Government Final cont… (And First Exam)

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1) America is a democratic system, a constitutional system and a free market system all at the same time. (True or False)

True

2) The French philosopher Michel Foucault called politics "war by other means".
(True or False)

True

3) The United States has certain rules in place to keep politics within peaceful bounds. These rules include all of the following EXCEPT
a. autocracy.
b. democracy.
c. constitutionalism.
d. free markets.
e. None of these answers is correct.

A. Autocracy

4) Where is the phrase "Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public" be found?
a. Article V, Section 1
b. Article VI, Section 5
c. Article IV, Section 1
d. Article III, Section 2
e. Article VI, Section 1

C. Article IV, Section 1

5) The power of Congress "to establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States" is found in which Article and Section?
a. Article I, Section 2
b. Article II, Section 5
c. Article I, Section 8
d. Article I, Section 9
e. Article II, Section 4

c. Article I, Section 8

6) The U.S. Constitution states that there should be _ number of Supreme Court Justices?
a. 3
b. 5
c. 7
d. 9
e. None of the above

e. None of the above

7) The youngest a person can be to serve in the House of Representative is 21
(True or False)

False

8) The concept of the "state of nature" was first expressed by which of the following political thinkers?
a. Aristole
b. Eric Voegelin
c. Plato
d. Thomas Hobbes
e. None of the above

d. Thomas Hobbes

9) Which of the following statements provides the most accurate description of democracy as practiced in the United States?
a. The people directly govern themselves.
b. Elitist institutions are absent from the American government.
c. The power of the people to make and enforce laws is checked by nothing except the will of the people.
d. The people govern through elected representatives.
e. The will of the majority always prevails.

d. The people govern through elected representatives.

10) How have changes in modern communication affected political thinking in the United States?
a. Increases in access to new forms of media have increased public awareness of news issues and increased political thinking across a wider segment of the population.
b. They have provided a more in-depth and varied analysis of public policy issues, which increases political thinking among those that self-inform.
c. They have resulted in better fact-checking and more transparent news gathering, which results in more objective reporting and an increase in political thinking.
d. They have resulted in a drop in political thinking among some, and a rise among others, based on increased access to new forms of media only among the wealthier economic groups.
e. The extreme bias and popularity of new forms of media such as cable news networks and Internet blogs have led to a rise in faulty perceptions and thus a decrease in political thinking.

e. The extreme bias and popularity of new forms of media such as cable news networks and Internet blogs have led to a rise in faulty perceptions and thus a decrease in political thinking.

11) Where in the U.S. Constitution does it state that no Bill of Attainder or ex post facto laws can be passed by Congress?
a. Article II, Section 2
b. Article III, Section 4
c. Article I, Section 9
d. Article II, Section 9
e. Article I, Section 8

c. Article I, Section 9

12) The Bill of Rights
a. reduced the restrictiveness of constitutionalism.
b. enhanced the powers of the executive.
c. further checked the power of the majority.
d. enhanced the majoritarian nature of government.
e. restricted the power of corporate influence in the government.

c. further checked the power of the majority.

13) ________ is the ability of persons, groups, or institutions to influence political developments.
a. Apathy
b. Politics
c. Power
d. Liberty
e. Political culture

c. Power`

14) As described by the authors, "political thinking"
a. is the reflection of an individual’s ideological position when applied to political issues.
b. results from an individual allowing personal bias to inform all thoughts about political issues, instead of doing objective learning or research to form an opinion.
c. involves the careful gathering and sifting of information in the process of forming a knowledgeable view about a political issue.
d. is the result of an individual’s attempts to seek out news media that reinforces a pre-existing political bias.
e. is a strategy taken by those seeking election to public office in which their publicly stated positions are designed to maximize their attractiveness to the widest voting bloc.

c. involves the careful gathering and sifting of information in the process of forming a knowledgeable view about a political issue.

15) What is the major barrier to political thinking?
a. unwillingness of citizens to make the effort
b. lack of access to governmental institutions
c. elite control of political power resources
d. the failure of politicians and government institutions to communicate policy details to the public
e. the lack of access to news media sources outside of sensationalist television or Internet content

a. unwillingness of citizens to make the effort

16) In a constitutional system,
a. there are no restrictions on the lawful uses of power, as long as this power is obtained by majority rule.
b. there are lawful restrictions on a government’s power.
c. the economy is based on the free enterprise system.
d. officials govern according to the traditions established by their predecessors.
e. all citizens have absolute free speech rights.

b. there are lawful restrictions on a government’s power.

