Geography 1111 Test 3-2-1

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Karst topography is formed primarily by
A) oxidation and hydrolysis.
B) mass wasting processes.
C) exfoliation and hydration.
D) carbonic acid solution.

D

Which of the following is an example of a first order of relief?
A) the Alps and Rockies B) the Shenandoah Valley
C) an ocean basin
D) the Tibetan Plateau

C

Glacial polish results from
A) rotation of ice about a vertical axis.
B) abrasion.
C) regelation.
D) ice plucking.

B

An interruption in a stream’s graded profile of equilibrium is called a
A) base level.
B) longitudinal interruption.
C) nickpoint.
D) gradation.

C

The total possible load a stream can transport is its ________, whereas a stream’s ability to move particles of
specific size is its ________.
A) discharge; competence
B) capacity; competence
C) competence; capacity D) bed load; sediment load

B

Drowned glacial valleys are known as
A) paternoster lakes.
B) tarns.
C) fjords.
D) kettle holes

C

T/F Water can be considered a "universal" solvent

True

Orogenesis refers to
A) the formation of mountains without faulting, folding, or the capture of migrating terranes.
B) a general term for the beginning of a mountain-building episode that thickens continental crust.
C) a general thinning of the crust.
D) the beginning of extensive faulting.

B

A tributary that is physically unable to join the main channel on a floodplain is called a/an
A) levee tributary.
B) yazoo tributary.
C) alluvial stream.
D) meandering tributary.

B

stream transport involves all of the following except
A)traction
b) bedload
c) sheet flow
d) saltation

C

Elongated, streamlined ridges aligned parallel to the most effective wind direction are called
A) alluvial rock structures.
B) desert pavements.
C) ventifacts.
D) yardangs.

D

Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is
A) usually formed with less than 50 percent silica and is rich in iron and magnesium.
B) essentially composed of basalt.
C) denser.
D) generally more complex in content and structure

D

Which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in Earth, from the surface to the center?
A) crust, core, lower mantle, asthenosphere B) crust, lower mantle, asthenosphere, core
C) asthenosphere, lower mantle, crust, core
D) crust, asthenosphere, lower mantle, core

D

The ultimate base level is
A) a dam.
B) an interior basin.
C) sea level.
D) all of these

C

Which of the following occurs when the Sun, Moon, and Earth are in alignment (i.e., in opposition or
conjunction)?
A) neap tides occur
B) a lower tidal range occurs
C) maximum tidal ranges occur
D) None of thesethis type of alignment does not happen in nature.

C

A common crescent-shaped dune with horns pointed downwind is called a
A) barchan dune.
B) seif dune.
C) transverse dune.
D) longitudinal dune

A

Plate boundaries are associated with:
a) earthquakes
b) rifting
c) volcanoes
d) subduction
e) all of these

E

The san andreas system in California is an example of
a) strike-slip fault
b) right-lateral motion
c) transform fault
d) all of these

D

Uplift of the landscape creates ______ energy which is converted to _______ energy when materials begin to move downslope
A) kinetic; potential
B) potential; chemical
C) kinetic; chemical
D) potential; kinetic

D

The motion of seismic waves is initiated in a subsurface location along the fault plane called the
A) focus.
B) epicenter.
C) fault area.
D) Richter zone

A

Which of the following are erosional landforms created by alpine glaciation?
A) till plains
B) cols and horns
C) eskers
D) drumlins

B

The rate at which rocks weather depends upon
A) the type of rock.
B) the amount of vegetation in an area.
C) the climate of an area.
D) all of these
E) the climate of an area and the type of rock only

D

Watersheds are defined by
A) fluvial units.
B) stream orders.
C) continental divides.
D) drainage divides

D

A landslide differs from a debris avalanche in that:

A) a land slide moves much more quickly than a debris avalanche.

B) the materials in a landslide are not saturated with water.

C) a land slide moves much more slowly than a debris avalanche.

D) the materials in a debris avalanche are not saturated with water

B

Composite cones have steep slopes and experience ________ eruptions because they are composed of
________ magma.

A) mild; mafic B) violent; mafic C) violent; felsic D) mild; felsic

C

Regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called
A) swells.
B) wave ripples.
C) wave trains.
D) breakers

A

After water itself, what are the primary elements that occur in sea water?

