Govt Exam 2

What was the greatest fear of the Anti-Federalists during the Constitutional Convention and subsequent debate?

That a strong national government would infringe on the essential liberties of the people.

The "Intolerable Acts" was the colonists' name for the ______ Acts of 1774.

Coercive

Which of the following best describes the Constitutional Convention?

The convention was secretive.

Which of the following specifies the procedure for amending the Constitution?

Article V

Which of the following remains a compelling source for determining the intent of the Framers?

The Federalist papers

Which constitutional amendment allowed voting for citizens who were eighteen or older?

Twenty-sixth

What was the subject of the Great Compromise?

The form of the legislative branch

Which of the following was a powerful economic group during the colonial era?

New England merchants

What is the principle that each branch of the federal government has the means to thwart or influence actions by other branches of government?

Checks and balances

Article III of the Constitution permits Congress to establish lower national courts

True

Which plan called for a one-house legislature and multi-person executive?

The New Jersey Plan

Which of the following can be found in Article 1?

Necessary and proper clause

Who was the author of the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

In the United States, the national government derives its power from which of the following?

Citizens

The U.S. Constitution was adopted in response to the weakness of the Articles of _____

Confederation

A constitution is a written document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government

True

Which of the following was a problem under the Articles of Confederation?

Citizens lacked a national identity.

Jackie attends a protest against animal testing. Which of the following secures her right to attend this protest?

Bill of Rights

The Committees of _____ were used by colonists to keep each other abreast of developments with the British

Correspondence

Which of the following was part of both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution?

Congress

Which of the following is a method of ratification for a constitutional amendment?

By three-fourths of the state legislatures

In what year was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?

1791

The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state?

True

As depicted in Figure 2.1 What are the Separation of Powers and How Do Checks and Balances Work Under the U.S. Constitution?, the executive branch is in charge of which of the following?

Making foreign treaties

The Anti-Federalists strongly supported the Bill of Rights?

True

______ is an economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade.

Mercantilism

The Constitution was ratified in 1776

False

The main weakness of the Articles of Confederation was the lack of a strong national government?

True

The Three-Fifths Compromise specified that only three-fifths of slaves could vote.

False

In what year was the Declaration of Independence signed?

1776

Which government entity has the power to settle disputes between the states?

Supreme Court

Article IV of the constitution requires Ohio to honor an adoption that took place in California

True

Which of the following is a reason for the separation of powers?

To prevent tyranny by any one branch

The publication of which of the following galvanized the colonists' belief that reconciliation with Great Britain was impossible?

Common Sense

Which of the following was most likely to support proposed provisions that strengthened national power?

James Madison

The First Continental Congress was a response to which of the following?

Coercive Acts

The New Jersey Plan proposed a powerful central government with three branches

False

Under the Articles of Confederation, the federal government had broad power to levy taxes

False

Which of the following generally opposed the idea of a strong national government because it would take power away from the states and would tax heavily

Anti-Federalists

Which of the following were most likely to oppose the proposed Constitution

Farmers

Mercantilism is an economic theory designed to increase wealth through the development of

Industry

______ is an economic theory designed to increase a nations wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade

Mercantilism

At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates agreed that slaves would be counted as_____ of a person for determining population for representation in the House of Representatives

Three-fifths

The Anti-Federalists strongly supported the Bill of Rights

True

As described by Table 2.1 How do the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution Compare to One Another?, the Articles of Confederation did not include an executive

True

The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state

True

In what year was the Constitution ratified?

1788

Which Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence?

Second

Generally, smaller states wanted to strengthen the Articles of Confederation, rather than replace them.

True

Aside from the First Amendment, what portion of the U.S. constitution deals with the relationship between the state and religion

Article VI

What did supporters of the New Jersey Plan want to do with the Articles of Confederation?

Strengthen them

Which of the following were most likely to oppose the proposed Constitution?

Farmers

Which of the following can be found in Article I?

Necessary and proper clause

Which of the following required all paper items in the colonies to carry a stamp of the Crown?

Stamp Act

During the colonial era, the colonists retained the right to do which of the following?

Levy taxes

What type of legislature did the United States have under the Articles of Confederation?

Unicameral

A ______ is one tactic to signal the leadership that a Senate member may have objections to a bill

Hold

Legislators typically eschew casework, as it is burdensome to the staff and emphasizes benefits for individuals over the good of the whole district

False

A conference committee is comprised of members from the House and Senate committees that originally considered the bill.

True

In the even of a major scandal, which kind of committee would be convened to conduct a special investigation?

A joint committee

What can be inferred from the current demographic composition of the Senate?

Senate members tend to be wealthier than their House Counterparts

Congressional whips serve what main function?

Persuade party members to toe the party line.

In the House of Representatives, the _____ decides who will speak on the floor, and rules on points of order

Speaker

The president pro tempore_____

Is an honorific office awarded to the senior senator of the majority party

The ____ is where congressional Democrats gather to select their leadership at the beginning of each term

Party caucus

Over the past century, partisal polarization has ____ along with ____.

Increase; income inequality

What is the typical trajectory of a bill in the House of Representatives?

Introduction, committee referral, subcommittee, full committee report, rules committee, full House vote, conference committee, send to president.

Which is an example of logrolling in Congress?

Supporting a bill in exchange for support of one's own bill

The necessary and proper clause allows Congress to increase the scope of its authority

True

What is the trajectory of a bill in the Senate?

Introduction, committee referral, subcommittee, full committee report, full Senate debate and vote, conference committee, and send to president

How might a bill become law if it has been pocket vetoes?

The bill must be reintroduced in the next session of Congress.

What demonstrates the Founders' desire to insulate the Senate from popular displeasure?

Terms of six years, with one-third of seats open for election every two years

The House minority leader____

is elected by the minority party

Each state has ____ senators elected every ____ years.

Two, six

Which statement is true of the House of Representatives?

Members are elected every two years and apportioned to states based on population

One example of the Fermers' intent to insulate the Senate from the tyranny of the majority was to _____.

Have members appointed by their respective state legislatures.

____ are rules created by government agencies that determine how laws are implemented

Regulations

The largest organizational unit in the federal bureaucracy is a(n)_____

department

How are federal workfoce similar to policy coordinating committees?

Both coordinate the activities of multiple agencies

Under our constitutional system, the president has the authority to ____

Make changes in an agency's annual budget proposals

Over the course of the twentieth century, the federal government has grown considerably in response to the need for new government agencies

True

How has government spending changed over the past fifty years?

The government now pays for a larger portion of its spending by borrowing.

Which law designates the steps that federal agencies must follow in issuing rules and regulations?

The Administrative Procedures Act

The Administrative Procedures Act states that agencies must take what step before issuing new rules and regulations?

They must solicit public comments

_____ refers to the authority of administrators in the federal bureaucracy to make choices concerning the best way to implement policies

Discretion

How does Congress exercise control over agencies and department in the federal bureaucracy?

