geography 2

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Water covers approximately __________ of Earth’s surface.

71 percent

Which of the following is true?
A) Water has been discovered on no other planet.
B) There is no evidence of water ever existing on Mars.
C) Water occurs in significant quantities only on Earth.
D) Ice has not been detected below the surface of our Moon.

Water occurs in significant quantities only on Earth.

Water has a density of

1 g/ cm3.

When water freezes, its density

decreases

When water freezes, its volume

increases

Much of Earth’s water supply originated from

icy comets.

Water at the surface of Earth was released from the interior of Earth primarily by

volcanic outgassing.

The present quantity of water on Earth was achieved approximately __________ years before the present.

two billion years ago

Water is lost from the hydrologic system when
A) it dissociates into hydrogen and oxygen.
B) it breaks down during chemical reactions and forms new compounds with other elements.
C) all of the above occur.
D) none of the abovewater cannot be destroyed.

all of the above occur.

Eustasy refers to

worldwide changes in sea level.

Glacio-eustatic factors refer to

changes in sea level related to the increase or decrease in quantities of ice.

During the height of the last ice age, approximately 18,000 years ago, sea level

dropped by a few hundred feet.

Which of the following is true of the distribution of land and water on Earth?

The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by water.

The largest portion of fresh water today is located in

ice caps and glaciers.

Earth’s oceans possess

ninety-seven percent of Earth’s waters.

Which of the following is correctly matched?

ice = largest volume of freshwater on Earth

About 50 percent of the 125,000 km3 (30,000 mi3) of freshwater in lakes is

located in just seven lakes.

Which of the following is true regarding the amount of water in rivers, streams, and the atmosphere?
A) They contain 0.033 percent of the world’s fresh water supply.
B) The total amount of water in these locations is equal to 14,250 km3 (3400 mi3).
C) Their volume is 1/10 the volume of water in fresh water lakes.
D) All of these are correct.

D) All of these are correct.

Which of the following is true regarding fresh water on Earth?
A) Most of it is in large lakes.
B) Most of it is frozen in glaciers and ice caps.
C) Freshwater lakes and streams hold only .0091% of Earth’s total water.
D) B and C
E) All of the above.

D) B and C

Other than ice sheets and glaciers, the largest repository of fresh water is located in

groundwater

__________ lakes occur in areas of interior drainage, which means that __________.

Saline; the water in the lakes flows into basins that have no outlet to the sea

Water molecules bind tightly to one another. This is a result of

hydrogen bonding.

If water behaved like other compounds,
A) icebergs would sink to the bottom of the oceans.
B) the whole iceberg would float just below the surface.
C) it would shrink as it cooled and froze.
D) all of the above.
E) A and C only.

A and C only.

Water is a good solvent because

it has an asymmetrical charge distribution (one end is positive and the other negative).

Surface tension and capillarity are the result of

hydrogen bonding.

Some insects can walk on water. This is possible

because of a water property known as surface tension.

Hydrogen bonding results from the fact that

the hydrogen end of a water molecule is positively charged and the oxygen end is negatively charged.

When you put a straw into a drink and take a sip of it, the drink in the straw will remain above the height of the surface of the drinkeven after you stop sipping the drink. This occurs because of

capillary action.

Water movement through the soil and water held in a straw above the surface of the liquid you are drinking result from a common phenomenon. What is this phenomenon?

capillary action

The attraction of water molecules for one another manifests itself as __________, whereas the attraction of water molecules for other materials is manifested by __________.

surface tension; capillary action

The phase changes water and other substances undergo are based on

the amount of motion of molecules and the strength of the bonds between them.

The term deposition refers to

water vapor freezing to ice.

What is the heat energy involved in the change of state, or phase, in water?

latent heat

Which of the following is true regarding the evaporation of water?

The phase change involves the latent heat of evaporation.

Both the latent heat of melting (heat of fusion) and the latent heat of freezing involve the absorption or release of __________ calories per gram of water changing state.