A) sodium and magnesium
B) chlorine and sodium
C) potassium and chlorine
D) hydrogen and sodium

B

A glacier that is confined in a bowl-shaped recess is called a
A) mountain glacier.
B) piedmont glacier.
C) cirque glacier.
D) valley glacier.

C

T/F Worldwide, alpine glaciers are presently increasing in size and number.

False

T/F Lithification refers to the cementation, compaction, and hardening of sediments.

True

T/F The ocean floor is created along midocean ridges

True

A tarn is a lake in a
A) horn.
B) till plain.
C) cirque.
D) glacial valley

C

Consider the equation Q = wdv. According to the equation, if Q (discharge) remains constant, but w and d
decrease (as when a channel becomes more narrow and shallow), the velocity will
A) remain constant.
B) increase.
C) decrease

B

When geologists or archaeologists dig downward into a unit of rock or sediment, they are digging "back in
time." This fact is based on the principle of ________.
A) uniformitarianism
B) catastrophism
C) superposition

C

Explosive eruptions tend to build up
A) plateau basalts.
B) many subsequent lava flows.
C) composite volcanoes. D) shield-shaped volcanoes.

C

The term "eolian" refers to
A) stream-related processes.
B) glacial processes in areas outside the polar regions.
C) weathering and mass movement in humid regions.
D) erosion, transportation, and deposition by the wind.

D

Pulverized rock and clastic materials ejected violently during an eruption are called
A) tephra, or pyroclastics. B) volcanic ash.
C) explosive debris.
D) cinders.

A

Stream-related processes are termed
A) geomorphological.
B) fluvial.
C) erosion.
D) hydrological.

B

Molten rock that pours forth on Earth’s surface is called
A) lava.
B) intrusive.
C) metamorphic.
D) magma.

A

T/F Alfred Wegner’s theory of continental drift was immediately accepted by the scientific community when it was proposed

False

The bulk of ice on Earth is sitting in
A) North America, specifically Alaska.
B) floating ice shelves and packs.
C) Greenland and Antarctica.
D) European and Asian mountain ranges.

C

Pangaea is currently dated at
A) 65 million years ago.
B) 225 to 200 million years ago.
C) the beginning of the Holocene.
D) 4.6 billion years ago.
E) about half the time span of Earth’s existence.

B

Continental crust is basically ________, whereas oceanic crust is basically ________.
A) sima; sial
B) thin; thick
C) basalt; granite
D) granite; basalt

D

Louis Agassiz called glacially deposited boulders that differ in composition and origin from the ground on
which they rest
A) horns.
B) tarns.
C) erratics.
D) nunataks

C

If you wanted to avoid earthquakes, which of the following areas would be the safest to live?
A) island arc along a subduction zone
B) convergent plate boundary
C) divergent plate boundary
D) shield

D

T/F Stream width, depth, and velocity are all responsive to discharge rates.

True

T/F The Appalachians are older than the Rockies

True

Desert pavement refers to
A) specially constructed roadbeds in dry and hot regions.
B) sand-covered surfaces.
C) surfaces that evidently were not affected by the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
D) surfaces of concentrated pebbles and gravels that are produced by particle removal and
water-delivered cementing materials.

D

Which of the following is likely to occur if the gradient of a stream increases? (Assume that the discharge
and sediment load remain unchanged.)
A) The amount of aggradation in the channel will increase.
B) The stream will begin to erode its channel and/or its banks.
C) The stream will begin to deposit more of its load.
D) The amount of bed load transport will decrease

B

T/F Karst topography involves the chemical weathering of granite landscapes

False

A rock transformed from any other rock through profound physical and/or chemical processes is referred to
as
A) sedimentary.
B) metamorphic.
C) ancient.
D) igneous.

B

Coral formations
A) are made of animals living symbiotically with simple algae.
B) require water that is high in sediment concentration.
C) tend to occur poleward of 30° latitude.
D) survive in a broad ecological range because they are tolerant of temperature, salinity, and depth
variation.

A

The removal and lifting of individual loose particles by the wind is termed
A) saltation.
B) deflation.
C) abrasion.
D) deposition

B

Which of the following is true regarding permafrost?
A) The surface layer in a permafrost region never thawseven during the warm season.
B) It is an area that is covered by glaciers.
C) It develops where soil or rock temperatures are below freezing for at least two years.
D) It occurs at a lower elevation in the midlatitudes than in the high latitudes.

