geog FE

Geography" literally means

to write (about) Earth

If you wanted a map with a lot of detail of a small area you would want a

a large scale map.

An angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian from the center of Earth is termed

longitude

A non-rechargeable battery can best be described as a/an __________ energy system and a/an __________
material system.

C) closed; closed

The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that

) Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours; i.e., it rotates 15° of longitude per hour.

Which of the following possesses all of Earth's properties of area, shape, direction, proximity, and distance,
correctly?
A) Mercator projection
B) Robinson projection
C) a world globe
D) Alber's equal-area conic projection

a world globe

Remote sensing is

the monitoring of a distant object without physical contact.

With respect to air, water, and material resources, which of the following is true?
A) A leaf is an open system.
B) A leaf is an open system in terms of water, but closed in terms of energy resources.
C) A leaf is an open system in terms of air, but closed in terms of material resources.
D) A leaf is a closed system.

A leaf is an open system

The part of geography that embodies map making is known as

cartography

Which of the following statements about Earth is correct?
A) Earth is perfectly spherical.
B) The equatorial diameter is 42 km (26 mi.) greater than the polar diameter.
C) It is elongated.
D) Earth is the second largest planet in the solar system

The equatorial diameter is 42 km (26 mi.) greater than the polar diameter.

The scale of a map can be expressed by which of the following?
A) representative fraction
B) written scale
C) graphic scale
D) All of these are correct.
E) None of these are correct.

D) All of these are correct.

The capacity to change the motion of, or to do work on, matter is the definition of

A) energy.

) The difference in Sun time between two places located 30° in longitude apart from one another is

D) two hours

) (Place your city here)'s absolute location is best described as

A) (Place your latitude and longitude here as presented in lecture).

) Which of the following is an example of an active remote sensing device?
A) film
B) video camera
C) infrared sensor
D) radar

D) radar

) The most extreme northern and southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the Sun at local noon

A) 23.5° north and south.

If you were preparing a map showing the distribution of world climates, which type of map projection
would you want to use to allow accurate comparison of areas and regions?

A) equal area

If we burn fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide and warm the atmosphere, as the oceans warm they will
release more carbon dioxide, which warms the atmosphere. This is an example of __________ feedback. If the
increased atmospheric carbon dioxide causes increased plant growth which removes carbon dioxide and
cools the atmosphere, this is an example of __________ feedback

A) positive; negative

Cylindrical map projections, such as the Mercator, have a rectangular grid; i.e., parallels and meridians cross
at right angles

true

GIS systems use satellites to find locations precisely.

false

A picture taken with film in a camera is an example of passive remote sensing

true

"Longitude" is the name of an angle, and "meridian" is the name of an imaginary line that connects all points
along the same longitude.

true

Maps that are intended to show spatial distributions should be based on projections that minimize area
distortion, rather than shape distortion.

true

Photosynthesis in a plant leaf is an example of an open-system operation

true

) What is the name of the location on the surface of Earth that receives insolation when the Sun is directly
overhead? (When this occurs, the Sun's rays are perpendicular to this surface.)

A) subsolar point

Light travels at a speed of approximately

A) 300,000 kilometers per second (186,333 miles per second).

Earth's diameter is

C) about 40,000 km (24,000 mi.).

The dominant wavelength of energy emitted by the Sun is
A) the same length as that emitted by Earth.
B) shorter than that emitted by Earth.
C) longer than that emitted by Earth.

B) shorter than that emitted by Earth.

According to Figure 2.76, given the tilt of the axis (20°), the Tropic of Capricorn would be located at

C) 20° S

) In Figure 2.76, what position corresponds to the winter solstice for observers in the northern hemisphere?
(Assume north is toward the top of the page.)

C) C

According to Figure 2.76, at what two locations would daylight last for 12 hours for all locations on the
planet?

...

According to Figure 2.76, given the tilt of the axis (20°), the Arctic Circle would be located at

B) B and D

) Intercepted solar radiation is called

C) insolation.

) Which of the following sequences is arranged in order from shorter wavelength to longer wavelength?
A) gamma rays, microwaves, visible, X-rays
B) radio waves, light, heat, X-rays
C) infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays
D) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared

D) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared

1372 watts per square meter (2 calories per cm2 per minute) refers to the

C) solar constant.

The term "net radiation" refers to

D) the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation.

On its way to Earth, the solar wind first encounters

D) the magnetosphere.