17) How many lawyers does the United States have in comparison to Britain, Germany, and Italy?
a. The U.S. has twice as many lawyers on a per capita basis.
b. The U.S. has roughly the same amount of lawyers on a per capita basis.
c. The U.S. has roughly twice as many lawyers, in terms of total numbers.
d. The U.S. has roughly five times as many lawyers on a per capita basis.
e. The U.S. has roughly half as many lawyers on a per capita basis.

a. The U.S. has twice as many lawyers on a per capita basis.

18) A totalitarian government
a. admits to no limits on its power.
b. may control the media and direct the economy, but maintains public support by allowing such social rights as freedom of religion.
c. controls through one-party rule, though it may allow some semblance of party opposition.
d. controls through multi-party rule, in which it controls the electoral process to ensure its own party always achieves a majority.
e. is often overthrown by opposition political parties or popular movements because it lacks legitimacy.

a. admits to no limits on its power.

19) Article _______ is where the "Supremacy Clause" is found.
a. III
b. IV
c. V
d. VI
e. VII

d. VI

20) Which of the following has democracy come to mean in practice?
a. pluralistic government through the combination of popularly elected representatives and the influence of interest groups
b. oligarchic government through a legislature chosen through popular election
c. elitist control through interest group politics
d. pluralism through the election of representatives and the influence of corporate interests
e. majority rule through the free and open election of representatives

e. majority rule through the free and open election of representatives

1) The U.S. Constitution was an attempt to strike a balance between representative government and limited government. True/False

True

2) _______________ rights are natural, like the right to life liberty and property.
a. Superficial
b. Meaningful
c. Indomitable
d. Unconquerable
e. No answer is correct.

e. No answer is correct.

3) The framers entrusted the selection of U.S. senators to
a. specially chosen electors.
b. state legislatures.
c. direct vote of the people.
d. state governors.
e. federal magistrates.

b. state legislatures.

4) The idea for the US Senate was created from the _________ Plan
a. New Jersey
b. Virginia
c. Georgia
d. Maine
e. South Carolina

a. New Jersey

5) Which state had the highest percentage of African Americans in 1790 ?
a. New York
b. Georgia
c. Virginia
d. North Carolina
e. South Carolina

e. South Carolina

6) Those who supported a strong national government were called the __________ .
a. Republicans
b. Democrats
c. Anti-Federalist
d. Tories
e. No correct answer

e. No correct answer

7) What was the Supreme Court case that created the idea of judicial review?
a. Lawrence v. Texas
b. Chisholm v. Georgia
c. Gideon v. Wainwright
d. Roe v. Wade
e. No correct answer

e. No correct answer

8) What Constitutional Amendment changed the U.S. Constitution to always direct elections of senators by the people?
a. 17th Amendment
b. 19th Amendment
c. 21st Amendment
d. 23rd Amendment
e. No correct answer

a. 17th Amendment

9) What framework of the U.S. government came from French political thinker Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu devise?
a. Judicial review
b. President as Commander in Chief
c. Congress controlling the nation’s commerce
d. Overlapping of political power
e. Separation of political power

e. Separation of political power

10) Which of the first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution (Bill of Rights) has never been argued before the U.S. Supreme Court?
a. 1st Amendment
b. 2nd Amendment
c. 3rd Amendment
d. 4th Amendment
e. 5th Amendment

c. 3rd Amendment

11) ___________ is defined as power gained through elections to be exercised in accordance with law and with due respect for individual rights?
a. Constitutional
b. Democratic
c. Republic
d. All answers correct
e. No correct answer

a. Constitutional

12) ________________________ wrote The Federalist Papers
a. James Madison and Thomas Jefferson
b. Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
c. John Jay and Thomas Jefferson
d. Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton an James Madison
e. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay

e. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay

13) Which of the following is a check on legislative power in the U.S. system?
a. Congress can overturn a presidential veto with a 2/3 vote by both houses
b. Congress can overturn a presidential veto with a ¾ vote by both houses.
c. The president can appoint the Speaker of the House and the president of the Senate.
d. For legislation to be passed, a majority in each chamber of Congress is required.
e. Congress must appropriate funds that are to be used by the executive.

a. Congress can overturn a presidential veto with a 2/3 vote by both houses

14) The principle of checks and balances is based on the notion that
a. leaders are the trustees of the people.
b. a weak government is always preferable to a strong government.
c. all legislative and executive action should be controlled through judicial power.
d. power must be used to offset power.
e. legislators and executives cannot be trusted, but judges are trustworthy.

d. power must be used to offset power.