C

A winding hill of sorted sand and gravel deposits is known as a/an ________ and is deposited by a/an
________ glacier.
A) esker; continental
B) medial moraine; alpine
C) drumlin; continental
D) esker; alpine
E) drumlin; alpine

A

When two valley glaciers join together, they form a ________ at the point at which they merge.
A) medial moraine
B) till plain
C) recessional moraine
D) terminal moraine

A

The ocean floor subducts under continents because
A) the ocean floor has a lower density and therefore sinks more easily.
B) the ocean floor is made of mafic material and is therefore more dense than continental material.
C) the ocean floor is made of felsic minerals and is heavier than continental material.
D) the weight of the continents is so great that they push the ocean floor material downward.
E) both A and B

B

Coral bleaching refers to
A) the loss of algae from the coral.
B) the replacement of normal, colored algae by white algae.
C) the killing of coral formations by chlorine bleach pollution.
D) all of these

A

Terranes refer to
A) the topography of a tract of land.
B) the "lay of the land."
C) the continental shields within each continent.
D) displaced and migrating pieces of Earth’s crust

D

Uniformitarianism assumes that
A) Earth is quite young and is shaped by dramatic events.
B) the same physical processes we see today are a key to understanding the processes that have been
operating throughout geologic time.
C) mountains, plains, and canyons formed by catastrophic events.
D) catastrophic episodes have regularly occurred.

B

The disintegration and dissolving of surface and subsurface rock is called
A) mass wasting.
B) weathering.
C) landmass denudation. D) erosion

B

T/F Rivers make excellent political boundaries since they are clearly defined landform features.

False

A cutoff on a meandering stream results in the formation of
A) a terrace.
B) an oxbow lake.
C) a point bar.
D) a levee

B

The science that specifically studies the origin, evolution, form, and spatial distribution of landforms is
A) geomorphology.
B) geography.
C) environmental chemistry.
D) geology.

A

In the Northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, slopes that face ________ have more trees on them because
________.
A) south; they receive more direct sunshine for photosynthesis
B) north; they receive more direct sunshine
C) north; they are more moist
D) south; they receive more rainfall

C

Rocks that appear pitted and grooved, and sometimes polished smooth by eolian processes, are termed
A) ventifacts.
B) desert pavements.
C) yardangs.
D) alluvium.

A

T/F The presence of meltwater at the bottom of a glacier can increase its rate of movement.

True

Coal is a fossil fuel formed from
A) dead marine organisms.
B) blue-green algae.
C) metamorphosed mafic minerals.
D) plants.

D

T/F Continental shields, or cratons, are generally of low elevation and old in age

True

Which of the following is false regarding floodplains?
A) They are formed by recurrent flooding in the area adjacent to the stream.
B) They are characterized by rapids and low waterfalls.
C) They are generally low-lying areas.
D) Natural levees on either side of a stream are formed during times when the stream is at flood stage
and overflows the bank.

B

Which of the following is not a sedimentary rock?
A) bituminous coal
B) sandstone
C) shale
D) marble

D

The uplift of mountains is caused by
A) aggradation.
B) endogenic processes.
C) exogenic forces.
D) denudation.

B

At which of the following locations does subduction occur?
A) along collision zones between continental and oceanic plates
B) along collision zones between two continents
C) at sea floor spreading zones
D) above mantle hot spots

A

An earthquake, submarine landslide, or eruption of an undersea volcano is capable of producing a
A) tsunami.
B) slow-moving giant swell.
C) tidal wave.
D) wave in the open ocean of great height.

A

Particles of sand, gravels, and shells that move along the shore form the
A) longshore current.
B) beach drift.
C) translation effects.
D) breakers.

B

T/F The crust is thickest under mountains and thinnest under the oceans.

True

Vertical elevation differences in a local landscape are referred to as
A) crust.
B) relief.
C) an order of relief.
D) topography.

B

The effect of urbanization on a typical stream hydrograph is to
A) decrease lag time between storm peak and peak stream discharge.
B) increase lag time between storm peak and peak stream discharge.
C) create a base flow.
D) decrease runoff.

A

Snow that has a compact, granular structure is known as
A) firn.
B) glacial ice.
C) meta-ice.
D) snowflakes

A

The large sheets of rock that break off batholiths, such as Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, develop as a
result of
A) salt crystal growth.
B) frost wedging.
C) exfoliation.
D) mineral expansion

C

Other than the rock itself, the most important chemical substance needed for the majority of weathering
processes is
A) carbon dioxide.
B) oxygen.
C) water.
D) nitrogen.