The Sun produces which of the following?
A) only radiant energy that is beneficial to life
B) mainly ultraviolet and X-rays
C) only solar wind
D) mainly visible light and infrared energy

D) mainly visible light and infrared energy

) Which of the following accurately describes Earth's distance from the Sun?
A) The Earth-Sun distance averages 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).
B) Earth is closer to the Sun in January (perihelion) and farther away in July (aphelion).
C) It takes light an average of 8 minutes and 20 seconds to travel from the Sun to Earth.
D) All of these are correct.

D) All of these are correct

The sun's declination migrates through

B) 47°.

) Which of the following results from radiation imbalances at different latitudes?
A) global winds
B) hurricanes
C) ocean currents
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

D) all of the above

The __________ emits mainly __________ which is also called __________.

C) Earthlongwave radiationinfrared

) The Tropic of Cancer refers to

C) the parallel that is the farthest northern location for the subsolar point during the year

Which of the following statements is true?
A) December 21 = subsolar point at the Tropic of Cancer.
B) December 21 = vernal equinox.
C) June 21= equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.
D) September 22 = summer solstice in Australia.
E) March 21 = equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.

E) March 21 = equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.

The magnetosphere deflects the solar wind toward Earth's two poles

true

Earth is at perihelion in early January when it is closest to the Sun

true

Rotation is Earth's motion on its axis; revolution is its motion about the Sun.

true

) The subsolar point is at the Tropic of Cancer on December 21.

false

The reaction of automobile exhaust and ultraviolet light

D) forms smoke and fog.

Temperatures increase with increasing altitude in what two atmospheric layers?

C) stratosphere and thermosphere

Temperature inversions occur

C) when surface temperatures are lower than warmer overlying air

Temperatures within the stratosphere

A) increase with altitude because of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation

Which of the following is true regarding the depletion of ozone in the ozonosphere?
A) It results from chemical reactions with chlorine derived from CFCs.
B) The notion that ozone is being depleted as a result of human activity has little scientific evidence to
support it.
C) The depletion is restricted to the arctic and antarctic regions.
D) It results from the burning of fossil fuels

A) It results from chemical reactions with chlorine derived from CFCs

Based on composition, the atmosphere is divided into

B) two broad classifications: homosphere and heterosphere

Sources of natural variable gases and materials include all of the following except
A) volcanoes.
B) forest fires.
C) industrial activity. D) plants and decaying plants

C) industrial activity.

Which of the following lists the correct sequence of gases, from most to least, in terms of percentage within
the homosphere?
A) oxygen, ozone, nitrogen, PAN, carbon dioxide
B) nitrogen, argon, oxygen, xenon, carbon dioxide
C) nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, trace gases
D) oxygen, nitrogen, neon, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide

C) nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, trace gases

Which of the following is a consequence of acid rain?
A) changes in soil chemistry
B) the dying of forests
C) damage to aquatic ecosystems (rivers and lakes)
D) All of these are true.

D) All of these are true

A by-product of photosynthesis is

C) oxygen

Three criteria used for classification of the atmosphere explained in the text are

B) composition, temperature, and function

Half of Earth's atmosphere lies below an elevation of __________ meters.

A) 5500

Which of the following is true of chlorofluorocarbons?
A) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release carbon which then destroys ozone.
B) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release fluorine which then destroys ozone.
C) Most of the CFC-induced ozone destruction is occurring near the equator, rather than near the poles.
D) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release chlorine which then destroys ozone.

D) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release chlorine which then destroys ozone.

Variable atmospheric components refer to

D) both natural and anthropogenic gases and materials.

In the lower atmosphere, H2SO4 is

C) related to the problem of acid deposition.

The thermopause is located

D) approximately 480 km (300 mi.) above Earth's surface.

Carbon monoxide is potentially dangerous because it

D) replaces oxygen on red blood cells

Based on temperature, the atmosphere is divided into

D) four regions: ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere.

Which gas in the atmosphere is used by plants to form sugars, is soluble in water, and makes rain naturally
acidic?
A) oxygen
B) nitrogen dioxide
C) argon
D) carbon dioxide

D) carbon dioxide

Weather is confined to the troposphere because

D) the temperature of the stratosphere prevents tropospheric air from rising into it.

The ozonosphere is critical to life because it

absorbs most ultraviolet wavelengths.

The highest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the __________ because __________.

E) thermosphere; it is in direct contact with high energy solar radiation

The normal lapse rate for temperature decreases is an average of 3°C per 1000 m.

false

Based on the criteria of composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad regions: the ionosphere and
the ozonosphere

false

Weather (rain, fog, storms, etc.) occurs primarily in the troposphere

true

) The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is higher now than any time in the last 800,000 years.

true

The heterosphere has a layered structure, whereas the homosphere occurs as an even mixture of gases

true

Karst topography is formed primarily by

carbonic acid solution.

