging college enrollment could:

benefits everyone

In every developed nation, _____ of college students are female.

more than half

During which stage did Erikson believe that adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment?

intimacy versus isolation

Worldwide, emerging adults think about their identities in terms of:

politcial loyalties and religious commitments,

During late adolescence and early adulthood, people are _____ to be proud of their ethnic background

likely

Research reveals that personality is:

genetically influenced, environmentally influenced and not fixed; plascity is evident

In general, emerging adults experience:

increasing self-esteem

Severe anxiety and depression are not unusual during adolescence and emerging adulthood, especially for:

young women

Distorted thinking, lack of energy, and flat affect can all be signs of:

schizophrenia

After age _____, few people are newly diagnosed with schizophrenia.

30

In which of the following countries is cohabitation considered unusual?

Ireland

The period of emerging adulthood occurs between __________ years old.

18 and 25

According to your text, _____ percent of young adults in the United States rated their health as good, very good, or excellent.

95

According to the text, by age ____, the immune system can fight off just about everything from the sniffles to cancer.

20

Historically, most couples had their first child as teenagers, whereas now most women are having their first child at age _____.

25

Most people over age 65 think that premarital sex is:

wrong

What percentage of emerging adults has at least one sexually transmitted infection?

50

The leading cause of death for young men in South Africa is:

AIDS

Which of the following may be a destructive risk common in emerging adulthood?

driving fast without a seatbelt, carrying a loaded gun and abusing drugs

Forms of recreation that risk causing injury or death, and are attractive and thrilling as a result, are referred to as:

extreme sports

The possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person’s prejudices is:

stereotype threat

U.S. Census data confirm that a college degree adds about _____ per year to a worker’s salary.

20,000

College trends indicate that:

more girls than boys

Erikson’s fifth stage of development, identity versus role confusion, starts in adolescence and is completed:

during late adulthood

A longitudinal study found that students at four-year colleges were more likely to be involved in _____ than were students at two-year colleges.

extra-curricular activités

Personality patterns of adults are affected by:

cultural norms, social context and genetic continuity

Aggressive young adults:

rated themselves as quite conscientious

Social phobia is most likely to be diagnosed in women around age:

20

Which disorder is characterized by having irrational thoughts, delusions, and hallucinations?

schizophrenia

A commonality among intimate relationships is that they:

progress from attraction to close connection to ongoing commitment.

The idea that each of us enlarges our understanding, our experiences, and our resources through our intimate relationships is known as:

self-expanison

In his theory Piaget ____ young children and ____ older children.

underestimated; overestimated

The biological events that begin puberty are governed by the HPA and HPG axes. In these axis the hypothalamus sends a signal to the ___ gland.

pitutiary

Adolescents may have emotions that they have difficulty controlling because the growth of their _______ outpaces the growth of their ______ cortex.

Limbic system; prefrontal cortex

When faced with Piaget’s balance scale problem, people in formal operations are most likely to

figure out a rule for solving the problem by testing hypotheses

Adolescents who have reached formal operations show an increase in

hypothetical deductive reasoning

Adolescents (and others!) who text while driving, believing that it is not dangerous for them, even though it might be for others, are showing evidence of

invincibility fable

Kayleigh joined the same sorority that her mother and grandmother joined. She says ‘its just what we do’ Kayleigh is showing evidence of

identity foreclosure

Diana is 16 years old. She is really not sure what she believes in. When she is asked she says ‘I’m only 16, I don’t have to think about that stuff’. Diana’s identity status can be described as

identity diffused

Jacob broke his eyeglasses. The temporary ones he got are geeky. He refuses to go to school saying ‘everyone will be looking at me’. Jacob is demonstrating the feature of adolescent egocentrism known as

the imaginary audience

Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget’s theory of formal operations?