C

Which of the following lists of processes are in the correct sequence as to their occurrence in nature?
A) weathering, deposition, erosion, transport
B) weathering, erosion, transport, deposition
C) deposition, erosion, transport, weathering
D) weathering, erosion, deposition, transport

B

T/F Mass wasting occurs when gravity overcomes friction

True

The term "periglacial" refers to
A) cold-climate processes along the margins of glaciers.
B) regions that are too warm for ground ice.
C) areas that are on top of a glacier.
D) processes and effects that existed during the last ice age but not today.

A

The most active tectonic regions of North and South America are on the
A) eastern coasts.
B) mid-continent.
C) western coasts.
D) southern coasts

C

T/F A single groin can produce both sand erosion and deposition

True

The suspended load of a stream consists of particles that are
A) dragged along the stream bed.
B) rolled and bounced along the stream bed.
C) held aloft in the stream flow.
D) in solution.

C

Natural levees are created during
A) low flow conditions.
B) floods.
C) normal flow conditions.
D) None of the above-all levees are manmade

B

As regards wetlands, which of the following is correctly matched?
A) mangrove swamps – poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere
B) salt marsh – between the equator and the 30th parallel in both hemispheres
C) salt marsh – poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere
D) salt marshes – low productivity due to the salinity

C

The undulating form that gives Earth’s surface its character and general configuration is called
A) crust.
B) relief.
C) topography.
D) an order of relief.

C

The opposite of the accumulation zone in a glacier is the
A) equilibrium line.
B) snow and firn area.
C) ablation zone.
D) abrasion zone.

C

Which of the following is matched correctly?
A) magma – lava
B) granite – metamorphic
C) basalt – sedimentary
D) sandstone – igneous

A

T/F A floodplain consists of alluvium

True

Wave action works to straighten a coast as wave energy focuses around headlands and tends to disperse
energy in coves and bays in a process called
A) wave refraction.
B) breakers.
C) tidal bore.
D) longshore current.

A

Normal faults are associated with
A) transcurrent forces.
B) tensional forces.
C) plate convergence.
D) compressional forces.

B

T/F The angle of repose of snow avalanche slopes is typically higher than that for soil or rock

True

In most areas, the upper surface of bedrock is partially weathered to broken-up rock called
A) regolith.
B) sediment.
C) bedrock.
D) parent rock.

A

Unlike a stream-cut valley that assumes a characteristic ________-shape, a glacially-carved valley evidences
a characteristic ________-shape.
A) V; U
B) flat; rounded
C) steep; shallow
D) U; V

A

T/F The dynamic equilibrium model of landscape evolution emphasizes a balance among forces, form and
processrather than cyclical stages of development.

True

Which of the following is endogenic in nature?
A) glacial erosion
B) volcanism
C) weathering
D) stream deposition

B

"Geography" literally means
A) place memorization.
B) the study of rocks.
C) to write (about) Earth.
D) map making

C

If you wanted a map with a lot of detail of a small area you would want a
A) a large scale map.
B) a world globe.
C) an intermediate scale.
D) a small scale map.

A

An angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian from the center of Earth is termed
A) latitude.
B) longitude.
C) zenith.
D) Greenwich distance

B

A non-rechargeable battery can best be described as a/an __________ energy system and a/an __________
material system.
A) open; open
B) open; closed
C) closed; closed
D) closed; open

C

The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that
A) Earth rotates east to west.
B) Earth does not rotate; rather, it revolves.
C) Earth moves through 365.25 days a year in its orbit about the Sun.
D) Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours; i.e., it rotates 15° of longitude per hour.

D

Which of the following possesses all of Earth’s properties of area, shape, direction, proximity, and distance,
correctly?
A) Mercator projection
B) Robinson projection
C) a world globe
D) Alber’s equal-area conic projection

C

Remote sensing is
A) based on the principle that surfaces must be physically handled and directly measured for study.
B) an earthbound technique not used in modern satellites.
C) the monitoring of a distant object without physical contact.
D) a subjective determination of temperature.

C

With respect to air, water, and material resources, which of the following is true?
A) A leaf is an open system.
B) A leaf is an open system in terms of water, but closed in terms of energy resources.
C) A leaf is an open system in terms of air, but closed in terms of material resources.
D) A leaf is a closed system.