By confirming appointees to key positions in federal agencies

The Hatch Act prohibits federal employees from engaging in what activity?

Running for elected office

When the law requires an agency to conduct a formal hearing before issuing rules, what effect does this have on the agency's rule-making procedure?

The courts tend to give greater deference to agency decisions

How does the president exercise control over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?

By nominating federal appointees

The Environmental Protection Agency is subject to less congressional and presidential oversight than the U.S. Department of Agriculture

False

Why did President Franklin D. Roosevelt create hundreds of new government agencies?

To regulate business practices and various aspects of the national economy

Max Weber identified which of the following as a characteristic of bureaucracy?

Task specialization

What event served as a catalyst for the creation of the Pendleton Act?

The assassination of James Garfield in 1881

Under what circumstance might a president set up a policy coordinating committee (PSC)?

When various agencies need to work together to ensure consistent policies

Which of the following was a consqeuence of the spoils, or patronage, system?

The federal bureaucracy was staffed with people who lacked expertise.

One purpose of the Administrative Procedures Act is to _____

Ensure opportunities for public participation in the rule-making process.

Courts established by Congress for specialized purposes, such as the Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims Law, are known as ____ courts.

Legislative

Which of the following is an opinion written by a justice in the majority that outlines additional considerations he or she thinks are important?

Concurring

Which of the following is within the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?

Controversies between the states

Of the 112 justices who have served on the U.S. Supreme Court, the overwhelming majority have been of which faith?

Protestant

How many justices currently serve on the Supreme Court?

Nine

According to the box "Who Are Federal Judges?", recent presidents have used judicial appointments to increase the ______ of the individuals seving at the highest levels of the U.S. government and to curry favor with traditionally underrepresented groups.

Diversity

Courts provide a statement of the legal reasoning behind their decisions in written ______.

Opinions

In which courts are the vast majority of all cases tried?

State

Following oral arguments, the justices father for a _____, during which they discuss the case and cast preliminary votes.

Conference

The selection of federal judges is a highly political process.

True

When the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a case appealed to it from a circuit court, it is exercisint its ______ jurisdiction.

appellate

For a case to be heard in the Supreme Court, a minimum of how many justices must vote to hear the case?

Four

According to Figure 9.1 How is the American Judicial System Structure?, there are currently how many U.S. district courts?

94

The U.S. courts of appeals are divided into _____ numbered circuits and two unnumbered circuits.

Eleven

Only a(n)_____ court can review the decisions of a lower court.

Appellate

In wich of the following cases did the Supreme Court first claim the right of judicial review?

Marbury v. Madison

How many tiers does the federal judiciary have?

Three

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit is a constitutional court

True

What is the name given to the power of the courts to interpret, and overturn, the actions of the executive and legislative branches?

Judicial review

To which of the following does Article III give the power to create inferior federal courts?

Congress

Federal judges are appointed to _____ terms.

Life

What are the two types of jurisdiction courts can have?

Original and appellate

Rotating three-judge panels decided cases in the federal courts of appeals?

True

Which of the following is the authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in a particular case?

Jurisdiction

Strict constructionists believe that the Constitution should be interpreted in light of modern values?

False

In which federal courts are trials conducted?

District

A dissenting opinion is written by a justice who agrees with the decision of the majority, but disagrees with the rationale.

False

How and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual policy is known as which of the following?

Judicial implementation

When the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a case appealed to it from a circuit court, it is exercising its ______ jurisdiction.

Appellate

The authority to be the first court to hear a case is which type of jurisdiction?

Original

All federal judicial nominations are first referred to which of the following for a hearing?

Senate Judiciary Committee

Which Article of the Constitution created the federal judiciary?

Article III

Which of the following represents the federal government in the Supreme Court?

Solicitor general

The United States has a dual system of justice

True

Proponents of which of the following believe that judges should use their power broadly to further justice?

Judicial activism

Which of the following is the authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in a particular case?

Jurisdiction

According to Figure 9.1, How is the American Judicial System Structured?, which of the following has no original jurisdiction?

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

The conference of the U.S. Supreme Court is ______.

Limited to the justices themselves

Which of the following nominates U.S. federal judges?

President

Who presides over trials for presidential impeachment?

Chief justice of the Supreme Court

Through 2012, only _____ African Americans and four women have served on the Supreme Court.

Two

In a process known as ______, presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block the nomination.

Senatorial courtesy

The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the federal circuit courts and district courts.

True

In court rulings,reliance on past decisions to formulate decisions in new cases is known as which of the following?

Stare decisis

Which of the following can modify a decision of the Supreme Court?

Constitutional amendment

When the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a case appealed to it from a circuit court, it is exercising its ______ jurisdiction

Appelate

When a case is granted review in an appellate court, the parties submit written _______ presenting their arguments.

Briefs

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit is a constitutional court.

True

_______, President Nixon, and President Reagan achieved success in molding the federal judiciary to their own political beliefs.

President Roosevelt

The selection of federal judges is a highly political process

True

According to Table 9.2, How Does a President Affect the Federal Judiciary?, which of the following presidents had the greatest influence on the composition of the federal judiciary?

Clinton

How many courts of appeals are in the federal system?

Thirteen

The U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims is an example of which type of court?

Legislative

In 1987, the Senate refused to confirm the nomination of which of the following to the Supreme Court?

Robert Bork

Which of the following limits judicial power?

Stare decisis/precedent

Who heads the entire federal judiciary?

The chief justice of the Supreme Court

A(n)________ brief is submitted by someone who is not a party to the case.

amicus curiae

A writ of ______ is a request submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court to review a lower court decision.

certiorari

Which of the following philosophers greatly influenced the colonists views on the role of government?

John Locke

The New Jersey Plan proposed a powerful central government with three branches.

False

The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state.

True

How many of the thirteen colonies voted for independence?

Twelve

Article III of the Constitution permits Congress to establish lower national courts.

True

The Stamp Act was a major catalyst for the American revolution

True

In the United States, the national government derives its power from which of the following?

Citizens

The Three-Fifths Compromise specified that only three-fifths of slaves could vote

False

In the House of Representatives, the _____ decides who will speak on the floor, and rules on points of order.

Speaker

The House minority leader______.

Is elected by the minority party

On average, each member of the House represents _____ voters.

700,000

What best explains the overwhelming advantage incumbents possess in seeking reelection over opposition candidates?

name recognition, access to media, and franking privilege

Appropriation committees help determine the programs that will be funded, while authorizations committees determine the amount of monies to be distributed.

False

How are committee chairs selected in the House?

Interviews to determine party loyalty

Charged with the responsibility to _____, the _____ is almost certainly the most powerful committee in either chamber of Congress

Grant and set procedural rules, House Committee on Rules

"Pork" legislation may aid the district of a member of Congress by _____.