In everyday problem-solving, adolescents and adults tend to use intuitive thinking more than analytical thinking

Of the characteristics of family closeness, which two are generally helpful regardless of context?

communication and support

Tonya is just beginning to be comfortable with the fact that she is lesbian. She has begun the process of disclosure and coming out. Tonya is in the ___ stage of coming out.

tolerance

Darren is romantically attached to Melissa but he has no desire to have sex with her or with anyone else. Darren is likely to be

asexual

Compared to males, the dating script of females in adolescence tends to be

reactive

According to Savin-Williams’ research, gay and lesbian adolescents tend to have ______ sexual experience than their heterosexual peers.

les

Dmitri didn’t get invited to his friend Jason’s party. He is upset but says to himself ‘now I know what kind of a friend Jason is’. Dmitri is using the emotional skill of

reframing

In Arnett’s study of ethnic differences in emerging adulthood, which group was most likely to say that they felt like adults

african americans

Which of the following is an example of ‘epistemic space’ in adolescent attachment relationships

Andrew is able to reflect on the positive and negative aspects of his relationship with his Dad

Ellie sees the teacher be really mean to her friend. She is very upset and wants to yell at the teacher but instead she calmly reports the incident to the principal. Ellie is using the emotional skill of

Managing strong emotions evoked by empathy

In Arnett’s (2003) study of ethnic differences in emerging adulthood, which group of emerging adults emphasized complying with norms that encouraged good behavior towards others?

African-Americans, Asian-Americans and Latinos

In Arnett’s (2003) study of ethnic differences in emerging adulthood, which of the following was seen as a marker of adulthood by most respondents in each of the groups?

independence

Harry’s peer group like to cut class and party. Harry is rethinking this lifestyle and starting to pay more attention to class. To do so, he has to stand up to his friends. Which of Baxter Magolda’s phases is he in?

becoming the author of your own ice

Lily feels that her professors know the right answers to life’s questions?Where is she on Perry’s scheme?

dualism

Barry thinks that since no authority has the right answer, everyone’s opinion is equally right.?Where is he on Perry’s scheme?

relativism

The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child’s:

hypothalmus

Secondary sex characteristics are traits that:

are not directly related to fertility

For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:

nipple growth, the growth spurt, and menarche.

Compared with younger children, when thinking about historical or other serious problems adolescents tend to:

consider more possibilities

Which change contributes to an adolescent’s lessening susceptibility toward respiratory infections?

the shrinkage of the lymphoid system

The term imaginary audience refers to adolescents’:

the belief that everyone is watching their behavior and appearance

In general, adolescent egocentrism refers to the:

view that one is noticed by everyone

Over the last two centuries, children have reached their adult height earlier and are taller than their ancestors. What is the official name of this phenomenon?

secular trend

_____ contributes to the poor fit between adolescents’ needs and the traditional structure of high schools.

large school size

The sequence of puberty hormone production that originates in the brain and ends with glands located atop the kidneys is known by the acronym:

HPA Axis

Which pair of nutrients is MOST likely to be lacking in the adolescent diet?

iron ad calcium

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably:

put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale.

One physical change that typically occurs during adolescence is that the child’s

their heart doubles and size

Changes in primary sex characteristics include:

growth of uterus and the testes

For boys, the first ejaculation generally occurs:

following the growth of the penis

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a gut feeling is referred to as:

intuitive thought

Spreading insults and rumors by means of e-mails, text messages, or Web postings is called

cyberbullying

The organ that produces the hormones that stimulate the adrenal glands is the:

pituitary

Studies indicate that adolescents worldwide share this problem.

They are dissatisfied with their bodies

One of the first signs of the growth spurt is:

growth of fingers and toes

As the United States moves increasingly toward high-stakes testing:

other nations are moving away from it

Rachel and Matt are in their first year of middle school. Statistically, one would expect their academic achievement to:

decline

Janet and Carlos are both experiencing a growth spurt. If they are typical adolescents, compared with Janet will have _____ than Carlos.

higher proportion of body fat

Once the primary sexual organs begin to function, adolescents are biologically capable of:

reproduction

According to research conducted in 2011, which student is MOST likely to be admired during middle school?