A

The part of geography that embodies map making is known as
A) cartography.
B) theodesy.
C) geodesy.
D) calligraphy

A

Which of the following statements about Earth is correct?
A) Earth is perfectly spherical.
B) The equatorial diameter is 42 km (26 mi.) greater than the polar diameter.
C) It is elongated.
D) Earth is the second largest planet in the solar system.

B

The scale of a map can be expressed by which of the following?
A) representative fraction
B) written scale
C) graphic scale
D) All of these are correct.
E) None of these are correct.

D

The capacity to change the motion of, or to do work on, matter is the definition of
A) energy.
B) system.
C) plasma.
D) acceleration.
E) thermodynamics.

A

The difference in Sun time between two places located 30° in longitude apart from one another is
A) 30 seconds.
B) 30 minutes.
C) one hour.
D) two hours.
E) three hours

D

(Place your city here)’s absolute location is best described as
A) (Place your latitude and longitude here as presented in lecture).
B) south and east of Greenwich, London, England.
C) north and east of Greenwich, London, England.
D) 105° north latitude by 41° west longitude.

A) 34 N 83 W

Which of the following is an example of an active remote sensing device?
A) film
B) video camera
C) infrared sensor
D) radar

D

The most extreme northern and southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the Sun at local noon
are located at
A) 23.5° north and south.
B) 45° north and south.
C) 66.5° north and south.
D) 90° north and south

A

If you were preparing a map showing the distribution of world climates, which type of map projection
would you want to use to allow accurate comparison of areas and regions?
A) equal area
B) a Mercator projection
C) a gnomonic projection
D) true shape

A

If we burn fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide and warm the atmosphere, as the oceans warm they will
release more carbon dioxide, which warms the atmosphere. This is an example of __________ feedback. If the
increased atmospheric carbon dioxide causes increased plant growth which removes carbon dioxide and
cools the atmosphere, this is an example of __________ feedback.
A) positive; negative
B) positive; positive
C) negative; negative
D) negative; positive

A

T/F Cylindrical map projections, such as the Mercator, have a rectangular grid; i.e., parallels and meridians cross at right angles.

True

T/F GIS systems use satellites to find locations precisely

False

T/F A picture taken with film in a camera is an example of passive remote sensing.

True

T/F "Longitude" is the name of an angle, and "meridian" is the name of an imaginary line that connects all points
along the same longitude.

True

T/F Maps that are intended to show spatial distributions should be based on projections that minimize area distortion, rather than shape distortion

True

T/F Photosynthesis in a plant leaf is an example of an open-system operation.

True

What is the name of the location on the surface of Earth that receives insolation when the Sun is directly
overhead? (When this occurs, the Sun’s rays are perpendicular to this surface.)
A) subsolar point
B) North Polar point
C) solar point
D) zenith

A

Light travels at a speed of approximately
A) 300,000 kilometers per second (186,333 miles per second).
B) 1,000,000,000 kilometers per second (621,118,012 miles per second).
C) 300,000 kilometers per hour (186,336 mph).
D) 80,500 kilometers per hour (50,000 mph).

A

Earth’s diameter is
A) about 10,000 km (6,000 mi.).
B) about 50,000 km (30,000 mi.).
C) about 40,000 km (24,000 mi.).
D) about 20,000 km (12,000 mi.).

C

The dominant wavelength of energy emitted by the Sun is
A) the same length as that emitted by Earth.
B) shorter than that emitted by Earth.
C) longer than that emitted by Earth.

B

(Can’t put image up)
According to Figure 2.76, given the tilt of the axis (20°), the Tropic of Capricorn would be located at
A) 20° N.
B) 70° N.
C) 20° S.
D) 70° S.
E) 110° N.

C

(Can’t put image up)
In Figure 2.76, what position corresponds to the winter solstice for observers in the northern hemisphere?
(Assume north is toward the top of the page.)
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D

C

(Can’t put image up)
According to Figure 2.76, at what two locations would daylight last for 12 hours for all locations on the
planet?
A) C and D
B) B and D
C) A and B
D) A and C

B

(Can’t put image up)
According to Figure 2.76, given the tilt of the axis (20°), the Arctic Circle would be located at
A) 20° N.
B) 70° S.
C) 20° S.
D) 70° N

D

Intercepted solar radiation is called
A) solar wind.
B) solar constant.
C) insolation.
D) thermosphere.