Which of the following is an example of a first order of relief?
A) the Alps and Rockies
B) the Shenandoah Valley
C) an ocean basin
D) the Tibetan Plateau

C) an ocean basin

Glacial polish results from

abrasion.

An interruption in a stream's graded profile of equilibrium is called a

nickpoint.

The total possible load a stream can transport is its ________, whereas a stream's ability to move particles of
specific size is its ________.

capacity; competence

Drowned glacial valleys are known as

fjords.

Water can be considered a "universal" solvent.

true

Orogenesis refers to

B) a general term for the beginning of a mountain-building episode that thickens continental crust.

A tributary that is physically unable to join the main channel on a floodplain is called a/an

yazoo tributary

Stream transport involves all of the following except
A) traction.
B) bed load.
C) sheet flow.
D) saltation.

sheet flow

Elongated, streamlined ridges aligned parallel to the most effective wind direction are called

yardangs.

Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is

D) generally more complex in content and structure.

Which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in Earth, from the surface to the center?
A) crust, core, lower mantle, asthenosphere
B) crust, lower mantle, asthenosphere, core
C) asthenosphere, lower mantle, crust, core
D) crust, asthenosphere, lower mantle, core

crust, asthenosphere, lower mantle, core

The ultimate base level is

sea level.

Which of the following occurs when the Sun, Moon, and Earth are in alignment (i.e., in opposition or
conjunction)?
A) neap tides occur
B) a lower tidal range occurs
C) maximum tidal ranges occur
D) None of thesethis type of alignment does not happen in nature.

C) maximum tidal ranges occur

A common crescent-shaped dune with horns pointed downwind is called a

barchan dune.

Plate boundaries are associated with
A) earthquakes.
B) rifting.
C) volcanoes.
D) subduction.
E) all of these

E) all of these

The San Andreas system in California is an example of a
A) strike -slip fault.
B) right-lateral motion.
C) transform fault.
D) All of these are correct

D) All of these are correct.

Uplift of the landscape creates ________ energy which is converted to ________ energy when materials begin
to move downslope

D) potential; kinetic

The motion of seismic waves is initiated in a subsurface location along the fault plane called the

A) focus.

Which of the following are erosional landforms created by alpine glaciation?
A) till plains
B) cols and horns
C) eskers
D) drumlins

cols and horns

The rate at which rocks weather depends upon
A) the type of rock.
B) the amount of vegetation in an area.
C) the climate of an area.
D) all of these
E) the climate of an area and the type of rock only

D) all of these

Watersheds are defined by

drainage divides.

A landslide differs from a debris avalanche in that

the materials in a landslide are not saturated with water

Composite cones have steep slopes and experience ________ eruptions because they are composed of
________ magma.

violent; felsic

Regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called

swells.

After water itself, what are the primary elements that occur in sea water?

chlorine and sodium

A glacier that is confined in a bowl-shaped recess is called a

cirque glacier.

Worldwide, alpine glaciers are presently increasing in size and number.

false

Lithification refers to the cementation, compaction, and hardening of sediments

true

The ocean floor is created along midocean ridges.

true

A tarn is a lake in a

cirque

Consider the equation Q = wdv. According to the equation, if Q (discharge) remains constant, but w and d
decrease (as when a channel becomes more narrow and shallow), the velocity will

increase.

When geologists or archaeologists dig downward into a unit of rock or sediment, they are digging "back in
time." This fact is based on the principle of ________.

superposition

Explosive eruptions tend to build up

composite volcanoes

The term "eolian" refers to

D) erosion, transportation, and deposition by the wind.

Pulverized rock and clastic materials ejected violently during an eruption are called

) tephra, or pyroclastics

Stream-related processes are termed

) fluvial.

Molten rock that pours forth on Earth's surface is called

lava.

Alfred Wegner's theory of continental drift was immediately accepted by the scientific community when it
was proposed.

false

The bulk of ice on Earth is sitting in

) Greenland and Antarctica

Louis Agassiz called glacially deposited boulders that differ in composition and origin from the ground on
which they rest

erratics.

Pangaea is currently dated at

B) 225 to 200 million years ago.

Continental crust is basically ________, whereas oceanic crust is basically ________.

granite; basalt

If you wanted to avoid earthquakes, which of the following areas would be the safest to live?
A) island arc along a subduction zone
B) convergent plate boundary
C) divergent plate boundary
D) shield

shield

Stream width, depth, and velocity are all responsive to discharge rates.

true

The Appalachians are older than the Rockies

true

Desert pavement refers to

surfaces of concentrated pebbles and gravels that are produced by particle removal and water-delivered cementing materials.

