geology chapter 10

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________ are specific features of karst topography.

Streams flowing into depressions and continuing underground

The water table is ________.

a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above

An aquifer is ________.

a saturated, porous, and permeable layer or stratum

Water-saturated muds have low permeabilities but can have greater porosities than well-cemented sandstone.


An artesian well is one in which ________.

water rises above the top of the aquifer without any pumping

________ would have the largest capacity to naturally remove sewage pollutants.

Slightly clayey sand

________ is the volume of voids or open space in a rock or unconsolidated material.


Which one of the following logically explains why parts of some cavern systems are aerated?

a nearby, downcutting stream lowered the water table after the caves had formed

A perched water table develops when ________.

a horizontal aquitard above the regional water table lies below an aquifer

The aerated zone ________.

lies above the water table

The term karst topography was first used in ________.

the Republic of Slovenia, a province of the former Yugoslavia

________ are characteristics found in all good aquifers.

High porosity and high permeability

A ________ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.


Which one of the following is not a speleothem?


For unconfined aquifers, what hydrologic factor is approximated by the slope of the water table?

hydraulic gradient

Permeability is the physical force that pushes water below the water table through a porous, rock material.


Which of the following geologic materials would have the highest groundwater velocities and be least effective in removing unwanted pollutants from the water?

limestone; numerous solution channels and fractures widened by dissolution

Artesian groundwater conditions can develop in an inclined aquifer with aquitards above and below.


Which of the following describes the configuration of an unconfined water table around a pumping well?

cone of depression

An unconfined water table is the ________.

boundary between the saturated zone above and partly saturated zone below

________ account for the largest usage of groundwater in the United States.

Agriculture and irrigation

In areas underlain by unconsolidated or weakly consolidated strata, lowering of the water table can cause the land to subside.


Which one of the following concerning stalactites and stalagmites is not true?

stalagmites form on the floors of caves below the water table

In areas of karst topography, rare surface streams typically flow into sinkholes and continue flowing underground for some distance.


________ controls the ease (or difficulty) of groundwater transmission through a porous material.


Which common, rock-forming mineral or mineral group is most readily dissolved by groundwater?


Which of the following can logically be concluded by speleothems/dripstone hanging from a cave roof?

the cave roof was above the water table when the speleothems formed

The hot spring deposits at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, are travertine. What rock probably lies somewhere beneath the hot springs?


Excessive groundwater withdrawals can cause ________.

the water table drops or declines in elevation

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