Increasing jobs and revenue with federally funded projects.

A _____ is a special committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and senate

Conference committee

A lobbyist for the NRA would be most effective when targeting a legislator _____.

Whose voting behavior supports gun control

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between Congress and the Judiciary?

Congress must be increasingly mindful of the Supreme Court's reaction when it enacts new laws for the nation.

How have Americans rated members of Congress in recent years?

Individual members of Congress rate slightly higher than Congress as a whole, but approval ratings are at an all-time low.

Each state has ____ senators elected every _____ years.

Two, six

The Framers made Congress a bicameral body because they were concerned that too strong a legislative branch would lead to tyranny.

True

The use of _____ in foreign matters is an example of the president acting as a global leader.

Executive agreements

Congress can remove a president through _____.

Impeachment

In which way to modern presidents differ from the original intentions of the Framers of the Constitution?

Modern presidents are much more influential in the legislative process than the Framers originally intended.

What does the Twenty- Second Amendment do?

Requires that presidents serve only two terms

How does the White House staff differ from the president's Cabinet?

The white house staff has greater access to and more influence on the president than the Cabinet.

Which group's major function is to help presidents execute laws and make decisions?

The Cabinet

Which of the following statements best describes contemporary relationships between presidents and Congress?

They are generally antagonistic.

What role was Thomas Jefferson performing as president when he made the Louisiana Purchase?

Chief executive

Congress has the sole authority to declare war.

True

How might rallying events affect presidential politics?

Rallying events tend to temporarily increase presidential approval ratings, providing windows of opportunity to press for action on their agendas.

What is the purpose of the Council of Economic Advisers?

To advise the president on economic policy

Historically, vice-presidential candidates are chosen to _____.

Politically balance the ticket.

Which one of the powers listed below is a constitutional power that the president shares with the Senate?

Making treaties

President Gerald R. Ford was able to pardon President Richard M. Nixon to release him from impeachment.

False

Refer to Figure 7.1. Historically, presidents begin their terms of office with higher approval ratings and tend to lose popularity over time

True

The president may grant pardons to anyone convicted of a federal crime for any reason

True

What was the turning point that gave rise to the modern institutional presidency?

The economic and social turmoil of the Great Depression

Why does the perception of a mandate matter in presidential politics?

Because modern presidents are more dependent on the people for election and more involved in policy making than early presidents, they are prone to claim the mandate of the people when governing.

How has the office of vice president changed over the years?

The vice president has been more involved in the policy-making process in recent years than in the past.

Which of the following leadership abilities is critical to presidential success?

The ability to persuade members of Congress and the American public

What function is the National Labor Relations board carrying out when it settles disputes between labor and management on federal labor laws?

Adjudicating/engaging in quasi-judicial processes

What factor was influential in driving expansion of the federal bureaucracy in the post-Civil War era?

The growing incidence of price fixing and other unfair business practices

According to Figure 8.1, when did the largest growth in the federal workforce occur?

During World War II.

Before 1883, how were government jobs awarded?

Jobs were awarded based on applicants' loyalty to the party in power.

One purpose of the Administrative Procedures Act is to _____.

Ensure opportunities for public participation in the rule-making process

How does Congress exercise control over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?

By confirming appointees to key positions in federal agencies.

_____ are rules created by government agencies that determine how laws are implemented.

Regulations

Independent regulatory commissions differ from independent agencies in that they are less subject to presidential control.

True

Under the spoils system, who was awarded jobs in the federal bureaucracy?

Those who helped candidates win election

Which of the following was a consequence of the spoils, or patronage system?

The federal bureaucracy was staffed with people who lacked expertise.

How do government corporations differ from private companies?

Government corporations perform activities that private companies cannot.

As noted in Table 8.1, according to the Hatch Act, federal employees may make campaign speeches for candidates in partisan elections

False

How did the Pendelton Act reform the system of hiring and firing federal employees?

It required hiring and firing decisions to be based on merit rather than partisan loyalty.

Cabinet secretaries are appointed by _____ and confirmed by _____.

The president; the Senate

While the president has the authority to appoint and remove agency heads and other top bureaucrats, Congress has the authority to _____.

Refuse to appropriate funds for certain programs

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an example of a government corporation.

True

What is implementation?

The process by which a law or policy is put into practice

What is the major purpose of an independent regulatory commission?

To regulate commerce

In which court do cases generally begin?

Trial

A dissenting opinion is written by a justice who agrees with the decision of the majority, but disagrees with the rational.

False

The _____ Act of 1789 established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system.

Judiciary

Article III specifies the powers of the Supreme Court

True

According to Marbury v. Madison, which clause implies the power of judicial review?

Supremacy

Of the fifty-five delegates who attended some portion of the Constitutional Convention, how many ultimately signed it?

Thirty-nine

Aside from the First Amendment, what portion of the U.S. Constitution deals with the relationship between the state and religion?

Article VI

A constitution is a written document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government?

True

_____ is an economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade.

Mercantilism

The Stamp Act was a major catalyst for the American Revolution.

True

Under the Constitution, the president is elected by which of the following?

Electoral College

In what year was the U.S. Constitution ratified?

1788

The Constitution was ratified in 1776.

False

As depicted in Figure 2.1, What are the separation of powers and how do checks and balances work under the U.S. Constitution?, the executive branch is in charge of which of the following?

Making foreign treaties

The U.S. Constitution was adopted in response to the weaknesses of the Articles of _____.

Confederation

What advantage does a subcommittee offer the legislative process?

Greater division of labor

A bill goes through a markup in a full committee after a subcommittee votes in favor of it.

True

Charged with the responsibility to _____, the _____ is almost certainly the most powerful committee in Congress.

Grant and set procedural rules, House Committee on Rules

Over the past century, partisan polarization has _____ along with _____.

Increase; income inequality

Which statement about incumbency is most accurate?

Incumbents have a huge advantage in reelection.

_____ is a good example of Congressional case work.

Assistance to a constituent in obtaining a Social Security check.

According to the trustee model of representation, legislators are _____.

Trusted by their constituents because they are natives of their home districts.

What occurs at a congressional party conference?

Republicans meet to select leaders and determine objectives

The increasing partisanship and productivity of Congress have contributed to lower approval ratings in recent years.

True

Members of Congress differ from the larger American population in they are disproportionately _____.

White, upper-middle-class, middle-aged, and male

The president may grant pardons to anyone convicted of a federal crime for any reason.

True

Based on what you know about election history, what is the most likely reason Senator John McCain chose Governor Palin as his running mate in 2008?

Palin was more conservative that McCain.

In which institutional resource are leaders both appointed by the president and approved by the Senate?

The Cabinet

Which of the following statements best characterizes the nature of the conflict between presidents and Congress?

The conflict is integral to the design of the Constitution, deliberately intended by the authors of the constitution.