Which of the following is likely to occur if the gradient of a stream increases? (Assume that the discharge
and sediment load remain unchanged.)
A) The amount of aggradation in the channel will increase.
B) The stream will begin to erode its channel and/or its banks.
C) The stream will begin to deposit more of its load.
D) The amount of bed load transport will decrease.

B) The stream will begin to erode its channel and/or its banks.

Karst topography involves the chemical weathering of granite landscapes.

false

A rock transformed from any other rock through profound physical and/or chemical processes is referred to
as

metamorphic

Coral formations

are made of animals living symbiotically with simple algae

The removal and lifting of individual loose particles by the wind is termed

deflation

Which of the following is true regarding permafrost?
A) The surface layer in a permafrost region never thawseven during the warm season.
B) It is an area that is covered by glaciers.
C) It develops where soil or rock temperatures are below freezing for at least two years.
D) It occurs at a lower elevation in the midlatitudes than in the high latitudes.

C) It develops where soil or rock temperatures are below freezing for at least two years.

A winding hill of sorted sand and gravel deposits is known as a/an ________ and is deposited by a/an
________ glacier.

esker; continental

When two valley glaciers join together, they form a ________ at the point at which they merge.

medial moraine

The ocean floor subducts under continents because
A) the ocean floor has a lower density and therefore sinks more easily.
B) the ocean floor is made of mafic material and is therefore more dense than continental material.
C) the ocean floor is made of felsic minerals and is heavier than continental material.
D) the weight of the continents is so great that they push the ocean floor material downward.
E) both A and B

B) the ocean floor is made of mafic material and is therefore more dense than continental material.

Coral bleaching refers to
A) the loss of algae from the coral.
B) the replacement of normal, colored algae by white algae.
C) the killing of coral formations by chlorine bleach pollution.
D) all of these

A) the loss of algae from the coral.

Terranes refer to

D) displaced and migrating pieces of Earth's crust.

Uniformitarianism assumes that

the same physical processes we see today are a key to understanding the processes that have been operating throughout geologic time

The disintegration and dissolving of surface and subsurface rock is called

weathering

Rivers make excellent political boundaries since they are clearly defined landform features.

false

A cutoff on a meandering stream results in the formation of

an oxbow lake

The science that specifically studies the origin, evolution, form, and spatial distribution of landforms is

geomorphology

In the Northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, slopes that face ________ have more trees on them because
________.

C) north; they are more moist

Rocks that appear pitted and grooved, and sometimes polished smooth by eolian processes, are termed

ventifacts

The presence of meltwater at the bottom of a glacier can increase its rate of movement.

true

Coal is a fossil fuel formed from

plants

Continental shields, or cratons, are generally of low elevation and old in age.

true

Which of the following is false regarding floodplains?
A) They are formed by recurrent flooding in the area adjacent to the stream.
B) They are characterized by rapids and low waterfalls.
C) They are generally low-lying areas.
D) Natural levees on either side of a stream are formed during times when the stream is at flood stage
and overflows the bank.

B) They are characterized by rapids and low waterfalls.

Which of the following is not a sedimentary rock?
A) bituminous coal
B) sandstone
C) shale
D) marble

marble

The uplift of mountains is caused by

endogenic processes

At which of the following locations does subduction occur?
A) along collision zones between continental and oceanic plates
B) along collision zones between two continents
C) at sea floor spreading zones
D) above mantle hot spots

A) along collision zones between continental and oceanic plates

An earthquake, submarine landslide, or eruption of an undersea volcano is capable of producing a

tsunami

Particles of sand, gravels, and shells that move along the shore form the

beach drift

The crust is thickest under mountains and thinnest under the oceans

true

Vertical elevation differences in a local landscape are referred to as

relief

The effect of urbanization on a typical stream hydrograph is to

A) decrease lag time between storm peak and peak stream discharge.

) Snow that has a compact, granular structure is known as

firn

The large sheets of rock that break off batholiths, such as Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, develop as a
result of

exfoliation

) Other than the rock itself, the most important chemical substance needed for the majority of weathering
processes is

water

Which of the following lists of processes are in the correct sequence as to their occurrence in nature?
A) weathering, deposition, erosion, transport
B) weathering, erosion, transport, deposition
C) deposition, erosion, transport, weathering
D) weathering, erosion, deposition, transport

weathering, erosion, transport, deposition

Mass wasting occurs when gravity overcomes friction.

true

The term "periglacial" refers to

A) cold-climate processes along the margins of glaciers.

