Geology Ch. 14

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Which of the following is true about how shorelines are affected from the water side?

waves can erode, deposit, or transport sediment

Factors that do NOT affect the appearance of a shoreline from the water side include:

all of these affect the appearance

Factors that affect the appearance of shoreline include:

all of these

The orientation of a coastline affects the appearance of a shoreline primarily because it influences:

the erosive effects of waves

Which of the following is true about shorelines?

Both A and B -A. many beach areas are backed by coastal dunes formed by the wind -B. rivers are important contributors of sediment into the shoreline system

How can climate influence the process along coastal landscapes?

Both A and B -A. controls the amount of precipitation (which affects amount of erosion) -B. affects the size and intensity of storms

When will an area experience high tide?

when the moon is directly overhead or on the opposite side of earth

What causes high and low tides?

water is pulled by the gravity of the moon

There are 2 high tides and 2 low ties in each 25 hour period because?

earth completes a full rotation every 24 hours but the moon moves too

If waves approach the shore at an angle they:

bend so they approach the shore more directly

High tides are higher than average and low tides are lower than average when:

A, B and C -A. the moon and sun are aligned relative to earth -B. it is a full moon -C. it is a new moon

What is the depth of wave base?

the depth to which wave action extends

Which of the following is true about how waves form and break upon the shore?

waves begin to change when they reach water shallower than wave base

How do waves propagate across the water?

A and B -A. the wave moves forward but water moves in a circular motion -B. water near the surface moves more than water at depth

Which of the following parts of a shoreline is more likely to experience intense erosion?

the seaward end of a promontory

Which of the following can influence whether a shoreline gains or losses sand with time?

all of these

Where do most large stones originate along a shoreline?

A and B -A. waves swirl away loose pieces of bedrock -B. undercutting by waves causes seep rock faces to collapse into the sea

Sand and other sediment:

A and B -A. can move laterally along the coast if waves approach the beach at angle -B. move up and down the slope of the beach

In what direction does a spit typically form with time?

in the same direction as a longshore current

Which of the following shoreline features is generally composed of bedrock?

wave cut platform

What is the typical setting of a sea cave or sea stack?

on a promontory

What was key point demonstrated by photographs in the textbook from before and after hurricanes?

waves and storm surge caused erosion of beaches and destruction of houses

Which of the following is NOT an approach communities have tried to address shoreline problems?

lowering the local sea level

What is probably the east expensive approach for avoiding shoreline hazards?

forbid the building of houses or other structures in high risk areas

What happens on either side of the equilibrium in a glacier?

above the equilibrium line, the amount of accumulation exceeds the amount lost by various process

What happens when a glacier encounters the sea or a lake?

large blocks of ice collapse off the from o the glacier and become icebergs

Which of the following is NOT a way glaciers move downhill?

the lower part of a glacier flows faster that the upper part

What happens to snowflakes as they become progressively buried within glaciers?

C and D -C. become interlocking crystals of ice -D. they can become bluish because of trapped air

The margin of glaciers are usually darker than the interior primarily because:

the sides have a higher concentration of rocks and other debris

How is a terminal or recessional moraine from a continental ice sheet typically expressed in the landscape?

as a series of gently curved ridges

What does a terminal moraine represent?

a pile of sediment deposited at the end of the glacier

What are some possible influences of ocean currents on glaciation?

all of these

The amount of solar heating can increase from:

a decrease in snow and ice cover on earths surface

What is one of the most important aspects about west antarctica with respect to global sea level?

it has large floating ice shelves that could be detached and melted

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