Louisa, who uses marijuana and frequently finds herself in physical fights

Bill noticed that he has some pubic hair. According to the usual sequence of puberty, his next growth event will probably be:

his penis is growing longer and wider

Bottom-up reasoning is also referred to as ______ reasoning.

inductive reasoning

The first outward sign of puberty in a typical girl is:

the onset of nipple growth

All Christians believe in the Bible, and Josiah is a Christian; therefore Josiah believes in the Bible. This is an example of:

deductive reasoning

Research indicates that female children who experienced a great deal of _____ while very young also experienced early puberty.

stress

A strategy to increase student motivation in middle schools is to encourage a belief in:

the incremental approach to learning

One of the most prominent aspects of adolescent thought is the ability to:

think in terms of possibilities

Fifteen-year-old Latrina has a 10 P.M. curfew. She asks her parents to extend her curfew to 11 P.M. on weekends. When her parents ask her why, Latrina replies, "I’ve never been late for my 10 P.M. curfew. You can trust me. Can we at least give it a try?" This is an example of what kind of thinking?

analytical

Garry is taking a weight-lifting class in high school. The weights he lifts should

match his size from his previous year

During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically:

take on a temporary role and postpone making career decisions

Luis was raised to believe that he is intelligent, skilled, and protected by his family. During adolescence, he will most likely exhibit _____ in self-confidence.

a decrease

Which statement does NOT reflect how culture and gender influence drug use?

Cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs can impact development.

Seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voice their disapproval, he replies, "Whatever." Andrew’s response indicates:

role confusion

In Western cultures the idea that a certain amount of adolescent rebellion is normal and perhaps even healthy reflects a:

social construction

Restrictive and controlling parenting practices are associated with:

adolescent depression

_____ expressed the belief that adolescents must rebel in order to become healthy adults.

Anna Freud

Enrique believes that males should always be the ones to ask females out on dates. He thinks that if a man accepts an invitation for a date from a girl it makes him a wimp. This is an example of Enrique’s:

gender identity

One reason that the teenage pregnancy rate in most European nations is less than half of that in the United States may be because:

most European schools begin offering sex education in elementary school.

Peer pressure usually leads to:

socially desirable behaviors

Which statement about child sexual abuse has research shown to be false?

Most cases are reported to authorities, even if not all abusers are prosecuted.

The urge to conform to one’s peers in behavior, dress, and attitude is referred to as:

peer pressure

According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and making no commitment is:

diffusion

Angel’s parents wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel planned to do so. Then, at age 21, he decided to leave the business to study to be a priest. Angel resisted:

identity foreclosure

The cultural norm of familism often:

requires family members to make sacrifices for the good of the whole.

Barrett is serving a 2-year mission for his church at the age of 19. When he returns home from his mission assignment, he will decide whether or not to attend college and will make decisions about career and family. Barrett’s current status is identity:

moratorium.

Identity diffusion is typically characterized by:

apathy

A father’s awareness of where his teenagers are, what they are doing, and with whom they are doing it is referred to as:

parental monitoring

What is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

completed suicide

The urge to conform to one’s peers in behavior, dress, and attitude is referred to as:

peer presuure

Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is

part of a warm, supportive, relationship

According to the text, which is NOT a possible reason for the decrease in juvenile criminal behavior?

lenient drug laws

Which developed nation has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy?

the United States

Gender refers to:

the cultural or social attributes of being male or female.

A young boy experienced ongoing sexual abuse until he was 15. Now that he is a grown man, it is likely that he:

is depressed and has difficulty with sex or other psychosocial problems.

One study found that the short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to increased rates of depression in all girls, but only in boys who:

come from low-SES backgrounds.

People’s acceptance of the roles and behaviors that they define as male or female is referred to as their _____ identity.

gender

Identify the accurate statement about adolescent crime.

Virtually every adolescent boy has broken a law by the age of 21.

According to the text, which are two of the aspects of family closeness?

support and connectedness

Identity politics refers to the tendency to:

vote for people of one’s own race, religion, ethnicity, or gender.

According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of:

identity versus role confusion

Life-course-persistent offenders:

may show signs of neurological impairment.

Peer pressure usually leads to

socially desirable behaviors

An adolescence-limited offender refers to someone who:

someone who stops committing crimes by the age of 21

Abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. This is an example of:

parental monitoring

In typical relationships, one would expect the MOST bickering between:

mothers and daughters

According to Erikson, what is one of the four aspects of identity?

political

All of the following are reasons why the adolescent suicide rate seems worse than it actually is EXCEPT?