The most active tectonic regions of North and South America are on the

western coast

A single groin can produce both sand erosion and deposition.

true

The suspended load of a stream consists of particles that are

held aloft in the stream flow

Natural levees are created during

floods

As regards wetlands, which of the following is correctly matched?
A) mangrove swamps poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere
B) salt marsh between the equator and the 30th parallel in both hemispheres
C) salt marsh poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere
D) salt marshes low productivity due to the salinity

C) salt marsh poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere

The undulating form that gives Earth's surface its character and general configuration is called

topography

The opposite of the accumulation zone in a glacier is the

ablation zone

Which of the following is matched correctly?
A) magma lava
B) granite metamorphic
C) basalt sedimentary
D) sandstone igneous

magma-lava

A floodplain consists of alluvium.

true

Wave action works to straighten a coast as wave energy focuses around headlands and tends to disperse
energy in coves and bays in a process called

wave refraction

Normal faults are associated with

tensional

The angle of repose of snow avalanche slopes is typically higher than that for soil or rock.

true

) In most areas, the upper surface of bedrock is partially weathered to broken-up rock called

regolith

Unlike a stream-cut valley that assumes a characteristic ________-shape, a glacially-carved valley evidences
a characteristic ________-shape

V; U

The dynamic equilibrium model of landscape evolution emphasizes a balance among forces, form and
processrather than cyclical stages of development.

true

Which of the following is endogenic in nature?
A) glacial erosion
B) volcanism
C) weathering
D) stream deposition

volcanism

a circumstance in which performing an action causes more performances of the action.

positive feedback

data that paleoclimatologists gather from natural recorders of climate variability, e.g., tree rings, ice cores, fossil pollen, ocean sediments, coral and historical data

proxy data

is the power per unit area produced by the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the Earth's surface after atmospheric absorption and scattering.

solar irradiance

oxygen isotopes

~extremely important in deciphering past climates ~evaporation and condensation influence the ration of heavy oxygen to light oxygen in oceans *water molecules with lighter oxygen tend to evaporate easier *water molecules with heavier oxygen condense easier ~oxygen ratios found in water trapped in glaciers and water in marine plants and animals' shells are used to predict the past temperature

his recording of carbon dioxide at the Mauna Loa Observatory first alerted the world to possible anthropogenic (human impacted) contribution to the Greenhouse Effect and global warming

charles keeling

what does the keeling curve measure?

measures the progressive buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

radiative forcing

the measurements of the capacity of a gas or other forcing agents to affect that energy balance, thereby contributing to climate change. Put more simply, RF expresses the change in energy in the atmosphere due to GHG emissions. ~the difference of insolation absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back into space ~quantified at the tropopause in watts per square meter ~(+) forcing warms the system (more incoming) ~(-) forcing cools the system (more outgoing) ~causes: changes in isolation and the concentrations of radiatively active gases (GHG and aerosols)

the outflow of the thick, deep layer of water (high salinity and oxygen and CFCs)

north atlantic deep water (NADW)

the flow of warm surface waters from the Southern Hemisphere into the North Atlantic water is modified through evaporation and mixing; increase of salinity the water cools and sinks (because decreased temperature and increased salinity) increased density
*

thermohaline circulation

thermohaline is essential to what all over the world?

essential to the transportation of large amounts of water, heat, salt, carbon, nutrients, and other substances all over the world

the instrumental temperature record shows fluctuations of the temperature of earth's climate system. Initially the instrumental temperature record only documented land and sea surface temperature, but in recent decades instruments have also begun recording ocean temperature.

instrumental record

the amount of radiation reflected off of a surface

albedo

earth's average albedo?

.31 - 1/3 of incoming radiation is relfected

the lack of ice does what to albedo?