15) The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution
a. by the framers during the Philadelphia convention.
b. in stages, from 1789 to 1798.
c. in response to the freeing of the slaves during the Civil War.
d. in response to the ideals of Jacksonian democracy.
e. None of these answers is correct.

e. None of these answers is correct.

16) Over time, the American national political system has become more responsive to popular majorities. True/False

True

17) Federal justices are allowed to hold office for life, unless they commit a crime. True/False

True

a. Congress had insufficient funds to build a navy or hire an army
b. Each of the thirteen states had one vote in Congress, and the agreement of nine states was required to pass legislation.
c. Amendments could be added only by unanimous approval of the states.
d. Congress was overshadowed by the president.
e. The states did not have the power to raise their own taxes.

e. The states did not have the power to raise their own taxes.

19) In Federalist No. 10, James Madison warned against the dangers of
a. Factions
b. States’ rights
c. Judicial review
d. An all-powerful president
e. Ex post facto laws

b. States’ rights

20) Under the U.S. Constitution, members of the U.S. House of Representatives have a ________ term, members of the U.S. Senate have a(n) ________ term, and the president has a ________ term.
a. 2 years; 6 years, 4 years
b. 2 years; 4 years; 6 years
c. 4 years; 4 years; 4 years
d. 2 years; 8 years; 4 years
e. None of these answers is correct

a. 2 years; 6 years, 4 years

1. The framers of the Constitution created a federal system of government because
a. the states already existed.
b. they felt that it would protect liberty
c. they felt that it would provide the foundation for an effective national government
d. the confederal system in existence was ineffective.
e. All these answers are correct.

e. All these answers are correct.

2. ________ initially proposed that Congress charter a national bank.
a. Thomas Jefferson
b. Alexander Hamilton
c. James Madison
d. John Marshall
e. Aaron Burr

b. Alexander Hamilton

3. What was the constitutional basis for the Supreme Court’s decision in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)?
a. Under the doctrine of implied powers, Congress had the power to create a national bank because it was assigned the powers to tax, borrow money, and regulate interstate commerce under the Constitution.
b. National law was supreme over conflicting state law.
c. Under the doctrine of implied powers, Congress had the power to create a national bank because it was assigned the powers to tax, borrow money, and regulate interstate commerce under the Constitution, and national law was supreme over conflicting state law.
d. Sovereign states can tax the national government
e. Congress lacked the authority to charter a national bank.

c. Under the doctrine of implied powers, Congress had the power to create a national bank because it was assigned the powers to tax, borrow money, and regulate interstate commerce under the Constitution, and national law was supreme over conflicting state law.

a. contentious and dynamic system that has adapted to the needs of the time.
b. theoretical principle, in that constitutional provisions for federalism have had virtually no impact on the relationship between the nation and the states.
c. flawed principle, in that the relationship between the nation and the states has been a constant source of problems without many positive benefits.
d. fixed principle, in that the relationship between the nation and states is almost completely defined by provisions of the Constitution.
e. poor replacement for the confederal system which existed before the Constitution.

a. contentious and dynamic system that has adapted to the needs of the time.

5. What was the public response to the economic stimulus bill that Barack Obama and the Democratic Congress enacted in early 2009?
a. Some 70 percent of the public believed the bill was essential, though there was worry, as a secondary concern, about the scale of the spending.
b. The public’s primary concern was about the scale of the spending, but the public still supported the need for a stimulus bill by a margin of two to one.
c. The public was evenly split on the need for a stimulus bill, reflecting deep political divisions on the nature of the federal role in regulating the economy.
d. Most Americans did not believe the stimulus bill was "critically important" or "important" to the nation’s recovery from the economic crisis.
e. Nearly two-thirds of the public opposed the passage of any form of economic stimulus bill, even though the vast majority worried about how the U.S. would recover from the economic crisis.

a. Some 70 percent of the public believed the bill was essential, though there was worry, as a secondary concern, about the scale of the spending.