The rate is higher than it has been in past decades.

_____ adolescents totally reject the religion in which they’ve grown up.

Few

The two most common drugs used by adolescents are:

tobacco and alcohol

In general, as children become adolescents, their self-esteem:

declines

Parasuicide refers to:

a suicide attempt that does not end in death.

On average, emerging adults today show _____ compared to older adults.

less prejudice overall

Which behavior is NOT due to the risk taking so common in emerging adulthood?

avoiding contact sports

Which statement about personality in emerging adulthood is true?

college success can improve one’s personality

Talal is 23 and works in an entry-level sales position at a local company. If he is typical, in the next few years, he will:

change jobs more than once

Approximately what percentage of 18 to 25 year olds in the United States and Canada are of African, Latino, Asian, or Native American descent?

50

Delilah is currently a 22-year-old college student. Like most of her peers she believes that premarital sex is:

acceptable

According to Erikson, the stage of intimacy versus isolation:

reflects the desire to share one’s life with someone else

According to Erikson, once an emerging adult has established a sense of identity, he or she needs to resolve which crisis?

intimacy versus isolation

Which BEST describes the 2008 data on interethnic marriage in the United States?

The official data underestimate the rate of such marriages.

The increased diversity of the college atmosphere encourages cognitive development. True or False

True

Identify the possible reaction to stereotype threat

the high school drop-out rate for African American males

Janel is a 19-year-old who has developed a fear of interacting with people, particularly in crowded or unfamiliar settings. She has been diagnosed with:

social anxiety disorders

Jordan is a freshman in college and is at the very beginning of Perry’s scheme of cognitive development. He believes that:

authorities know what is right

About _____ percent of females with AIDS contracted it through rape.

20

Which phenomenon has contributed to the worldwide spread of sexually transmitted infections?

easy international travel

According to the text, the relatively low rate of interethnic marriages is attributable to:

bonding due to similarities, which occurs most often in one’s own group

In which nation do most unmarried young adults live in their childhood home, regardless of economic circumstances?

Italy

During emerging adulthood, self-esteem and happiness _____ for most people.

increase

Recent research suggests that commitment to one career may _____ compared to vocational flexibility.

restrict vocational success

A longitudinal study showed that recent college graduates _____ in critical thinking, analysis, and communication as compared to graduates twenty years ago

made half the growth

Between the ages of 18 and 27, the average adult in the United States:

has had 8 jobs

Compared to college students 30 years ago, more students today are:

focusing on career preparation

According to recent research, agreement between parents and adult children regarding politics, religion, and controversial issues is MOST likely to be:

similar

Intimacy is the desire for:

social connection

Compared to 1970, today’s college population in developed countries worldwide:

more diverse

Largely due to the sexual activities of young adults, _____ has become a worldwide epidemic in the past 20 years.

HIV

For most Western emerging adults, what is considered the primary prerequisite for marriage?

love

About _____ percent of all new cases of STIs worldwide occur in people under the age of 26.

50

The term massification means that:

college could benefit everyone

Patricia and Raul live together as a romantic couple, but they are not married. Their living arrangement is called:

cohabitation

EJ attends community college working on a degree in automotive technology. He plans to take a series of rigorous national exams in order to become a master technician. According to John Holland’s six categories of people, EJ is MOST likely in the _____ category.

realistic

A shift from "problem solving" to "problem finding" reflects the development of:

post formal thought

According to the 2011 research conducted by Pryor et al, the number one reason more than 9 out of 10 U.S. students cite for selecting a major is based on:

getting a job

Statistically, which of these 20-year-olds would be the most likely to engage in extreme drinking?

Stanley, who is s college junior

Raul’s family maintains a strong ethnic identity. To increase his chances of doing well in college he should:

resist both assimilation and alienation

When parents disagree with an emerging adult’s choice of partner, the young adult in _____ will be MOST apt to stop dating that person.

China

In late adolescence and emerging adulthood, people are able to use both emotion and logic when grappling with personal and social problems; such thinking demonstrates _____ thought.

post formal

In 2008, members of which group were LEAST apt to marry someone of another ethnicity?

whites

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