-decrease albedo - in turn, increase overall temperature

the science that studies past climates and uses a number of proxies to determine them

paleoclimatology

a fly that is a insect that is sensitive to temperature and you can use it to estimate past temperature

chironomids

milutin milankovitch

astronomer and mathematician

milankovitch theory

- made links between orbital theory and forcing - collaborated with geographers

three cycles of milankovitch theory

- Eccentricity (orbit) - 100,000 year cycle - Obliquity (tilt)- 41,000 year cycle - Procession of Equinoxes (axis orientation)- 27,000 year cycle

last glacial maximum pleistocene

- two pulses: 115,000 years ago and 75,000 years ago - Major sea level decrease - Land bridge between Siberia and Alaska - Ended about 15,000 years ago

a spot or patch appearing from time to time on the sun's surface, appearing dark by contrast with its surroundings

sunspot

sunspots occur?

ever 7-17 years

how are sunspots caused?

caused by magnetic storms on the sun and can range in diameter from 10,000km-50,000km or up to 160,000km (12x the Earth)

The first to discover the fact that glaciers had expanded in the past and is associated with understanding how alpine glaciation occurred

Louis Agassiz

a circumstance in which performing an action causes fewer performances of the action.
~surface temperature increases slightly increased ocean evaporation more low clouds in the atmosphere reflects more sunlight surface temperature decreases slightly12

negative feedback

- largest of the climatic oscillations that characterized the late- Pleistocene
- A period of dramatic cooling that occurred between- 13,000 and 11,800 years before present (bp)
- Return to near glacial conditions in the North Atlantic region; impacts documented globally
- Evidence suggests rapid onset and abrupt ending
- Nature and magnitude of event still poorly understood in Southern Hemisphere

younger dryas

- largest of the climatic oscillations that characterized the late- Pleistocene
- A period of dramatic cooling that occurred between- 13,000 and 11,800 years before present (bp)
- Return to near glacial conditions in the North Atlantic region; impacts documented globally
- Evidence suggests rapid onset and abrupt ending
- Nature and magnitude of event still poorly understood in Southern Hemisphere

younger dryas

science of determining past climates from trees (primarily properties of the annual tree rings). Tree rings are wider when conditions favor growth, narrower when times are difficult.

dendroclimatology

the principle or assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe

uniformitarianism

the last period in the Earth's climate history during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension. Growth of the ice sheets reached their maximum positions 26,500 years ago.

last glacial maximum (LGM)

a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climate Optimum).

little ice age

greenhouse gases

Carbon dioxide and water vapor are the principal radiatively active gases causing earth's natural greenhouse effect. radiatively active gases include atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, Chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor, which absorb and radiate longwave energy

a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet, most commonly from the polar ice caps of Antarctica, Greenland or from high mountain glaciers elsewhere.

ice cores

warmest year

2014 was Earth's warmest year on record; December 2014 record warm; Global oceans also record warm for 2014.

a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.

climate change

global temperature

temperature of the earth's entire surface atmosphere

what is the concentration of CO2?

400 ppm

global climate change

E. all of these are true

when did the last glacial maximum occur?

occurred approximately 20,000 years ago

what was the year with the highest surface temperature?

2014

what is the present atmosphere methane concentration, concentration of methane in the atmosphere?

1800 ppm

what is a coronamans?

a fly that is a insect that is sensitive to temperature and you can use it to estimate past temperature.

what is a coronamans?

a fly that is a insect that is sensitive to temperature and you can use it to estimate past temperature.

what is dendroclimatology?

using tree rings to measure past climates

what is the primary anthropogenic source of climate change?

burning of fossil fuels

who is lewis agassiz?

the first to discover the fact that glaciers had expanded in the past and is associated with understanding how alpine glaciation occurred

who is lewis aggassiz?

...

what is a coronamans?

...

greenhouse gases

Carbon dioxide and water vapor are the principal radiatively active gases causing earth's natural greenhouse effect. radiatively active gases include atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, Chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor, which absorb and radiate longwave energy

An area of high pressure circulates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and is called an
anticyclone

false

Ocean currents play a relatively small role in regulating climate.

false

Winds are named for the direction in which they are blowing

false

) On Earth between 30° north latitude and the equator, winds flow from the __________ as they flow out of the
__________ pressure zone toward the ITCZ.

C) NE; subtropical high

Land-sea breezes are caused by

D) onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon.

Which of the following is incorrect regarding the subpolar low-pressure cells?

A) In the Northern Hemisphere, they are generally stronger in summer than in winter.

The effect of the Coriolis force is __________ in the upper atmosphere because __________.

E) enhanced; there is less friction

Particles produced by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo __________ the albedo of the atmosphere, and this
__________ Earth.

) increased; cooled

Which of the following is true of high pressure areas?

B) Air descends and diverges within high pressure systems.

Which is true of air flowing into low pressure center?

) Air converges and descends.

) The jet streams help control
A) the movement of high and low pressure systems.
B) the boundary between cold polar air to the north and warm air to the south.
C) the movement of storms.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the abovejet streams do not affect surface weather phenomena.

D) all of the above.

The intertropical convergence zone is characterized by

A) convergence and uplift of warm surface air.