80

Which of the following phase changes involves the greatest number of calories?

sublimation

If 80 calories of heat energy are added to 1g of ice at 0°, what will the temperature of the ice be after the phase change?

0°C

When water condenses, it __________ heat energy and __________ the surrounding air.

releases; heats

When water evaporates, it __________ heat energy and __________ the surrounding air.

absorbs; cools

When frost forms, it

warms the air by releasing 680 calories of heat energy to the air per gram of water.

In order to melt two grams of ice, how many calories of heat energy must be added to the ice during its phase change? (specific heat of water = 1 cal/gm; heat of fusion = 80 cal/g;) (heat of vaporization = 540 cal/g; heat of sublimation = 620 cal/g)

160 cal

If the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization were reversed, which of the following statements would be true?
A) The phase change from ice to liquid would occur more slowly than it now does.
B) Water would vaporize much more readily than it now does.
C) Earth’s water bodies might freeze because, once frozen, the ice would not melt as easily.
D) All of the above are true.
E) None of the above are true.

D) All of the above are true.

Which of the following phase changes decreases the temperature of the air?

ice to water

If the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization were reversed, ice would be

less likely to melt.

The process of sublimation (deposition) in the atmosphere produces

snowflakes

Water, like most compounds, decreases in volume as it cools; however, at 4°C (39°F), water

begins to expand to as much as nine percent of its volume.

In winter, freezing water can break pipes and even crack engine blocks .Why does this happen?

Water expands in volume as it freezes in response to hydrogen bonding.

Most of the precipitation and evaporation on Earth takes place over the

oceans

Water vapor in the atmosphere is called

humidity.

Relative humidity is

the amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature expressed as a percentage of the water vapor capacity of the air.

The capacity of the air to hold water vapor is basically a function of

the temperature of both the water vapor and the air.

As temperature increases, the amount of energy available for evaporation

increases

A mass of air always becomes saturated when it reaches the

dew-point temperature.

A way of describing humidity in millibars is termed

vapor pressure.

A humidity measure that remains constant as temperature and pressure change, and which is expressed as a mass of water vapor per mass (g/kg) of air, is

specific humidity.

In a mass of air in which no water is being added or removed, a temperature increase will

have no effect on the specific humidity, but will decrease the relative humidity.

Which of the following would cause the evaporation rate to decrease?

increased relative humidity

If the saturation vapor pressure increases while the amount of water vapor in the air remains constant, this would indicate

that the temperature had increased.

Because the saturation vapor pressure above an ice surface is __________ than that above a water surface means that water vapor is more likely to __________.

less; sublime (deposit) onto the ice surface

The fact that the saturation vapor pressure above a water surface is higher than that above an ice surface means that

the air above an ice crystal will become saturated more quickly than that around a water droplet.

Which of the following is not used to measure relative humidity?

wet and dry barometers

The greater the difference in temperature between the wet bulb and dry bulb on a sling psychrometer, the __________ the air is and the __________ the relative humidity.

drier; lower

The smaller the difference in temperature between the wet bulb and dry bulb on a sling psychrometer, the __________ the air is and the __________.

wetter; closer the air temperature is to dew point

A large difference in temperature between a wet bulb and a dry bulb on a sling psychrometer indicates
A) that the air is cooling by adiabatic expansion.
B) that the relative humidity is high.
C) that substantial evaporation is occurring from the wet bulb.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the above.

C) that substantial evaporation is occurring from the wet bulb.

Which of the following can be concluded given the information shown below?
Saturation vapor pressure = 20 mb, Actual vapor pressure = 19.5 mb
A) The difference in temperature between the wet bulb and dry bulb on a sling psychrometer would be large.
B) The air temperature and dew point temperature are almost the same.
C) The relative humidity is high.
D) all of the above
E) B and C only

E) B and C only

The elevation at which the bottoms of clouds begin to form represents the elevation at which
A) dew point occurs.
B) relative humidity reaches 100 percent.
C) absolute humidity reaches 100 percent.
D) Both A and B.
E) Both A and C.