Which presidential power gives the president the ability to control what happens inside departments and agencies during their terms and to shape the federal judiciary (including the Supreme Court) far into the future?

Appointment

Presidents with high levels of _____ have an easier time influencing Congress, while those with low levels find influence more difficult.

Public approval

Why is there the potential for conflict over virtually all aspects of government?

All constitutional powers are shared.

What has to happen in Congress before the president can be impeached?

The House can impeach the president by a simple majority; the Senate needs a two-thirds majority.

When a bill is sent to Congress, the president is not allowed to encourage specific members of Congress to vote for the bill.

False

When might citizens be particularly concerned about an expansion of presidential power?

When they oppose the president's agenda.

Why was the War Powers Resolution (1973) adopted by Congress?

To reinvigorate the role of Congress in the conduct of war.

Which presidential oversight includes the Senate of the Union address?

The president must inform and convene Congress.

How might presidents use their powers of persuasion in the legislative process?

In leading public opinion to support their policy agendas.

Which of these became an official presidential qualification in 1951?

A maximum of two terms

What is the role of the National Security Council?

To advise the president on national security

Each independent agency in the executive branch is headed by a Cabinet secretary.

False

Which law designates the steps that federal agencies must follow in issuing rules and regulations

The Administrative Procedures Act

Max Weber identified which of the following as a characteristic of a bureaucracy?

Task specialization

According to Max Weber, bureaucracies are characterized by hierarchical authority structures.

True

When would Congress be most likely to allow a federal agency significant discretion in rule-making?

Following the passage of a law dealing with specialist issues.

How do independent regulatory commissions differ from independent agencies?

Commissioners are more difficult to remove from office than agency heads.

Both Congress and the president are involved in appointing individuals to key positions on the federal bureaucracy.

True

The civil service system was introduced following passage of what law?

The Pendleton Act

Which circumstance creates a challenge to the implementation of federal laws?

When congress passes a law that contains ambiguity

Which of the following is currently a major concern about federal workforce?

The large number of workers who will soon be eligible to retire.

_____ are working groups established to facilitates the coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of government agencies.

Interagency councils

What role is the Environmental Protection Agency taking when it sets limits on air pollution from power plants?

Regulation

What was the purpose of the Hatch Act?

To prohibit federal employees from engaging in partisan political activity.

Federal agencies are prohibited from engaging in adjudication, or quasi-judicial processes.

False

How are independent regulatory commissions similar to independent executive agencies?

Both operate outside of executive department control.

The _____ was one of the first executive branch departments in the U.S. government.

The Treasury Department.

Which of the following is currently a major concern about the federal workforce?

The large number of workers who will soon be eligible to retire.

The president and Congress share oversight of the federal bureaucracy.

True

How did the Pendleton Act reform the system of hiring and firing federal employees?

It required hiring and firing decisions to be based on merit rather than partisan loyalty.

What is a goal common to both the Pendleton Act and the Hatch Act?

Reducing the influence of partisan politics on the federal bureaucracy.

Litigants have an automatic right of appeal to the Supreme Court.

False

Marbury v. Madison significantly expanded the power of the federal judiciary.

True

Which of the following is the authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues on a particular case?

Jurisdiction

Article III specifies the powers of the Supreme Court.

True

Only the Supreme Court can review the decisions of state courts.

False

_____ is a good example of Congressional casework.

Assistance to a constituent in obtaining a Social Security check.

A rise in party unity is indicative of _____.

Low bipartisanship levels.

In the House of Representatives, who is second in authority to the Speaker of the House?

Majority leaders.

In what year was the Bill of Rights added to the the Constitution?

1791

In what years was the Declaration of Independence signed?

1776

Which of the following debated and drafted the Declaration of Independence?

Continental Congress

The Committees of _____ were used by colonists to keep each other abreast of developments with the British.

Correspondence

The main weakness of the Articles of Confederation was the lack of a strong national government.

True

How many constitutions has the United States had in its history?

Two

How many of the thirteen colonies voted for independence?

Twelve

Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution contains which powers of Congress?

Enumerated

Which of the following generally opposed the idea of a strong national government because it would take power away from the states and would tax heavily?

Anti-Federalists

Which clause provides that the Constitution shall be the supreme law of the land?

Supremacy

The Articles of Confederation required _____ consent from the states for ratification.

Unanimous

Logrolling, or vote trading, was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court following the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

False

_____ is the process of allotting congressional seats to each statement according to its proportion of the population.

Apportionment

Why are there currently 435 members in the House of Representatives?

The number is fixed at this limit by a statute.

The role of a Senate minority leader is important because _____.

He or she represents the opposition in negotiations with the majority leader.

Successful members of Congress share the same policy interests as voters, according to the _____.

Delegate model of representation

_____ is the only formal method for ending a filibuster, and requires the approval of _____ senators.

Cloture, sixty

Which statement best characterizes the hearing process of a formal bill?

Most formal bills receive a hearing, but few are marked up and sent to the floor.

Which of the following groups would be most likely to have influence over non-ideological legislation?

Congressional staff and colleagues in Congress

Appropriations committees help determine the programs that will be funded, while authorizations committees determine the amount of monies to be distributed.

False

The _____ is where congressional Democrats gather to select their leadership at the beginning of each term.

Party caucus

In the event of a major scandal, which kind of committee would be convened to conduct a special investigation?

A joint committee

Joan O'Leary wants to run for president. She is a natural-born citizen of the United States. She is 45 years old. She has been a resident of the United States for 10 years. Therefore, she meets the requirements to become a president.

False

In a process known as _____, presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block the nomination.

Senatorial courtesy

Article IIII specifies the powers of the Supreme Court.

True

Rotating three-judge panels decide cases in the federal courts of appeals.

True

The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases in which the United States is a party.

True

Which of these presidents is arguably the first modern president?

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

What would be different, with respect to the institution of the presidency, if Franklin D. Roosevelt had not won the 1932 election?

The institution of the presidency would be less connected to the people.

Which executive power was intended as a "qualified negative" by the Framers?

The power to veto

Which of the following statements proved the best characterization of the members of the White House staff?

The White House staff is composed of individuals personally and politically close to the president chosen specifically to serve the president's needs.

Which is one of the reasons that power and responsibility of the presidency has grown?

The Untied States became a world power.

Presidents must be able to persuade executive branch officials and personnel.

True

The Framers included a two-term limit to the presidency in the Constitution.

False

A president can influence policy by issuing a signing statement to comment on a signed bill, claiming that part of the bill is unconstitutional.

True

What is executive privilege?

The right to keep communications confidential to the presidency

Whom did the Framers expect to be the first president of the United States?

George Washington

According to the doctrine of _____, a court should not overturn precedent unless it is absolutely necessary.

Stare decisis.