C

Which of the following sequences is arranged in order from shorter wavelength to longer wavelength?
A) gamma rays, microwaves, visible, X-rays
B) radio waves, light, heat, X-rays
C) infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays
D) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared

D

1372 watts per square meter (2 calories per cm2 per minute) refers to the
A) amount of energy absorbed by the atmosphere.
B) average energy receipt at Earth’s surface.
C) solar constant.
D) solar wind input to the atmosphere.

C

The term "net radiation" refers to
A) radiation emitted by satellite networks.
B) the total amount of energy radiated by Earth.
C) the total amount of energy received by Earth.
D) the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation.

D

On its way to Earth, the solar wind first encounters
A) the lower atmosphere.
B) the atmosphere.
C) Earth’s surface.
D) the magnetosphere.

D

The Sun produces which of the following?
A) only radiant energy that is beneficial to life
B) mainly ultraviolet and X-rays
C) only solar wind
D) mainly visible light and infrared energy

D

Which of the following accurately describes Earth’s distance from the Sun?
A) The Earth-Sun distance averages 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).
B) Earth is closer to the Sun in January (perihelion) and farther away in July (aphelion).
C) It takes light an average of 8 minutes and 20 seconds to travel from the Sun to Earth.
D) All of these are correct.

D

The sun’s declination migrates through
A) 66.5°.
B) 47°.
C) 133°.
D) 23.5°.
E) 30°.

B

Which of the following results from radiation imbalances at different latitudes?
A) global winds
B) hurricanes
C) ocean currents
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

D

The __________ emits mainly __________ which is also called __________.
A) Earth, longwave radiation, ultraviolet
B) Sun, shortwave radiation, radio waves
C) Earth, longwave radiation, infrared
D) Earth, shortwave radiation, infrared
E) Sun, longwave radiation, infrared

C

The Tropic of Cancer refers to
A) the location of the subsolar point on September 22.
B) 0° latitude when the Sun crosses the equator.
C) the parallel that is the farthest northern location for the subsolar point during the year.
D) the parallel that occurs at 23.5° south latitude.

C

Which of the following statements is true?
A) December 21 = subsolar point at the Tropic of Cancer.
B) December 21 = vernal equinox.
C) June 21= equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.
D) September 22 = summer solstice in Australia.
E) March 21 = equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.

E

T/F The magnetosphere deflects the solar wind toward Earth’s two poles.

True

T/F Earth is at perihelion in early January when it is closest to the Sun

True

T/F Rotation is Earth’s motion on its axis; revolution is its motion about the Sun

True

T/F The subsolar point is at the Tropic of Cancer on December 21.

False

The reaction of automobile exhaust and ultraviolet light
A) is affecting the stratospheric ozone concentration.
B) produces photochemical smog.
C) produces industrial smog.
D) forms smoke and fog.

B

Temperatures increase with increasing altitude in what two atmospheric layers?
A) stratosphere and mesosphere
B) troposphere and stratosphere
C) stratosphere and thermosphere
D) troposphere and mesosphere

C

Temperature inversions occur
A) during episodes of reduced air pollution.
B) when surface temperatures are higher than overlying layers of air.
C) when surface temperatures are lower than warmer overlying air.
D) when there is good air drainage and ventilation of the surface air

C

Temperatures within the stratosphere
A) increase with altitude because of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation.
B) remain about the same from the tropopause to the stratopause.
C) decrease with altitude due to radiation losses.
D) decrease with altitude according to the normal lapse rate.

A

Which of the following is true regarding the depletion of ozone in the ozonosphere?
A) It results from chemical reactions with chlorine derived from CFCs.
B) The notion that ozone is being depleted as a result of human activity has little scientific evidence to
support it.
C) The depletion is restricted to the arctic and antarctic regions.
D) It results from the burning of fossil fuels.

A

Based on composition, the atmosphere is divided into
A) two functional areas that absorb radiation from the Sun.
B) two broad classifications: homosphere and heterosphere.
C) one continuous region.
D) the troposphere and the stratosphere.