6. Which of the following is NOT an enumerated power?
a. public education
b. regulation of commerce
c. declaration of war
d. taxation
e. establish a national currency

a. public education

7. The enumerated powers in Article I of the Constitution were intended to
a. limit the powers of the state governments.
b. ensure that neither small nor large states would be at a disadvantage.
c. ensure that neither northern nor southern states would be at a disadvantage.
d. establish a government strong enough to forge a union that was secure in its defense and stable in its economy.
e. limit the power of the presidency.

d. establish a government strong enough to forge a union that was secure in its defense and stable in its economy.

8. The "No Child Left Behind" Act
a. increased state authority over education policy but provided greater federal funds for education.
b. dramatically increased state authority over education policy.
c. was part of the end, and reversal of, the devolution movement.
d. was the last significant piece of legislation that contributed to devolution of authority to the states.
e. was the centerpiece to President Bush’s version of "new federalism."

c. was part of the end, and reversal of, the devolution movement.

9. Which of the following is a concurrent power?
a. national defense
b. interstate commerce
c. taxation
d. education
e. police protection

c. taxation

10. The Supremacy Clause in the U.S. Constitution is found in
a. Article III, Section 2
b. Article IV, Section 2
c. Article VII, Section 3
d. Article VI, Section 4
e. None of the Above

e. None of the Above

11. The "Elastic Clause" is found in
a. Article 1, Section 8
b. Article 1, Section 10
c. Article 2, Section 9
d. Article 3, Section 9
e. Article 4, Section 10

a. Article 1, Section 8

12. All are state powers only EXCEPT for
a. Chartering of local governments
b. Public safety
c. Voting
d. Law enforcement
e. All are state powers

d. Law enforcement

13. Which year did the highest amount of grants go to state and local governments?
a. 1976
b. 1978
c. 1980
d. 1984
e. 1994

e. 1994

14. Federalism is the name given to a system of allocating power between the nation and the states. (True/False)

True

15. The authority of the state government is specified by the Constitution’s enumerated and implied powers. Authority not granted in this way is left to the national government as reserved powers. (True/False)

False

16. All of the following embraced the "national view" of federalism EXCEPT
a. John Marshall.
b. Roger B. Taney.
c. Franklin D. Roosevelt.
d. Lyndon B. Johnson.
e. Alexander Hamilton.

b. Roger B. Taney.

17. Block grants do not allow state and local officials to exercise discretion in the national government over the use of federal funds within broad categories such as education or health. (True/False)

False

18. The Constitution allows states to
a. raise an army in peacetime.
b. print money.
c. make commercial agreements with other states without the consent of Congress.
d. govern intrastate commerce.
e. govern interstate commerce.

d. govern intrastate commerce.

19. Government intervention is removed in a laissez-faire capitalist economic system. (True/False)

True

20. 49% of Tax revenue goes to the Federal government. (True/False)

False

he frequency of elections in the United States reduces voter turnout by
a. discouraging local politicians from playing an active role in presidential elections.
b. creating more complex registration requirements.
c. focusing too much attention on state and local elections.
d. increasing the personal effort needed to participate in all elections.
e. increasing the amount of taxes paid at the polls.

d. increasing the personal effort needed to participate in all elections.

2. Unlike in many other democracies, elections in the United States are traditionally held on
a. Mondays.
b. Tuesdays.
c. Fridays.
d. Saturdays.
e. Sundays.

b. Tuesdays.

3. Voter registration in the United States
a. was introduced as a means of keeping white males without property from voting.
b. began as a way of preventing voters from casting more than one ballot on election day.
c. is the responsibility of the government, which adds legally qualified individuals automatically to the registration rolls.
d. applies to voting in general elections but not in primary elections.
e. has vastly increased voter turnout.

b. began as a way of preventing voters from casting more than one ballot on election day.

4. As distinct from alienation, apathy is
a. associated with a low rate of voter turnout.
b. a feeling of powerlessness.
c. a general lack of interest in politics.
d. a sign that the political system is working properly.
e. widespread among affluent Americans.

c. a general lack of interest in politics.

5. The chief obstacle to Americans’ participation in community activities is the
a. lack of opportunity, because there are few groups active at this level.
b. lack of personal motivation to get involved.
c. low potential for success, since key decisions are made at the national level.
d. low potential for success, since key decisions are made at the state level.
e. All these answers are correct.

b. lack of personal motivation to get involved.

6. All of the following tend to decrease voter turnout EXCEPT
a. sharp policy differences between major parties.
b. alienation.
c. frequent elections.
d. difficult registration requirements.
e. lack of interest in politics.

a. sharp policy differences between major parties.