Govt Exam 2 - Subjecto.com

Govt Exam 2

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What was the greatest fear of the Anti-Federalists during the Constitutional Convention and subsequent debate?

That a strong national government would infringe on the essential liberties of the people.

The "Intolerable Acts" was the colonists’ name for the ______ Acts of 1774.

Coercive

Which of the following best describes the Constitutional Convention?

The convention was secretive.

Which of the following specifies the procedure for amending the Constitution?

Article V

Which of the following remains a compelling source for determining the intent of the Framers?

The Federalist papers

Which constitutional amendment allowed voting for citizens who were eighteen or older?

Twenty-sixth

What was the subject of the Great Compromise?

The form of the legislative branch

Which of the following was a powerful economic group during the colonial era?

New England merchants

What is the principle that each branch of the federal government has the means to thwart or influence actions by other branches of government?

Checks and balances

Article III of the Constitution permits Congress to establish lower national courts

True

Which plan called for a one-house legislature and multi-person executive?

The New Jersey Plan

Which of the following can be found in Article 1?

Necessary and proper clause

Who was the author of the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

In the United States, the national government derives its power from which of the following?

Citizens

The U.S. Constitution was adopted in response to the weakness of the Articles of _____

Confederation

A constitution is a written document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government

True

Which of the following was a problem under the Articles of Confederation?

Citizens lacked a national identity.

Jackie attends a protest against animal testing. Which of the following secures her right to attend this protest?

Bill of Rights

The Committees of _____ were used by colonists to keep each other abreast of developments with the British

Correspondence

Which of the following was part of both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution?

Congress

Which of the following is a method of ratification for a constitutional amendment?

By three-fourths of the state legislatures

In what year was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?

1791

The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state?

True

As depicted in Figure 2.1 What are the Separation of Powers and How Do Checks and Balances Work Under the U.S. Constitution?, the executive branch is in charge of which of the following?

Making foreign treaties

The Anti-Federalists strongly supported the Bill of Rights?

True

______ is an economic theory designed to increase a nation’s wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade.

Mercantilism

The Constitution was ratified in 1776

False

The main weakness of the Articles of Confederation was the lack of a strong national government?

True

The Three-Fifths Compromise specified that only three-fifths of slaves could vote.

False

In what year was the Declaration of Independence signed?

1776

Which government entity has the power to settle disputes between the states?

Supreme Court

Article IV of the constitution requires Ohio to honor an adoption that took place in California

True

Which of the following is a reason for the separation of powers?

To prevent tyranny by any one branch

The publication of which of the following galvanized the colonists’ belief that reconciliation with Great Britain was impossible?

Common Sense

Which of the following was most likely to support proposed provisions that strengthened national power?

James Madison

The First Continental Congress was a response to which of the following?

Coercive Acts

The New Jersey Plan proposed a powerful central government with three branches

False

Under the Articles of Confederation, the federal government had broad power to levy taxes

False

Which of the following generally opposed the idea of a strong national government because it would take power away from the states and would tax heavily

Anti-Federalists

Which of the following were most likely to oppose the proposed Constitution

Farmers

Mercantilism is an economic theory designed to increase wealth through the development of

Industry

______ is an economic theory designed to increase a nations wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade

Mercantilism

At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates agreed that slaves would be counted as_____ of a person for determining population for representation in the House of Representatives

Three-fifths

The Anti-Federalists strongly supported the Bill of Rights

True

As described by Table 2.1 How do the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution Compare to One Another?, the Articles of Confederation did not include an executive

True

The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state

True

In what year was the Constitution ratified?

1788

Which Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence?

Second

Generally, smaller states wanted to strengthen the Articles of Confederation, rather than replace them.

True

Aside from the First Amendment, what portion of the U.S. constitution deals with the relationship between the state and religion

Article VI

What did supporters of the New Jersey Plan want to do with the Articles of Confederation?

Strengthen them

Which of the following were most likely to oppose the proposed Constitution?

Farmers

Which of the following can be found in Article I?

Necessary and proper clause

Which of the following required all paper items in the colonies to carry a stamp of the Crown?

Stamp Act

During the colonial era, the colonists retained the right to do which of the following?

Levy taxes

What type of legislature did the United States have under the Articles of Confederation?

Unicameral

A ______ is one tactic to signal the leadership that a Senate member may have objections to a bill

Hold

Legislators typically eschew casework, as it is burdensome to the staff and emphasizes benefits for individuals over the good of the whole district

False

A conference committee is comprised of members from the House and Senate committees that originally considered the bill.

True

In the even of a major scandal, which kind of committee would be convened to conduct a special investigation?

A joint committee

What can be inferred from the current demographic composition of the Senate?

Senate members tend to be wealthier than their House Counterparts

Congressional whips serve what main function?

Persuade party members to toe the party line.

In the House of Representatives, the _____ decides who will speak on the floor, and rules on points of order

Speaker

The president pro tempore_____

Is an honorific office awarded to the senior senator of the majority party

The ____ is where congressional Democrats gather to select their leadership at the beginning of each term

Party caucus

Over the past century, partisal polarization has ____ along with ____.

Increase; income inequality

What is the typical trajectory of a bill in the House of Representatives?

Introduction, committee referral, subcommittee, full committee report, rules committee, full House vote, conference committee, send to president.

Which is an example of logrolling in Congress?

Supporting a bill in exchange for support of one’s own bill

The necessary and proper clause allows Congress to increase the scope of its authority

True

What is the trajectory of a bill in the Senate?

Introduction, committee referral, subcommittee, full committee report, full Senate debate and vote, conference committee, and send to president

How might a bill become law if it has been pocket vetoes?

The bill must be reintroduced in the next session of Congress.

What demonstrates the Founders’ desire to insulate the Senate from popular displeasure?

Terms of six years, with one-third of seats open for election every two years

The House minority leader____

is elected by the minority party

Each state has ____ senators elected every ____ years.

Two, six

Which statement is true of the House of Representatives?

Members are elected every two years and apportioned to states based on population

One example of the Fermers’ intent to insulate the Senate from the tyranny of the majority was to _____.

Have members appointed by their respective state legislatures.

____ are rules created by government agencies that determine how laws are implemented

Regulations

The largest organizational unit in the federal bureaucracy is a(n)_____

department

How are federal workfoce similar to policy coordinating committees?

Both coordinate the activities of multiple agencies

Under our constitutional system, the president has the authority to ____

Make changes in an agency’s annual budget proposals

Over the course of the twentieth century, the federal government has grown considerably in response to the need for new government agencies

True

How has government spending changed over the past fifty years?

The government now pays for a larger portion of its spending by borrowing.

Which law designates the steps that federal agencies must follow in issuing rules and regulations?

The Administrative Procedures Act

The Administrative Procedures Act states that agencies must take what step before issuing new rules and regulations?