D) Both A and B.

Which of the following normally would be true of the humidity above the hot, moist, tropical rain forests of the world?
A) The specific humidity would be high.
B) The relative humidity would be high.
C) The saturation vapor pressure would be high.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

D) all of the above

Which of the following would be true of the humidity above the hot, dry, subtropical deserts of the world during the daytime?

The specific humidity would be very low.

The general term that refers to the tendency of a parcel of air to either remain in place or change its initial position is __________.

stability

An air parcel is considered unstable when it

continues to rise until it reaches an altitude at which the surrounding air has a similar temperature.

A parcel of air, with less than 100% relative humidity, that is rising because of heat energy derived from the surface is

unstable.

If an air parcel will begin to rise when condensation begins in that parcel, the air is considered to be

conditionally unstable.

Air in a thunderstorm is being heated to temperatures higher than those of the surrounding air by the process of __________, and because of this, the air is __________.

condensation; unstable

If you visited Mount Shasta City (elevation 900 m [3000 ft.]) and found the outside air temperature to be 27°C (81°F), what would be the air temperature at the summit of Mount Shasta (elevation 4200 m [14,000 ft.]) at that momentassuming that the temperature conditions with altitude change at an average, or normal, lapse rate?

5.9°C (42.5°F)

When the environmental lapse rate is between the dry and moist adiabatic lapse rates conditions are described as

conditionally unstable.

Assume a warm air parcel, at sea level, has a temperature of 21°C (70°F) and begins to rise upward. Assume it becomes saturated at 1000 m (3300 ft) altitude, and continues to rise to 2000 m (6600 ft.) altitude. What would the approximate temperature of the parcel be at an elevation of 2000 m (6600 ft.)?

5°C (46.4°F)

Air that is not saturated will cool or heat at a rate of __________ as it rises or descends, respectively.

10 C° per 1000 m (5.5 F° per 1000 ft.)

The dry adiabatic rate (DAR) is

10 C° per 1000 m (5.5 F° per 1000 ft.) a fixed rate.

The wet adiabatic rate is __________ than the dry adiabatic rate because __________.

less; condensation heats the air

Which of the following statements regarding rising air, in which dew point temperature has been reached, is correct?

The air is simultaneously being cooled by expansion and heated by condensation.

Areas between 25° to 35° latitude usually become __________ because this area is dominated by air that is sinking and being __________.

deserts; heated by compression

The island of Oahu is located at about 18° north latitude and has a mountain range on it which runs in an east-west direction. Based on this, which side of the island receives the greatest amount of rainfall? (Consider the wind belt in which Oahu is located in order to answer this question.)

north

As air sinks down the leeward side of a mountain, it will move into a region of __________ air pressure and will therefore be __________ by compression.

higher; heated

As air rises up the windward side of a mountain, it will move into a region of __________ air pressure and will therefore be cooled by __________.

lower; expansion

An individual raindrop consists of approximately __________ moisture droplets.

1 million

The condensation process requires

condensation nuclei and saturated air.

Condensation nuclei over the ocean consist primarily of

salt particles.

Which of the following is true regarding condensation nuclei?

Continental air masses contain more than 10 times the condensation nuclei of maritime air masses.

The principal process for raindrop formation in tropical warm clouds is

collision-coalescence process.

Coalescence and/or the Bergeron process are necessary in order for

precipitation to occur.

The Bergeron process occurs because
A) water evaporates more easily from water droplets than from ice crystals.
B) water evaporates more easily from ice crystals than from water droplets.
C) water has a higher saturation vapor pressure than ice crystals have.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C

both A and C

In the Bergeron process, water droplets transform from

water droplets to ice crystals.

Collision-coalescence and the Bergeron process both act to

increase the size of water droplets and ice crystals.

Clouds that have vertical development and produce thunderstorms are called

cumulonimbus.