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is associated with

the equatorial low-pressure trough

The normal range for air pressure at sea level is

C) 980-1050 mb.

The highest surface air pressure ever recorded occurred when the air was

D) very cold.

The polar jet is closely associated with

C) polar front

) Which of the following primary pressure areas are produced by thermal factors, rather than dynamic
factors?
A) equatorial low and Bermuda high
B) subtropical high and subpolar low
C) equatorial low and polar high
D) Aleutian low and Icelandic low

C) equatorial low and polar high

Monsoonal winds are

) regional wind systems that seasonally vary.

The mercury barometer (consisting of mercury in a tube, sealed at one end and open at the other, and
inserted in a vessel of mercury), was invented by

Evangelista Torricelli.

Normal sea level pressure has a value of

1013.2 millibars.

The Coriolis force
A) decreases with height above the surface.
B) drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure.
C) is the only force acting on flows of air in the upper troposphere.
D) causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.

D) causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.

Which of the following are correctly matched?
A) cyclones low pressure cells
B) high pressure ascending, converging air movements
C) anticyclones subpolar pressure cells
D) high pressure cells cyclonic circulation

A) cyclones low pressure cells

A isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as

an isobar

) Forceful northward flowing warm currents in the Northern Hemisphere are the

Gulf Stream and Kuroshio.

Which instrument would you use to measure wind speed?

A) an anemometer.

On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars?

D) a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air

If you were between 40° and 50° north latitude, and you wanted to stand with the average winds blowing in
your face you would stand facing

west

air flow is initiated by the

pressure gradient force

Scientific study of the Earth's climate during the past.

Paleoclimatology

Change in the state of a system that enhances the measured effect of the initial alteration.

positive feedback

Data that measures the cause and effect relationship between two variables indirectly

proxy data

Dark colored region on the Sun that represents an area of cooler temperatures and extremely high magnetic fields

Sunspot

• Processes that either amplify or reduce climatic trends, toward either warming or cooling

Climate Feedbacks

• In 1953, he began collecting detailed measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide in Cali and later Hawaii.

Charles Keeling

• In Hawaii, he produced the single most important environmental data set of the 20th century

Charles Keeling

a graph of monthly average CO2 concentrations

• Keeling Curve

• The amount by which some perturbation causes Earth's energy balance to deviate from zero; a positive forcing indicates a warming condition, while a negative forcing indicates cooling

Radiative forcing

Weather is

atmospheric conditions over short periods of time

Paleoclimatologists use materials that have retained a unique signature of ancient climatic conditions. These materials are known as

proxies

The roundeness of the Earth's orbit is known as

eccentricity

The most important greenhouse gas also occurs in one of the smallest quantities. This greenhouse gas is

water vapor

The balance between the amount of energy entering and exiting the Earth system is known as

radiative balance

The average atmospheric conditions in a region over a long period of time is known as

climate

The lowermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere, the one in which humans live, is known as the

troposphere

The Earth's primary source of energy is the

Sun

Small particles suspended in the Earth's atmosphere are known as

aerosols

The long-term storage of carbon dioxide in the Earth's surface is known as

sequestration

The primary method by which the Earth gets rid of energy is known as

long-wave radiation

The Earth's ozone layer is located near the top of the

stratosphere

The most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere is

nitrogen

Theincrease in volume, or equivalently the decrease in density, that results from increased ocean temperature is known as

thermal expansion

The combination of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession dictates the input and distribution of solar radiation on the planet and is a major driver of the Earth's cliimate on extremely long time scales. This is known as

the Milankovitch Theory

The wobble of the Earth's axis is known as

precession

The tilt of the Earth's axis is known as

obliquity

What will happen to a negative mass balance glacier?

It will recede

How can one divide the period of the last ice-age?

Short warm episodes; long cold periods

Predict what is presently happening to the mass balance of glaciers in the northern hemisphere.

Decreasing

How and why do temperatures change from low latitude to high latitudes?

Temperature decreases because insolation decreases.

When was the Younger Dryas period?

About 12,000 years ago

Which Milankovitch cycle lasts about 100,000 years?

Orbital eccentricity

Which of the following represents a proxy record of long-term climate change?

Oxygen isotopes

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Geography" literally means

to write (about) Earth

If you wanted a map with a lot of detail of a small area you would want a

a large scale map.

An angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian from the center of Earth is termed

longitude

A non-rechargeable battery can best be described as a/an __________ energy system and a/an __________
material system.

C) closed; closed

The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that

) Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours; i.e., it rotates 15° of longitude per hour.