B

Sources of natural variable gases and materials include all of the following except
A) volcanoes.
B) forest fires.
C) industrial activity.
D) plants and decaying plants

C

Which of the following lists the correct sequence of gases, from most to least, in terms of percentage within
the homosphere?
A) oxygen, ozone, nitrogen, PAN, carbon dioxide
B) nitrogen, argon, oxygen, xenon, carbon dioxide
C) nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, trace gases
D) oxygen, nitrogen, neon, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide

C

Which of the following is a consequence of acid rain?
A) changes in soil chemistry
B) the dying of forests
C) damage to aquatic ecosystems (rivers and lakes)
D) All of these are true.

D

A by-product of photosynthesis is
A) xenon.
B) argon.
C) oxygen.
D) nitrogen.

C

Three criteria used for classification of the atmosphere explained in the text are
A) composition, origin, evolution.
B) composition, temperature, and function.
C) structure, origin, temperature.
D) structure, origin, evolution.

B

Half of Earth’s atmosphere lies below an elevation of __________ meters.
A) 5500
B) 11,000
C) 14,000
D) 8300

A

Which of the following is true of chlorofluorocarbons?
A) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release carbon which then destroys ozone.
B) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release fluorine which then destroys ozone.
C) Most of the CFC-induced ozone destruction is occurring near the equator, rather than near the poles.
D) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release chlorine which then destroys ozone.

D

Variable atmospheric components refer to
A) natural sources of dust and aerosols, such as volcanic dust and forest fire smoke, but nothing
anthropogenic (human-caused).
B) nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide.
C) only natural gases and materials.
D) both natural and anthropogenic gases and materials

D

In the lower atmosphere, H2SO4 is
A) a problem that only occurred during the first half of this century.
B) formed from photochemical reactions.
C) related to the problem of acid deposition.
D) formed by a combination of O2 and NO2.

C

The thermopause is located
A) at the bottom of the homosphere.
B) between the mesosphere and the thermosphere.
C) wherever -90°C (-130°F) is recorded.
D) approximately 480 km (300 mi.) above Earth’s surface.

D

Carbon monoxide is potentially dangerous because it
A) causes genetic mutations.
B) causes birth defects.
C) causes cancer.
D) replaces oxygen on red blood cells.

D

Based on temperature, the atmosphere is divided into
A) nitrogen, oxygen, argon.
B) two broad regions.
C) two functional areas that absorb radiation from the Sun.
D) four regions: ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere

D

Which gas in the atmosphere is used by plants to form sugars, is soluble in water, and makes rain naturally
acidic?
A) oxygen
B) nitrogen dioxide
C) argon
D) carbon dioxide

D

Weather is confined to the troposphere because
A) terrestrial radiation provides no heat whatsoever to the other layers of the atmosphere.
B) cold air sinks from the stratosphere into the troposphere.
C) solar radiation does not heat other layers of the atmosphere.
D) the temperature of the stratosphere prevents tropospheric air from rising into it

D

The ozonosphere is critical to life because it
A) produces the auroras.
B) absorbs most ultraviolet wavelengths.
C) absorbs visible light wavelengths.
D) affects temperatures.

B

The highest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the __________ because __________.
A) thermosphere; carbon dioxide has accumulated to very high levels in this layer
B) mesosphere; high intensity solar radiation causes strong chemical reactions with ozone, and this heats
the layer to very high temperatures.
C) stratosphere; methane is such an effective greenhouse gas
D) troposphere; infrared radiation from the ground heats this layer more than any other layer
E) thermosphere; it is in direct contact with high energy solar radiation

E

T/F The normal lapse rate for temperature decreases is an average of 3°C per 1000 m

False

T/F Based on the criteria of composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad regions: the ionosphere and
the ozonosphere.

False

T/F Weather (rain, fog, storms, etc.) occurs primarily in the troposphere.

True

T/F The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is higher now than any time in the last 800,000 years

True

T/F The heterosphere has a layered structure, whereas the homosphere occurs as an even mixture of gases.

True

An isoline that connects all points of highest mean temperature on a world map is called
A) the thermal equator.
B) the highest mean temperature isoline.
C) min/max line.
D) an isobar.
E) the temperature range line.

A

Air flow is initiated by the
A) pressure gradient force. B) centrifugal force.
C) Coriolis force.
D) friction force.

A

If you were between 40° and 50° north latitude, and you wanted to stand with the average winds blowing in
your face you would stand facing
A) north.
B) west.
C) east.
D) south.