Which of the following is not generally true of well-developed cumulonimbus clouds?

They are more likely to form in association with a warm front than a cold front.

The weather of the tropics is dominated by __________ clouds which forms as a result of __________.

cumulonimbus; convection

Which type of cloud would dominate the weather in a region under the ITCZ?

cumulonimbus

Which of the following are correctly matched?

puffy or globular clouds – cumuliform

Which of the following is a middle-level cloud type?

altostratus

What type of cloud that has a thin wispy appearance, consists of ice crystals, and often precedes a warm front?

cirrus

The formation of which type of cloud is always associated with the latent heat of sublimation (deposition)?

cirrocumulus

Which of the following is true regarding cirrostratus clouds?

They form a veil of ice crystals that creates a halo around the Moon or Sun.

Which cloud type is specifically a good indicator of an arriving storm, say within the next 24 hours?

cirrus

Which of the following would not be a reason for frequent thunderstorms in Florida?
A) The Florida peninsula heats to high temperatures during the day.
B) Warm ocean water surrounds the peninsula.
C) Frequent, strong cold fronts occur in the Florida area.
D) all of the above
E) A and B only

E) A and B only

A thunderstorm is associated with __________ clouds.

cumulonimbus

The prefix nimbo- and the suffix -nimbus means

that the clouds are producing precipitation.

Condensation in a storm __________ the temperature of the air and causes the air pressure in the storm system to __________.

increases; drop

Which of the following is incorrect?

fog = a stratus cloud that is high in elevation off the ground

Cooling of a surface overnight that chills the air layer directly above that surface may form

a radiation fog.

Fog often lingers in river valleys because
A) the water in the river cools off faster at night than the land does.
B) cold air sinks into low areas such as river valleys.
C) some evaporation may occur from the river, thereby supplying moisture to the cooler atmosphere.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C

E) both B and C

A fog that develops when warm, moist air blows over a cold current (such as the California Current) is an example of __________ fog.

advection

On cool spring mornings, veils of fog can often be seen rising above warm lakes and ponds. This type fog is an example of __________ fog.

evaporation

"Sea smoke" is

a type of evaporation fog.

A radiation fog is most likely to develop when

the sky is clear.

Earth’s waters originated at the surfacenot from within the crust.

False

The overall quantity of water on Earth is constantly fluctuating as evidenced by changes in sea level.

False

Worldwide changes in sea level associated with fluctuations in water stored as ice are termed glacio-eustatic.

True

Less than 3 percent of Earth’s waters are classified as fresh water.

True

The largest freshwater lake in the world in terms of volume is Lake Baykal, Russia.

True

The Great Salt Lake in Utah is an example of saline lake water.

True

Saline lakes are usually in areas of interior drainage.

True

Hydrogen bonding between water molecules produces the properties of surface tension and capillarity.

True

The fact that water expands as it freezes allows it to break pipes and damage roads.

True

The bulk of the evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents.

False

Evaporation from a surface cools the surface.

True

During a phase change from ice to water, the temperature of ice increases at the same rate as it did prior to beginning the phase change.

False

Sublimation (depostion) produces snowflakes.

True

The dominant cooling process on Earth results from condensation.

False

The phase changes of water provide a significant amount of the energy that powers the general circulation of the atmosphere.

True

The phase change from liquid water to water vapor involves more energy than the phase change from ice to water.

True

When water vapor condenses to steam, it can produce severe burns because of the latent heat of fusion.

False

The water vapor content of the air is termed humidity.

True

Air is saturated when the dew-point temperature and the air temperature coincide.

True

The portion of the total air pressure that is made up of water vapor molecules is termed specific humidity.

False

Relative humidity is a direct measure of the water vapor content of the air.

False

If a parcel of air is cooled, its relative humidity and saturation vapor pressure both rise.

False

If saturation vapor pressure has been reached, then the relative humidity is 100 percent.

True

The specific humidity of large air masses is useful in forecasting weather.