They must solicit public comments

_____ refers to the authority of administrators in the federal bureaucracy to make choices concerning the best way to implement policies

Discretion

How does Congress exercise control over agencies and department in the federal bureaucracy?

By confirming appointees to key positions in federal agencies

The Hatch Act prohibits federal employees from engaging in what activity?

Running for elected office

When the law requires an agency to conduct a formal hearing before issuing rules, what effect does this have on the agency’s rule-making procedure?

The courts tend to give greater deference to agency decisions

How does the president exercise control over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?

By nominating federal appointees

The Environmental Protection Agency is subject to less congressional and presidential oversight than the U.S. Department of Agriculture

False

Why did President Franklin D. Roosevelt create hundreds of new government agencies?

To regulate business practices and various aspects of the national economy

Max Weber identified which of the following as a characteristic of bureaucracy?

Task specialization

What event served as a catalyst for the creation of the Pendleton Act?

The assassination of James Garfield in 1881

Under what circumstance might a president set up a policy coordinating committee (PSC)?

When various agencies need to work together to ensure consistent policies

Which of the following was a consqeuence of the spoils, or patronage, system?

The federal bureaucracy was staffed with people who lacked expertise.

One purpose of the Administrative Procedures Act is to _____

Ensure opportunities for public participation in the rule-making process.

Courts established by Congress for specialized purposes, such as the Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims Law, are known as ____ courts.

Legislative

Which of the following is an opinion written by a justice in the majority that outlines additional considerations he or she thinks are important?

Concurring

Which of the following is within the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?

Controversies between the states

Of the 112 justices who have served on the U.S. Supreme Court, the overwhelming majority have been of which faith?

Protestant

How many justices currently serve on the Supreme Court?

Nine

According to the box "Who Are Federal Judges?", recent presidents have used judicial appointments to increase the ______ of the individuals seving at the highest levels of the U.S. government and to curry favor with traditionally underrepresented groups.

Diversity

Courts provide a statement of the legal reasoning behind their decisions in written ______.

Opinions

In which courts are the vast majority of all cases tried?

State

Following oral arguments, the justices father for a _____, during which they discuss the case and cast preliminary votes.

Conference

The selection of federal judges is a highly political process.

True

When the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a case appealed to it from a circuit court, it is exercisint its ______ jurisdiction.

appellate

For a case to be heard in the Supreme Court, a minimum of how many justices must vote to hear the case?

Four

According to Figure 9.1 How is the American Judicial System Structure?, there are currently how many U.S. district courts?

94

The U.S. courts of appeals are divided into _____ numbered circuits and two unnumbered circuits.

Eleven

Only a(n)_____ court can review the decisions of a lower court.

Appellate

In wich of the following cases did the Supreme Court first claim the right of judicial review?

Marbury v. Madison

How many tiers does the federal judiciary have?

Three

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit is a constitutional court

True

What is the name given to the power of the courts to interpret, and overturn, the actions of the executive and legislative branches?

Judicial review

To which of the following does Article III give the power to create inferior federal courts?

Congress

Federal judges are appointed to _____ terms.

Life

What are the two types of jurisdiction courts can have?

Original and appellate

Rotating three-judge panels decided cases in the federal courts of appeals?

True

Which of the following is the authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in a particular case?

Jurisdiction

Strict constructionists believe that the Constitution should be interpreted in light of modern values?

False

In which federal courts are trials conducted?

District

A dissenting opinion is written by a justice who agrees with the decision of the majority, but disagrees with the rationale.

False

How and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual policy is known as which of the following?

Judicial implementation

When the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a case appealed to it from a circuit court, it is exercising its ______ jurisdiction.

Appellate

The authority to be the first court to hear a case is which type of jurisdiction?

Original

All federal judicial nominations are first referred to which of the following for a hearing?

Senate Judiciary Committee

Which Article of the Constitution created the federal judiciary?

Article III

Which of the following represents the federal government in the Supreme Court?

Solicitor general

The United States has a dual system of justice

True

Proponents of which of the following believe that judges should use their power broadly to further justice?

Judicial activism

Which of the following is the authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in a particular case?

Jurisdiction

According to Figure 9.1, How is the American Judicial System Structured?, which of the following has no original jurisdiction?

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

The conference of the U.S. Supreme Court is ______.

Limited to the justices themselves

Which of the following nominates U.S. federal judges?

President

Who presides over trials for presidential impeachment?

Chief justice of the Supreme Court

Through 2012, only _____ African Americans and four women have served on the Supreme Court.

Two

In a process known as ______, presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block the nomination.

Senatorial courtesy

The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the federal circuit courts and district courts.

True

In court rulings,reliance on past decisions to formulate decisions in new cases is known as which of the following?

Stare decisis

Which of the following can modify a decision of the Supreme Court?

Constitutional amendment

When the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a case appealed to it from a circuit court, it is exercising its ______ jurisdiction

Appelate

When a case is granted review in an appellate court, the parties submit written _______ presenting their arguments.

Briefs

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit is a constitutional court.

True

_______, President Nixon, and President Reagan achieved success in molding the federal judiciary to their own political beliefs.

President Roosevelt

The selection of federal judges is a highly political process

True

According to Table 9.2, How Does a President Affect the Federal Judiciary?, which of the following presidents had the greatest influence on the composition of the federal judiciary?

Clinton

How many courts of appeals are in the federal system?

Thirteen

The U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims is an example of which type of court?

Legislative

In 1987, the Senate refused to confirm the nomination of which of the following to the Supreme Court?

Robert Bork

Which of the following limits judicial power?

Stare decisis/precedent

Who heads the entire federal judiciary?

The chief justice of the Supreme Court

A(n)________ brief is submitted by someone who is not a party to the case.

amicus curiae

A writ of ______ is a request submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court to review a lower court decision.

certiorari

Which of the following philosophers greatly influenced the colonists views on the role of government?

John Locke

The New Jersey Plan proposed a powerful central government with three branches.

False

The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state.

True

How many of the thirteen colonies voted for independence?

Twelve

Article III of the Constitution permits Congress to establish lower national courts.

True

The Stamp Act was a major catalyst for the American revolution

True

In the United States, the national government derives its power from which of the following?

Citizens

The Three-Fifths Compromise specified that only three-fifths of slaves could vote

False

In the House of Representatives, the _____ decides who will speak on the floor, and rules on points of order.

Speaker

The House minority leader______.

Is elected by the minority party

On average, each member of the House represents _____ voters.

700,000

What best explains the overwhelming advantage incumbents possess in seeking reelection over opposition candidates?

name recognition, access to media, and franking privilege

Appropriation committees help determine the programs that will be funded, while authorizations committees determine the amount of monies to be distributed.

False

How are committee chairs selected in the House?

Interviews to determine party loyalty

Charged with the responsibility to _____, the _____ is almost certainly the most powerful committee in either chamber of Congress

Grant and set procedural rules, House Committee on Rules

"Pork" legislation may aid the district of a member of Congress by _____.