7. Which of the following is true of the Internet organization MoveOn.org?
a. It has demonstrated that online advocacy can dramatically increase voter turnout in local and state elections.
b. It is technically a registered lobbying organization.
c. It has a network of more than five million "online activists," which makes it a more powerful voting bloc than some entire states.
d. It was highly successful in its effort to shape the 2010 health care reform bill.
e. It was instrumental in helping Barack Obama defeat Hillary Clinton in their race for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination.

e. It was instrumental in helping Barack Obama defeat Hillary Clinton in their race for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination.

8. When it comes to protest activities, a majority of Americans are
a. actively involved in protests at one time or another in their lives.
b. willing to contribute through financial support but not through active participation.
c. not highly supportive of such activities, despite America’s tradition of free expression.
d. actively involved only later in their lives, when they feel more secure that a protest is justified.
e. supportive of violent activities if the cause warrants such an approach.

c. not highly supportive of such activities, despite America’s tradition of free expression.

a. allows elected officials to claim that their policies reflect the will of the people.
b. provides citizens with a regular way to express themselves.
c. is the most widespread form of political participation.
d. is both a means by which government controls the people and a means by which the people control government.
e. All these answers are correct.

e. All these answers are correct.

10. The adoption of voter identification cards by several states will likely cause a decline in voter turnout. True/False

True

11. Protest activity is a reversal to the pattern of voting in that it
a. has broad public support.
b. is supportive of existing policies.
c. is more likely to involve younger citizens rather than older ones.
d. is rooted in prejudice.
e. usually takes place in the evenings.

c. is more likely to involve younger citizens rather than older ones.

12. Of the countries listed, which country has the highest estimated voter turnout in major national elections in recent decades?
a. Denmark
b. Germany
c. the United States
d. Belgium
e. France

d. Belgium

13. In the twenty-first century, voting rates in the United States have
a. shown little difference from those of the late twentieth century.
b. increased in presidential elections, while continuing to remain lowest in local ones.
c. demonstrated that the apathy of young citizens has worsened considerably since the early 1990s.
d. increased in all elections.
e. declined in all elections.

b. increased in presidential elections, while continuing to remain lowest in local ones.

14. Which of the following states has a voter identification card law?
a. Maine
b. New Hampshire
c. Minnesota
d. Indiana
e. Wisconsin

d. Indiana

15. Compared with U.S. citizens of higher income, those of lower income are
a. much less likely to vote in elections.
b. about equally likely to vote in elections.
c. much more likely to vote in elections.
d. much less likely to vote in elections—a pattern that is also true in European democracies.
e. None of these answers is correct.

a. much less likely to vote in elections.

16. Eighteen, nineteen, and twenty year-old Americans were granted the right to vote in 1973 True/False

False

17. In the United States, the primary responsibility for registration of the individual voter rests with the
a. state and local governments.
b. local courts.
c. employer.
d. individual.
e. federal government.

d. individual.

18. The "motor voter" law
A. was passed in 1993.
B. made it easier for citizens to register to vote.
C. linked voter registration to the vehicle registration process.
D.was passed in 1993 and linked voter registration to the vehicle registration process.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

19. When the nation was founded, who was eligible to vote?
a. everyone—there was universal suffrage
b. all males and females who were at least 21 years of age
c. only white males who owned property
d. only citizens who had lived in the nation for at least ten years
e. All native-born citizens could vote.

c. only white males who owned property

20. Which of the following is true of the Georgia law that required citizens without a government-issued photo ID, such as a driver’s license or passport, to obtain a voter identification card, which would cost them twenty dollars and expire after five years?
a. A federal judge invalidated Georgia’s twenty-dollar fee requirement, but the photo ID requirement stood.
b. The law currently stands as it was initially created.
c. A federal judge struck down the entire law; a person may vote in Georgia without a government-issued photo ID.
d. A federal court struck down the law, but Georgia appealed it and the Supreme Court upheld the law as created.
e. The photo ID requirement has resulted in a substantial reduction in voter turnout in Georgia.

a. A federal judge invalidated Georgia’s twenty-dollar fee requirement, but the photo ID requirement stood.