True

When air becomes drier, difference between the wet and dry bulb thermometer readings decreases.

False

When the air cools by emitting infrared energy to space, it is cooling adiabatically.

False

A parcel of air tends to heat by expansion and cool by compression as it moves vertically in the atmosphere.

False

The dry adiabatic rate (DAR) applies to a moving parcel of air that is saturated, and it may vary from 4 C° to 10 C° per 1000 m (2 F° to 6 F° per 1000 ft).

False

The moist adiabatic rate varies as a function of both temperature and moisture content.

True

The moist adiabatic rate (MAR) is less than the dry adiabatic rate (DAR) as a result of the release of the latent heat of condensation within the rising parcel of air.

True

Unstable conditions are produced when the environmental lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic rate.

True

As air rises up the side of a mountain, both its relative humidity and specific humidity increase.

False

When high-level air in the subtropics sinks, it is heated by compression and this lowers its relative humidity.

True

Ice tends to develop on bridges because cold air can circulate under the bridge and drop the temperature of the bridge surface to the freezing point.

True

The technique of allowing water to freeze has been used to quarry rocks.

True

A small, puffy cumulus cloud can weigh as much as 1000 tons.

True

The destructive energy associated with major storms is derived largely from the condensation of water.

True

Clouds are only composed of raindrops.

False

The collision-coalescence process of raindrop formation predominates in clouds at high latitudes.

True

To date, scientists have only detected liquid water on Earth.

True

Weather is

the short-term condition of the atmosphere.

New technologies in weather forecasting and measurement include all but which of the following?

The National Weather Service’s Advanced Weather Interactive Processing Software (AWIPS)

The scientific study of the short-term condition of the atmosphere is

meteorology.

Which is not true of weather-related damage?

The damage has never exceeded $90 billion worldwide.

Over the last two decades, costs for weather-related destruction has, on an annual basis,

increased five-fold.

The transition from the Ice Age to the present warm conditions can best be considered an example of

a change in climate.

Which of the following is false regarding air masses?

Air masses tend to maintain their original characteristics as they migrate from their source regions.

Air masses which develop over Canada are examples of __________ air masses.

cP

Given a cP air mass and cT air mass with the same relative humidity, which air mass would have higher specific humidity?

The cT air mass would have the higher specific humidity.

Which of the following matches is true?

specific humidity of 17 g/kg = typical moisture content of mT Gulf air mass

A well-developed, newly formed cP air mass would have which of the following characteristics?
A) cold temperatures
B) clear skies
C) high pressure
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

D) all of the above

Which of the following pressure systems reside within the source region for mP air masses?

Aleutian low and Icelandic low

The maritime tropical Pacific (mT) and maritime tropical Gulf and Atlantic (mT) air masses are

different from one another because the Pacific air mass usually has lower specific humidity than the Gulf/Atlantic air mass.

A mT air mass is likely to be __________ than a cT air mass because the mT air mass __________.

wetter; forms over the ocean

A mT air mass __________ than a cT air mass.

forms over an ocean and is usually more humid

Which of the following would result in the modification of the air mass?
A) A mT air mass moving across Texas.
B) A cP air mass moving across the Great Lakes.
C) A cT air mass moving across the Gulf of Mexico.
D) An cA air mass moving across the Gulf of Alaska.
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

Lake effect snow involves
A) heavy snowfall on the leeward shores of Great Lakes.
B) heavy snowfall on the windward shores of the Great Lakes.
C) cP and cA air masses being humidified and warmed by the Great Lakes.
D) A and C only.
E) all of the above.

D) A and C only.

With respect to the three main lifting (cooling) mechanisms (local heating, orographic, and frontal), which of the following is correct?

Given the necessary physical requirements, orographic precipitation is usually the most consistent type of the three.

The Intertropical Convergence Zone is characterized by

warm, wet rising air.

Summer afternoon thundershowers in the southeastern United States are more than likely a result of

convectional lifting.