Increasing jobs and revenue with federally funded projects.

A _____ is a special committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and senate

Conference committee

A lobbyist for the NRA would be most effective when targeting a legislator _____.

Whose voting behavior supports gun control

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between Congress and the Judiciary?

Congress must be increasingly mindful of the Supreme Court’s reaction when it enacts new laws for the nation.

How have Americans rated members of Congress in recent years?

Individual members of Congress rate slightly higher than Congress as a whole, but approval ratings are at an all-time low.

Each state has ____ senators elected every _____ years.

Two, six

The Framers made Congress a bicameral body because they were concerned that too strong a legislative branch would lead to tyranny.

True

The use of _____ in foreign matters is an example of the president acting as a global leader.

Executive agreements

Congress can remove a president through _____.

Impeachment

In which way to modern presidents differ from the original intentions of the Framers of the Constitution?

Modern presidents are much more influential in the legislative process than the Framers originally intended.

What does the Twenty- Second Amendment do?

Requires that presidents serve only two terms

How does the White House staff differ from the president’s Cabinet?

The white house staff has greater access to and more influence on the president than the Cabinet.

Which group’s major function is to help presidents execute laws and make decisions?

The Cabinet

Which of the following statements best describes contemporary relationships between presidents and Congress?

They are generally antagonistic.

What role was Thomas Jefferson performing as president when he made the Louisiana Purchase?

Chief executive

Congress has the sole authority to declare war.

True

How might rallying events affect presidential politics?

Rallying events tend to temporarily increase presidential approval ratings, providing windows of opportunity to press for action on their agendas.

What is the purpose of the Council of Economic Advisers?

To advise the president on economic policy

Historically, vice-presidential candidates are chosen to _____.

Politically balance the ticket.

Which one of the powers listed below is a constitutional power that the president shares with the Senate?

Making treaties

President Gerald R. Ford was able to pardon President Richard M. Nixon to release him from impeachment.

False

Refer to Figure 7.1. Historically, presidents begin their terms of office with higher approval ratings and tend to lose popularity over time

True

The president may grant pardons to anyone convicted of a federal crime for any reason

True

What was the turning point that gave rise to the modern institutional presidency?

The economic and social turmoil of the Great Depression

Why does the perception of a mandate matter in presidential politics?

Because modern presidents are more dependent on the people for election and more involved in policy making than early presidents, they are prone to claim the mandate of the people when governing.

How has the office of vice president changed over the years?

The vice president has been more involved in the policy-making process in recent years than in the past.

Which of the following leadership abilities is critical to presidential success?

The ability to persuade members of Congress and the American public

What function is the National Labor Relations board carrying out when it settles disputes between labor and management on federal labor laws?

Adjudicating/engaging in quasi-judicial processes

What factor was influential in driving expansion of the federal bureaucracy in the post-Civil War era?

The growing incidence of price fixing and other unfair business practices

According to Figure 8.1, when did the largest growth in the federal workforce occur?

During World War II.

Before 1883, how were government jobs awarded?

Jobs were awarded based on applicants’ loyalty to the party in power.

One purpose of the Administrative Procedures Act is to _____.

Ensure opportunities for public participation in the rule-making process

How does Congress exercise control over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?

By confirming appointees to key positions in federal agencies.

_____ are rules created by government agencies that determine how laws are implemented.

Regulations

Independent regulatory commissions differ from independent agencies in that they are less subject to presidential control.

True

Under the spoils system, who was awarded jobs in the federal bureaucracy?

Those who helped candidates win election

Which of the following was a consequence of the spoils, or patronage system?

The federal bureaucracy was staffed with people who lacked expertise.

How do government corporations differ from private companies?

Government corporations perform activities that private companies cannot.

As noted in Table 8.1, according to the Hatch Act, federal employees may make campaign speeches for candidates in partisan elections

False

How did the Pendelton Act reform the system of hiring and firing federal employees?

It required hiring and firing decisions to be based on merit rather than partisan loyalty.

Cabinet secretaries are appointed by _____ and confirmed by _____.

The president; the Senate

While the president has the authority to appoint and remove agency heads and other top bureaucrats, Congress has the authority to _____.

Refuse to appropriate funds for certain programs

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an example of a government corporation.

True

What is implementation?

The process by which a law or policy is put into practice

What is the major purpose of an independent regulatory commission?

To regulate commerce

In which court do cases generally begin?

Trial

A dissenting opinion is written by a justice who agrees with the decision of the majority, but disagrees with the rational.

False

The _____ Act of 1789 established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system.

Judiciary

Article III specifies the powers of the Supreme Court

True

According to Marbury v. Madison, which clause implies the power of judicial review?

Supremacy

Of the fifty-five delegates who attended some portion of the Constitutional Convention, how many ultimately signed it?

Thirty-nine

Aside from the First Amendment, what portion of the U.S. Constitution deals with the relationship between the state and religion?

Article VI

A constitution is a written document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government?

True

_____ is an economic theory designed to increase a nation’s wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade.

Mercantilism

The Stamp Act was a major catalyst for the American Revolution.

True

Under the Constitution, the president is elected by which of the following?

Electoral College

In what year was the U.S. Constitution ratified?

1788

The Constitution was ratified in 1776.

False

As depicted in Figure 2.1, What are the separation of powers and how do checks and balances work under the U.S. Constitution?, the executive branch is in charge of which of the following?

Making foreign treaties

The U.S. Constitution was adopted in response to the weaknesses of the Articles of _____.

Confederation

What advantage does a subcommittee offer the legislative process?

Greater division of labor

A bill goes through a markup in a full committee after a subcommittee votes in favor of it.

True

Charged with the responsibility to _____, the _____ is almost certainly the most powerful committee in Congress.

Grant and set procedural rules, House Committee on Rules

Over the past century, partisan polarization has _____ along with _____.

Increase; income inequality

Which statement about incumbency is most accurate?

Incumbents have a huge advantage in reelection.

_____ is a good example of Congressional case work.

Assistance to a constituent in obtaining a Social Security check.

According to the trustee model of representation, legislators are _____.

Trusted by their constituents because they are natives of their home districts.

What occurs at a congressional party conference?

Republicans meet to select leaders and determine objectives

The increasing partisanship and productivity of Congress have contributed to lower approval ratings in recent years.

True

Members of Congress differ from the larger American population in they are disproportionately _____.

White, upper-middle-class, middle-aged, and male

The president may grant pardons to anyone convicted of a federal crime for any reason.

True

Based on what you know about election history, what is the most likely reason Senator John McCain chose Governor Palin as his running mate in 2008?

Palin was more conservative that McCain.

In which institutional resource are leaders both appointed by the president and approved by the Senate?

The Cabinet

Which of the following statements best characterizes the nature of the conflict between presidents and Congress?