1. Which test did the Supreme Court justices devise for free speech in Schenck v. United States (1919)?
a. Undue burden test
b. Clear and present danger test
c. Imminent lawless action test
d. Free liberty test
e. None of these answers is correct

b. Clear and present danger test

2. In ________, the Supreme Court justices required the states to furnish attorneys for poor defendants in all felony cases.

a. Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
b. Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
c. Benton v. Maryland (1969)
d. Duncan v. Louisiana (1968)
e. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

e. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

3. The ___________ Amendment prohibits "cruel and unusual punishment."

a. Second
b. Third
c. Seventh
d. Eighth
e. Twelfth

d. Eighth

Which of the following is a real-world example of an action that the Supreme Court decided was a protected form of symbolic speech?

a. The burning of a draft registration card
b. Blocking the entrance of an abortion clinic.
c. A newspaper publication of the "Pentagon papers".
d. The burning of the American flag in public
e. The advocating of the overthrow of the government in a peaceful assembly.

d. The burning of the American flag in public

5. Court’s interpretation of the Constitution has specified instances in which congressional limitation of speech is lawful. (True/False)

True

6. Prior restraint refers to the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition on unreasonable search and seizure by law enforcement officials. (True/False)

False

7. The clear-and-present-danger test was developed by the Supreme Court in response to the Sedition Act of 1798. (True/False)

True

8. The Supreme Court has tended to be more protective of and sensitive to civil liberties than have elected officials or popular majorities. (True/False.)

True

9. The Supreme Court ruling in the Roe v. Wade abortion case derived from an earlier ruling upholding the right of privacy. (True/False)

True

10. Which Amendment was NOT used in the Griswold v. Connecticut decision?
a. First Amendment
b. Second Amendment
c. Third Amendment
d. Fourth Amendment
e. All Amendments were used.

b. Second Amendment

11. Which case overturned the Supreme Court ruling in Bower V. Hardwick?
a. Griswold v. Connecticut
b. Boy Scouts of America & Monmouth Council v. Dale
c. Gitlow v. New York
d. Roe v. Wade
e. None of the above cases are correct.

e. None of the above cases are correct.

12. The "good faith" exception was derived from decision in United States v. Leon (1984) (True/False)

True

13. The warning "you have the right to remain silent" derives from the case Miranda v. Missouri (1966) (True/False)

False

14. States are required to use grand juries per the Fifth Amendment (True/False)

False

15. The Lemon test is designed to
a. test a state’s practice of guaranteeing procedural due process rights.
b. ensure the secular nature of a government action.
c. prevent a prosecution or defense from creating a biased jury.
d. test state adherence to rights protected by proxy in the Fourteenth Amendment.
e. ensure that a defendant has been given access to counsel from the time of arrest through a trial.

b. ensure the secular nature of a government action.

16. The Supreme Court case Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006) was regarding
a. Proving legal counsel to defendants
b. The US violating the Fifth Amendment’s Due Process clause.
c. Enforcing the Geneva Convention over military commissions
d. Overthrowing the government by use of violence.
e. None of the above.

c. Enforcing the Geneva Convention over military commissions

17. Americans embrace freedom of expression as a concrete virtue (True/False)

False

18. Which constitutional amendment protects the individual against self-incrimination?
a. First
b. Second
c. Fourth
d. Fifth
e. Ninth

d. Fifth

19. Which of the following is correct with regard to obscenity and the law?
a. Obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment.
b. Obscenity is never unlawful.
c. Child pornography is protected by the First Amendment.
d. Obscenity has been easy for courts to define with precision.
e. Obscenity is protected under the Ninth Amendment.

a. Obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment.

20. The individual freedoms in the Bill of Rights were extended by the Fourteenth Amendment to include protection from deprivation of due process rights by
a. actions of the president.
b. the actions of individuals.
c. actions of the federal government.
d. actions of state and local governments.
e. actions of the U.S. military.

d. actions of state and local governments.

1) One area in which African Americans have made substantial progress since the 1960s is
a. Elective office.
b. in representation in the penal system.
c. in treatment by the judicial system.
d. in representation in the penal and judicial systems.
e. None of these answers is correct.

a. Elective office.

2) Women gained the right to vote in national elections with the ______ Amendment
a. 10th
b. 13th
c. 16th
d. 19th
e. None are correct answers.

d. 19th

3) Which country has the highest percentage of national legislative seats held by women?
a. United Kingdom
b. Japan
c. Canada
d. Germany
e. Japan

d. Germany

4) The strict scrutiny test applies to
a. Race
b. Ethnicity.
c. Gender.
d. Age and gender.
e. Race and ethnicity.

e. Race and ethnicity.