The term "orographic" refers to

forced uplift due to the presence of a physical barrier.

Which of the following is not true regarding orographic lifting?
A) The world record holder for highest average rainfall is due to orographic lifting.
B) The world record holder for wettest year and wettest month is due to orographic lifting.
C) Orographic lifting is one of the most important lifting mechanisms worldwide.
D) Heavy rain and snow fall on the eastern sides of the Sierra Nevadas, Rocky Mountains, and Cascades is due to orographic lifting.
E) All of these are true.

D) Heavy rain and snow fall on the eastern sides of the Sierra Nevadas, Rocky Mountains, and Cascades is due to orographic lifting.

The wide end of a flat island in the tropics is likely to experience more rainfall than the narrow end because

more convectional heating occurs over the wide end.

Which of the following does not occur at some stage during the development of a chinook wind?

decrease in relative humidity during the air’s ascent up the windward side

The place on Earth with the highest annual average rainfall is located in

the United States.

The record precipitation received in a single year was

on the slopes of the Assam Hills in India.

The highest rainfall in the world occurs in an area whose rainfall is generated by

orographic uplift of warm, moist air.

The wetter, intercepting slope of a mountain is termed the __________ slope, whereas the drier, downwind slope is termed the __________ slope.

windward; leeward

The term "rain shadow" refers to

dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges.

Which of the following statements is true?
A) When air is cooled, its ability to hold moisture decreases.
B) One would expect more precipitation near the equator than near the poles.
C) One would expect winters in Siberia to be very dry, with little precipitation.
D) One would expect precipitation to occur when moist air rises over a mountain.
E) All of these are true.

E) All of these are true.

When a cold front approaches, air pressure will initially __________ due to the displacement and uplift of __________ air.

decrease; warm

After a cold front passes, the temperature __________ and the pressure __________ (relative to the conditions that existed prior to the passage of the front).

decreases; increases

After a warm front passes, the temperature __________ and the pressure __________ (relative to the conditions that existed prior to the passage of the front).

increases; decreases

Which of the following is incorrectly matched?

cold front – clear cold air and high clouds as the front approaches

The severity of storm activity along a warm front is __________ than that along most cold fronts because the rate of uplift is __________ along a warm front.

less; slower

The severity of storm activity along a cold front is __________ than that along most warm fronts because the rate of uplift is __________ along a cold front.

greater; faster

Storms along cold fronts are more severe than storms along warm fronts because
A) cold fronts move more quickly than warm fronts.
B) uplift is more rapid along cold fronts than along warm fronts.
C) cold air holds more moisture than warm air.
D) A and B.
E) all of the above.

D) A and B.

Which of the following is true of migrating centers of low pressure in the Northern Hemisphere?

These pressure systems are characterized by converging, ascending air that spirals inward in a counterclockwise fashion.

The weather conditions at point A are best described by which of the following? (map of US)

an area of clear skies and north winds

The weather conditions along point B are described by which of the following? (map of US)

wind shifting and strong, warm air abruptly lifted by colder air

The weather conditions along point C are described by which of the following? (map of US)

warm air being lifted gently and steadily over cooler air

The weather conditions along point D are described by which of the following? (map of US)

mT air mass, warm, wet, and humid from the Gulf states

Which of the following is false regarding wave-cyclone development, intensification, and strengthening?

A midlatitude cyclone, from birth to maturity to dissolution, takes an average of a month.

Which site is experiencing warm, steady rain and wind from the south west? (map of US)

A

Which site is experiencing strong rain and wind from the north west? (map of US)

C

Storm tracks across the United States and Canada generally

shift to the south in winter, and toward the north in summer.

Which of the following is true of the occluded stage of a midlatitude cyclone?

It occurs when the cold front overruns the slower moving warm front.

Occlusion in a midlatitude wave cyclone can occur because

cold fronts travel more quickly than warm fronts.

In which of the following areas will thunderstorms not develop?

under areas of strong high pressure

The location that experiences the greatest number of thunderstorms in a given year is in

East Africa, north of Lake Victoria.