B

On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars?
A) a weak pressure gradient creating a slower flow of air
B) a steep pressure gradient creating a slower flow of air
C) little without knowing temperature patterns
D) a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air
E) higher pressures

D

Which instrument would you use to measure wind speed?
A) an anemometer.
B) the wind chill chart.
C) a wind vane.
D) a barometer.
E) the Beaufort wind scale.

A

Forceful northward flowing warm currents in the Northern Hemisphere are the
A) California and Peru currents.
B) upwelling and downwelling currents.
C) Gulf Stream and Kuroshio.
D) equatorial countercurrents.

C

A isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as
A) an isotherm.
B) an equilibrium line.
C) the thermal equator.
D) an isobar.

D

Which of the following are correctly matched?
A) cyclones low pressure cells
B) high pressure ascending, converging air movements
C) anticyclones subpolar pressure cells
D) high pressure cells cyclonic circulation

A

The Coriolis force
A) decreases with height above the surface.
B) drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure.
C) is the only force acting on flows of air in the upper troposphere.
D) causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.

D

Normal sea level pressure has a value of
A) 32.01 millibars of mercury.
B) 28.50 inches of lead.
C) 500 mb.
D) 1013.2 millibars

D

The mercury barometer (consisting of mercury in a tube, sealed at one end and open at the other, and
inserted in a vessel of mercury), was invented by
A) Eratosthenes.
B) Sir Isaac Newton.
C) Evangelista Torricelli.
D) Galileo.

C

Monsoonal winds are
A) katabatic in nature.
B) a form of mountain-valley wind.
C) regional wind systems that seasonally vary.
D) limited to the Indian subcontinent.

C

Which of the following primary pressure areas are produced by thermal factors, rather than dynamic
factors?
A) equatorial low and Bermuda high
B) subtropical high and subpolar low
C) equatorial low and polar high
D) Aleutian low and Icelandic low

C

The polar jet is closely associated with
A) ITCZ.
B) polar high.
C) polar front.
D) subtropical high.

C

The highest surface air pressure ever recorded occurred when the air was
A) very warm.
B) very wet.
C) very high above the surface of Earth.
D) very cold.

D

The normal range for air pressure at sea level is
A) 1060-2010 mb.
B) 100 to 650 mb.
C) 980-1050 mb.
D) 500 to 1000 mb

C

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is associated with
A) the horse latitudes.
B) the equatorial low-pressure trough.
C) the principal midlatitude circulations.
D) subtropical high-pressure development

B

The intertropical convergence zone is characterized by
A) convergence and uplift of warm surface air.
B) convergence and subsidence of cold surface air.
C) divergence and subsidence of cold surface air.
D) divergence and uplift of warm surface air.

A

The jet streams help control
A) the movement of high and low pressure systems.
B) the boundary between cold polar air to the north and warm air to the south.
C) the movement of storms.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the abovejet streams do not affect surface weather phenomena.

D

Which is true of air flowing into low pressure center?
A) Air converges and ascends.
B) Air converges and descends.
C) Air diverges and ascends.
D) Air diverges and descends.

B

Which of the following is true of high pressure areas?
A) They generally involve atmospheric pressures lower than 1000 mb.
B) Air descends and diverges within high pressure systems.
C) Air converges and ascends within high pressure systems.
D) They are characteristic for areas along the equator.

B

Particles produced by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo __________ the albedo of the atmosphere, and this
__________ Earth.
A) decreased; warmed
B) increased; warmed
C) increased; cooled
D) decreased; cooled

C

The effect of the Coriolis force is __________ in the upper atmosphere because __________.
A) diminished; there is less friction
B) diminished; the pressure gradient is weaker
C) enhanced; there is more friction
D) enhanced; the pressure gradient is weaker
E) enhanced; there is less friction

E

Which of the following is incorrect regarding the subpolar low-pressure cells?
A) In the Northern Hemisphere, they are generally stronger in summer than in winter.
B) They are known as the Aleutian and Icelandic lows.
C) They are associated with the polar front.
D) They develop more strongly over the ocean than over land.

A

Land-sea breezes are caused by
A) the fact that warmer air is denser and settles to the surface of the land.
B) cooler air flowing offshore (toward the ocean) in the afternoon.
C) the fact that water heats and cools faster than land surfaces.
D) onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon.

D

T/F Winds are named for the direction in which they are blowing.

False

T/F Ocean currents play a relatively small role in regulating climate

False

T/F An area of high pressure circulates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and is called an
anticyclone.

False

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