Congress made Native Americans official citizens of the United States in ________.
a. 1789
b. 1889
c. 1865
d. 1924
e. 1963

d. 1924

6) In 2004, which state instituted same-sex marriage?
a. Vermont
b. Rhode Island
c. New York
d. California
e. None of these answers is correct.

e. None of these answers is correct.

7) Which of the following statements is true?
a. During the early 1900s, Chinese and Japanese laborers were brought into the western states to work in mines and to build railroads.
b. In 1923, President Calvin Coolidge asked Congress for a relaxation of the ban on Chinese immigration.
c. Discrimination against Asians did not ease substantially until 1950.
d. In the 1800s, Chinese and Japanese laborers were brought into the western states; in 1930 Congress halted all immigration from Japan; discrimination against Asians did not ease substantially until 1965.
e. Immigration from Asia to the United States was higher in the early twentieth century than it was in the latter nineteenth.

d. In the 1800s, Chinese and Japanese laborers were brought into the western states; in 1930 Congress halted all immigration from Japan; discrimination against Asians did not ease substantially until 1965.

8) The reasonable-basis test applies to all laws except those that prescribe differential treatment on the basis of suspect classifications. (True/False)

False

9) All forms of discrimination on the basis of gender are unconstitutional. (True/False)

False

10) What type of discrimination is not covered within Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968?
a. Refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to a person based on race.
b. Refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to a person based on religion.
c. Advertising the sale or rental of a dwelling dedication preference to people with disabilities.
d. Refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to a person based on sexual orientation or gender identity.
e. Coercing, threatening, intimidation or interfering with a person’s enjoyment or exercise of housing rights based on race, sex or religion.

d. Refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to a person based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

11) Hispanic Americans are becoming an increasingly smaller and less politically influential population group in the U.S. (True/False)

False

12) The Voting Rights Act of 1965 does not allows election districts to be created for the purpose of giving control to a minority group. (True/False)

True

13) What is the percentage of Hispanic families with women leading the household that are living in poverty?
a. 21.5%
b. 25.7%
c. 35.5%
d. 40.5%
e. 57.7%

d. 40.5%

14) What cases were legal victories for gay and lesbians in America?
a. Romer v. Evans
b. Lawrence v. Texas
c. Loving v. Virginia
d. A and B are correct
e. A, B, and C are correct

d. A and B are correct

15) Gratz v. Bollinger ended admissions based on race at the University of Michigan. True/False.

True

16) What is the chance of a white (non-Hispanic) male going to prison?
a. 1 in 4
b. 1 in 15
c. 1 in 23
d. 1 in 57
e. 1 in 60

c. 1 in 23

17) Which president appointed Sandra Day O’Connor as the first woman on the U.S. Supreme Court?
a. Richard Nixon
b. Jimmy Carter
c. John F. Kennedy
d. Bill Clinton
e. None of the above.

e. None of the above.

18) Gender is used in which categorical test?
a. Suspect Category
b. Almost suspect category
c. Not suspect category
d. All answers are correct
e. No answer is correct

b. Almost suspect category

19) De facto discrimination is discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, ethnicity and the like that result from a law. True/False.

False

20) Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act if 1968 is also called the
a. Equality for Women Act
b. Equal Access for All Act
c. Affirmative Action Act
d. Fair Housing Act
e. None of the above are correct

d. Fair Housing Act

1. The first American political parties emerged from the conflict between
a. slave states and free states.
b. the older eastern states and the newer western states.
c. small farmers and states’ rights advocates, and those favoring commercial and wealthy interests.
d. business and labor.
e. Protestants and Catholics.

c. small farmers and states’ rights advocates, and those favoring commercial and wealthy interests.

2. In 1992, ________ won 19 percent of the popular vote in the presidential election.
a. Bill Clinton
b. George H. W. Bush
c. Ross Perot
d. Pat Buchanan
e. Ralph Nader

c. Ross Perot

3. The election of ________ represented a party realignment.
a. 1840
b. 1872
c. 1932
d. 1960
e. 1976

c. 1932

4. Roughly how much of campaign spending is devoted to producing and airing televised political advertisements?
a. one-half
b. three-quarters
c. one-quarter
d. one-third
e. one-tenth

a. one-half

5. In Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010), the Supreme Court
a. found private citizens should not have limits on the amount of money they can spend on campaigns.
b. found corporations and unions could not be banned from spending money on campaigns.
c. found private citizens had the same free speech rights as corporations.
d. found corporate and union donations to campaigns was not covered as a form of free speech.
e. invalidated the government’s use of an elections commission to regulate campaign donations.

b. found corporations and unions could not be banned from spending money on campaigns.