Summer thunderstorms in the southern United States are usually produced by towering __________ clouds that form by __________.

cumulonimbus; convection

Which of the following is true?
A) Lightning precedes thunder.
B) Thunder is caused by rapid heating of the air.
C) Thunder is caused by rapid expansion of the air.
D) All of the above are true.
E) A and B only

D) All of the above are true.

About __________ percent of lightning strikes occur over water.

10

Hail forms

when water freezes inside a cloud and is then recirculated by convections currents until it falls.

Which of the following is not true regarding thunderstorms?

In North America the least thunderstorms occur in areas dominated by mT air masses.

Florida has the highest thunderstorm frequency in the United States because
A) the Florida peninsula heats to high temperatures during the day.
B) mT air masses surround the peninsula.
C) frequent, strong cold fronts occur in the Florida area.
D) all of the above.
E) A and B only

E) A and B only

Hail generally forms

within cumulonimbus clouds, and sometimes in association with cold front activity.

Derechos are

straight-line winds associated with thunderstorms.

Which is not true of Derechos?

The winds travel in a curved path.

Weather forecasting accuracy has improved due to
A) advancements in weather modeling, including 3-D models.
B) advancements in computer technology, including the High Performance Computing System.
C) the use of radar to analyze wind from the surface to high altitudes.
D) all of the above.
E) Despite improvements in technology, weather forecasts have not improved.

D) all of the above.

Tornadoes

are associated with mesocyclones.

Which of the following is thought to be necessary for the development of a tornado?
A) a horizontally rotating body of air generated by differences in wind speed between low-level and upper-level air flow
B) a strong updraft
C) a mesocyclone
D) all of the above
E) B and C only

D) all of the above

Which of the following is true of tornadoes in the United States?

The peak month is May.

Tornadoes in the United States occur as a result of the interaction of warm, moist __________ air masses with cold, dry __________ air masses, respectively.

mT; cP

Which of the following cloud types is associated with tornado development?

cumulonimbus

The highest frequency of tornadoes per 10,000 mi2 in the United States occurs in

Oklahoma.

Which of the following is false regarding tornados?

The air pressure inside a tornado funnel is 10% greater than the surrounding air.

Tornadoes are ranked in terms of wind speed and related property damage using the __________ scale.

Enhanced Fujita

Tropical cyclones

originate entirely within tropical air masses.

Hurricanes derive their energy from

the latent heat of condensation.

Upper-level divergence above an easterly wave

pulls moisture into the system.

Easterly waves travel from __________ in the __________ belt.

east to west; trade wind

Uplift and storm development occur on the __________ side of an easterly wave.

eastern

Which of the following is true of hurricanes in the western Atlantic?

The peak months of occurrence are from August to October.

Which part of a hurricane consists of dry, subsiding air?

eye

Why are the winds in a hurricane and tornado so strong?
A) The pressure gradient is strong.
B) The pressure at the center of the storm is very low.
C) Tremendous amounts of condensation occur in the center of the storm.
D) all of the above
E) A and B only

D) all of the above

Hurricanes die when they move over land because
A) the Coriolis force is not sufficient to sustain them over land.
B) the land temperature is not warm enough to sustain the low pressure system.
C) evaporation and subsequent condensation are no longer sufficient to sustain them.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the above.

C) evaporation and subsequent condensation are no longer sufficient to sustain them.

When hurricanes first form in the Northern Hemisphere, they usually travel from __________, and later from __________ as they move to higher latitudes.

east to west; west to east

Which of the following is incorrect?

The most severe weather in a hurricane occurs in the spiral bands.

The annual frequency of tropical cyclones is greatest in the __________ ocean.

Pacific

Which hurricane holds the western hemisphere records for lowest barometric pressure?

Hurricane Wilma.

Which hurricane holds the Atlantic basin record for lowest barometric pressure?