The conflict is integral to the design of the Constitution, deliberately intended by the authors of the constitution.

Which presidential power gives the president the ability to control what happens inside departments and agencies during their terms and to shape the federal judiciary (including the Supreme Court) far into the future?

Appointment

Presidents with high levels of _____ have an easier time influencing Congress, while those with low levels find influence more difficult.

Public approval

Why is there the potential for conflict over virtually all aspects of government?

All constitutional powers are shared.

What has to happen in Congress before the president can be impeached?

The House can impeach the president by a simple majority; the Senate needs a two-thirds majority.

When a bill is sent to Congress, the president is not allowed to encourage specific members of Congress to vote for the bill.

False

When might citizens be particularly concerned about an expansion of presidential power?

When they oppose the president’s agenda.

Why was the War Powers Resolution (1973) adopted by Congress?

To reinvigorate the role of Congress in the conduct of war.

Which presidential oversight includes the Senate of the Union address?

The president must inform and convene Congress.

How might presidents use their powers of persuasion in the legislative process?

In leading public opinion to support their policy agendas.

Which of these became an official presidential qualification in 1951?

A maximum of two terms

What is the role of the National Security Council?

To advise the president on national security

Each independent agency in the executive branch is headed by a Cabinet secretary.

False

Which law designates the steps that federal agencies must follow in issuing rules and regulations

The Administrative Procedures Act

Max Weber identified which of the following as a characteristic of a bureaucracy?

Task specialization

According to Max Weber, bureaucracies are characterized by hierarchical authority structures.

True

When would Congress be most likely to allow a federal agency significant discretion in rule-making?

Following the passage of a law dealing with specialist issues.

How do independent regulatory commissions differ from independent agencies?

Commissioners are more difficult to remove from office than agency heads.

Both Congress and the president are involved in appointing individuals to key positions on the federal bureaucracy.

True

The civil service system was introduced following passage of what law?

The Pendleton Act

Which circumstance creates a challenge to the implementation of federal laws?

When congress passes a law that contains ambiguity

Which of the following is currently a major concern about federal workforce?

The large number of workers who will soon be eligible to retire.

_____ are working groups established to facilitates the coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of government agencies.

Interagency councils

What role is the Environmental Protection Agency taking when it sets limits on air pollution from power plants?

Regulation

What was the purpose of the Hatch Act?

To prohibit federal employees from engaging in partisan political activity.

Federal agencies are prohibited from engaging in adjudication, or quasi-judicial processes.

False

How are independent regulatory commissions similar to independent executive agencies?

Both operate outside of executive department control.

The _____ was one of the first executive branch departments in the U.S. government.

The Treasury Department.

Which of the following is currently a major concern about the federal workforce?

The large number of workers who will soon be eligible to retire.

The president and Congress share oversight of the federal bureaucracy.

True

How did the Pendleton Act reform the system of hiring and firing federal employees?

It required hiring and firing decisions to be based on merit rather than partisan loyalty.

What is a goal common to both the Pendleton Act and the Hatch Act?

Reducing the influence of partisan politics on the federal bureaucracy.

Litigants have an automatic right of appeal to the Supreme Court.

False

Marbury v. Madison significantly expanded the power of the federal judiciary.

True

Which of the following is the authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues on a particular case?

Jurisdiction

Article III specifies the powers of the Supreme Court.

True

Only the Supreme Court can review the decisions of state courts.

False

_____ is a good example of Congressional casework.

Assistance to a constituent in obtaining a Social Security check.

A rise in party unity is indicative of _____.

Low bipartisanship levels.

In the House of Representatives, who is second in authority to the Speaker of the House?

Majority leaders.

In what year was the Bill of Rights added to the the Constitution?

1791

In what years was the Declaration of Independence signed?

1776

Which of the following debated and drafted the Declaration of Independence?

Continental Congress

The Committees of _____ were used by colonists to keep each other abreast of developments with the British.

Correspondence

The main weakness of the Articles of Confederation was the lack of a strong national government.

True

How many constitutions has the United States had in its history?

Two

How many of the thirteen colonies voted for independence?

Twelve

Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution contains which powers of Congress?

Enumerated

Which of the following generally opposed the idea of a strong national government because it would take power away from the states and would tax heavily?

Anti-Federalists

Which clause provides that the Constitution shall be the supreme law of the land?

Supremacy

The Articles of Confederation required _____ consent from the states for ratification.

Unanimous

Logrolling, or vote trading, was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court following the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

False

_____ is the process of allotting congressional seats to each statement according to its proportion of the population.

Apportionment

Why are there currently 435 members in the House of Representatives?

The number is fixed at this limit by a statute.

The role of a Senate minority leader is important because _____.

He or she represents the opposition in negotiations with the majority leader.

Successful members of Congress share the same policy interests as voters, according to the _____.

Delegate model of representation

_____ is the only formal method for ending a filibuster, and requires the approval of _____ senators.

Cloture, sixty

Which statement best characterizes the hearing process of a formal bill?

Most formal bills receive a hearing, but few are marked up and sent to the floor.

Which of the following groups would be most likely to have influence over non-ideological legislation?

Congressional staff and colleagues in Congress

Appropriations committees help determine the programs that will be funded, while authorizations committees determine the amount of monies to be distributed.

False

The _____ is where congressional Democrats gather to select their leadership at the beginning of each term.

Party caucus

In the event of a major scandal, which kind of committee would be convened to conduct a special investigation?

A joint committee

Joan O’Leary wants to run for president. She is a natural-born citizen of the United States. She is 45 years old. She has been a resident of the United States for 10 years. Therefore, she meets the requirements to become a president.

False

In a process known as _____, presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block the nomination.

Senatorial courtesy

Article IIII specifies the powers of the Supreme Court.

True

Rotating three-judge panels decide cases in the federal courts of appeals.

True

The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases in which the United States is a party.

True

Which of these presidents is arguably the first modern president?

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

What would be different, with respect to the institution of the presidency, if Franklin D. Roosevelt had not won the 1932 election?

The institution of the presidency would be less connected to the people.

Which executive power was intended as a "qualified negative" by the Framers?

The power to veto

Which of the following statements proved the best characterization of the members of the White House staff?

The White House staff is composed of individuals personally and politically close to the president chosen specifically to serve the president’s needs.

Which is one of the reasons that power and responsibility of the presidency has grown?

The Untied States became a world power.

Presidents must be able to persuade executive branch officials and personnel.

True

The Framers included a two-term limit to the presidency in the Constitution.

False

A president can influence policy by issuing a signing statement to comment on a signed bill, claiming that part of the bill is unconstitutional.

True

What is executive privilege?

The right to keep communications confidential to the presidency

Whom did the Framers expect to be the first president of the United States?

George Washington

According to the doctrine of _____, a court should not overturn precedent unless it is absolutely necessary.

Stare decisis.

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