6. About 95 percent of all political activists in the United States work at
a. the national level.
b. the state level.
c. the local level.
d. the national and state levels.
e. Republican and Democratic party headquarters.

c. the local level.

7. Candidate-centered politics encourages all of the following EXCEPT
a. greater responsiveness to local interests.
b. greater flexibility in electoral politics.
c. long-term consistency in policymaking.
d. introduction of new blood to politics.
e. an increase in the power of special interest groups.

c. long-term consistency in policymaking.

8. Which of the following is an accurate representation of the public’s opinion about leaders and their accountability?
a. Most citizens have a high opinion of Congress as a whole, but say they have little confidence in their local representative in Congress.
b. Most citizens have a high opinion of both Congress as a whole and their local representative in Congress.
c. Most citizens have a low opinion of Congress as a whole, but say they have confidence in their local representative in Congress.
d. Most citizens have a low opinion of Congress as a whole and also of their local representative in Congress.
e. Most citizens do not feel that their local representatives in Congress should be held accountable for the votes they have to make in order to stay in line with their party’s platform.

c. Most citizens have a low opinion of Congress as a whole, but say they have confidence in their local representative in Congress.

9. James Carville, Dick Morris, and Roger Ailes are all examples of
a. minor party candidates who earned more than five percent of the vote.
b. campaign strategists who have earned legendary reputations.
c. congressional incumbents whose reelection bids were derailed by smear campaigns.
d. national chairpersons of one of the two major parties.
e. lobbyists jailed for their illegal soft money contributions.

b. campaign strategists who have earned legendary reputations.

10. Which of the following are key players in the modern campaign?
a. pollsters
b. media producers
c. fundraising specialists
d. campaign consultants
e. All these answers are correct.

e. All these answers are correct.

11. National party organizations can dictate the day-to-day decisions of
a. local party organizations only.
b. state party organizations only.
c. local and state party organizations.
d. neither local nor state party organizations.
e. party leaders in Congress.

d. neither local nor state party organizations.

12. __________ was the only Republican elected president from 1932-1964.
a. Richard Nixon
b. Barry Goldwater
c. Dwight Eisenhower
d. Herbert Hoover
e. Calvin Coolidge

c. Dwight Eisenhower

13. Which of the following groups is NOT typically a part of the Democratic coalition?
a. city dwellers
b. Hispanics
c. union members
d. Jews
e. fundamentalist Christians

e. fundamentalist Christians

14. What party has made big gains in recent decades among white fundamentalist Christians, based on its positions on topics like abortion and school prayer?
a. Democratic
b. Republican
c. Green
d. Socialist
e. Reform

b. Republican

15. ________ warned Americans of the "baneful effects" of factions (political parties) in his 1797 farewell address.
a. James Madison
b. Thomas Jefferson
c. George Washington
d. Andrew Jackson
e. Abraham Lincoln

c. George Washington

16. Party dealignment is
a. essentially the same as party realignment.
b. a process that has discouraged the formation of third parties.
c. a process that has strengthened the major parties.
d. a process that refers to American political parties in the early 1800s.
e. None of these answers is correct.

e. None of these answers is correct.

17. Political parties in the United States originated partly as a political feud between
a. Marshall and Adams.
b. Adams and Jackson.
c. Lincoln and Douglas.
d. Cleveland and Bryan.
e. Hamilton and Jefferson.

e. Hamilton and Jefferson.

18. Which of the following encourages the two major parties to build broad coalitions?
a. the need to raise campaign funds
b. the need to have policy "wiggle-room" once elected into power
c. the desire to avoid their policy preferences becoming hijacked by extreme elements
d. fear of demonization by the press
e. the two-party system and the need to gain a plurality.

e. the two-party system and the need to gain a plurality.

19. If a minor party gains a large following, it is almost certain that
a. the major parties will join together to attack the minor party.
b. Congress will enact legislation to make it difficult for the minor party to get on the ballot.
c. party in-fighting will tear it apart.
d. one or both major parties will absorb its issue, and the minor party will lose support.
e. the media will attack the minor party.

d. one or both major parties will absorb its issue, and the minor party will lose support.

20. In 1912, a candidate for which minor party managed to earn more votes than one of his major party opponents?
a. Socialist
b. Prohibition
c. Bull Moose
d. Reform
e. Populist

c. Bull Moose

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