Hurricane Wilma

Which of the following was the deadliest Atlantic hurricane of the last 100 years?

Hurricane Mitch

Which of the following is false of tropical cyclones?

They form around an intense high pressure center at the surface.

The lowest sea-level pressure was recorded

in the center of Typhoon Tip.

Which of the following is false regarding hurricanes?

The highest pressures measured on Earth have been inside hurricanes.

Which of the following is true regarding hurricanes?

In 2006, Super Typhoon Ioke became the first category 5 super typhoon to develop in the Pacific.

Stability refers to the tendency of a parcel of air to either remain as it is or change its initial position by lifting or falling.

True

An air mass is a mass of air that may extend through the lower half of the troposphere and is homogenous in terms of temperature and humidity.

True

Continental polar air masses of cold, dry air are more developed during the summer over North America than in winter.

False

In terms of stability, mT air masses formed over the Gulf of Mexico are quite similar to the mT air masses formed over the Pacific.

False

Cool, moist, and unstable mP air masses average 4.4 g/kg of specific humidity.

True

Air masses that migrate far from their source regions become modified in physical characteristics and form secondary air masses.

True

The interception of passing air masses by a mountain barrier is termed orographic uplift, and it produces moist windward slopes and drier leeward slopes.

True

Chinook winds form on the leeward side of mountains.

True

Chinook winds are cold, dry winds.

False

The term "rain shadow" is assigned to windward slopes.

False

A rainshadow is a zone of dark clouds and heavy rainfall.

False

Orographic precipitation is limited in areal extent, yet it produces the world’s highest precipitation amounts and averages.

True

A line on a weather map that is marked with small triangular spikes designates a warm front.

False

The direction of travel of midlatitude wave cyclones is controlled largely by the polar jet stream.

True

The topography and latitudinal position of North America are important factors in air mass interactions.

True

In the Southern Hemisphere, a migrating center of low pressure, with converging, ascending air that spirals clockwise, is a wave cyclone.

True

Cyclogenesis refers to the occluded and dissolving phases of a midlatitude cyclone.

False

Midlatitude cyclones often develop on the windward side of mountains and are related to the flow of air upslope.

False

Cyclonic storms develop along the polar front.

True

Weather prediction may always remain difficult because slight changes of the input data into computer models can result in big differences in the predicted outcome of a weather situation.

True

Weather prediction will soon be almost 100 percent accurate because weather systems act in a linear fashion.

False

Thunderstorms and hail are associated with cumulonimbus cloud development.

True

During a thunderstorm, you should never seek shelter from lightning under a tree.

True

A typhoon and a hurricane are identical in physical structure and properties, although they occur in different parts of the world.

True

Hurricanes pose more of a threat to the Florida Everglades than human activities do.

False

Heavy rains in west Africa, as well as warm sea temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the Caribbean, are some of the indicators of an up-coming, active hurricane season.

True

Stratospheric winds blowing from west to east above surface winds blowing from east to west, tend to favor hurricane development.

True

Hurricanes are more likely to develop when sea surface temperatures are slightly below 26°.

False

Fog can be used as a source of water.

True

Hurricane Mitch was the deadliest Atlantic hurricane in over 200 years.

True

The year 1998 saw relatively little weather-related damage.

False

The formation of sleet requires a sub-freezing layer of air near the ground.

True

Most lightning strikes occur over water.

False

The frequency of tornadoes in the United States has been increasing over the last ten or so years.

True

Scientists have essentially ruled out global climate change as a cause of increased tornado frequency in the United States.

False

The lowest sea-level pressure on Earth was measured inside a hurricane.

True

An Atlantic tropical depression that matures early is likely to miss the United States.

True

Hurricane Andrew destroyed 70,000 homes and left over 200,000 people homeless in 1992.

True

Hurricane Wilma had the lowest measured pressure for an Atlantic basin hurricane.

True

Warmer-than-average surface water temperatures between Africa and the Caribbean are associated with a greater frequency of Atlantic hurricanes.

True

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