Which of the following possesses all of Earth’s properties of area, shape, direction, proximity, and distance,
correctly?
A) Mercator projection
B) Robinson projection
C) a world globe
D) Alber’s equal-area conic projection

a world globe

Remote sensing is

the monitoring of a distant object without physical contact.

With respect to air, water, and material resources, which of the following is true?
A) A leaf is an open system.
B) A leaf is an open system in terms of water, but closed in terms of energy resources.
C) A leaf is an open system in terms of air, but closed in terms of material resources.
D) A leaf is a closed system.

A leaf is an open system

The part of geography that embodies map making is known as

cartography

Which of the following statements about Earth is correct?
A) Earth is perfectly spherical.
B) The equatorial diameter is 42 km (26 mi.) greater than the polar diameter.
C) It is elongated.
D) Earth is the second largest planet in the solar system

The equatorial diameter is 42 km (26 mi.) greater than the polar diameter.

The scale of a map can be expressed by which of the following?
A) representative fraction
B) written scale
C) graphic scale
D) All of these are correct.
E) None of these are correct.

D) All of these are correct.

The capacity to change the motion of, or to do work on, matter is the definition of

A) energy.

) The difference in Sun time between two places located 30° in longitude apart from one another is

D) two hours

) (Place your city here)’s absolute location is best described as

A) (Place your latitude and longitude here as presented in lecture).

) Which of the following is an example of an active remote sensing device?
A) film
B) video camera
C) infrared sensor
D) radar

D) radar

) The most extreme northern and southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the Sun at local noon

A) 23.5° north and south.

If you were preparing a map showing the distribution of world climates, which type of map projection
would you want to use to allow accurate comparison of areas and regions?

A) equal area

If we burn fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide and warm the atmosphere, as the oceans warm they will
release more carbon dioxide, which warms the atmosphere. This is an example of __________ feedback. If the
increased atmospheric carbon dioxide causes increased plant growth which removes carbon dioxide and
cools the atmosphere, this is an example of __________ feedback

A) positive; negative

Cylindrical map projections, such as the Mercator, have a rectangular grid; i.e., parallels and meridians cross
at right angles

true

GIS systems use satellites to find locations precisely.

false

A picture taken with film in a camera is an example of passive remote sensing

true

"Longitude" is the name of an angle, and "meridian" is the name of an imaginary line that connects all points
along the same longitude.

true

Maps that are intended to show spatial distributions should be based on projections that minimize area
distortion, rather than shape distortion.

true

Photosynthesis in a plant leaf is an example of an open-system operation

true

) What is the name of the location on the surface of Earth that receives insolation when the Sun is directly
overhead? (When this occurs, the Sun’s rays are perpendicular to this surface.)

A) subsolar point

Light travels at a speed of approximately

A) 300,000 kilometers per second (186,333 miles per second).

Earth’s diameter is

C) about 40,000 km (24,000 mi.).

The dominant wavelength of energy emitted by the Sun is
A) the same length as that emitted by Earth.
B) shorter than that emitted by Earth.
C) longer than that emitted by Earth.

B) shorter than that emitted by Earth.

According to Figure 2.76, given the tilt of the axis (20°), the Tropic of Capricorn would be located at

C) 20° S

) In Figure 2.76, what position corresponds to the winter solstice for observers in the northern hemisphere?
(Assume north is toward the top of the page.)

C) C

According to Figure 2.76, at what two locations would daylight last for 12 hours for all locations on the
planet?

According to Figure 2.76, given the tilt of the axis (20°), the Arctic Circle would be located at

B) B and D

) Intercepted solar radiation is called

C) insolation.

) Which of the following sequences is arranged in order from shorter wavelength to longer wavelength?
A) gamma rays, microwaves, visible, X-rays
B) radio waves, light, heat, X-rays
C) infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays
D) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared

D) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared

1372 watts per square meter (2 calories per cm2 per minute) refers to the

C) solar constant.

The term "net radiation" refers to

D) the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation.

On its way to Earth, the solar wind first encounters

D) the magnetosphere.

The Sun produces which of the following?
A) only radiant energy that is beneficial to life
B) mainly ultraviolet and X-rays
C) only solar wind
D) mainly visible light and infrared energy

D) mainly visible light and infrared energy

) Which of the following accurately describes Earth’s distance from the Sun?
A) The Earth-Sun distance averages 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).
B) Earth is closer to the Sun in January (perihelion) and farther away in July (aphelion).
C) It takes light an average of 8 minutes and 20 seconds to travel from the Sun to Earth.
D) All of these are correct.

D) All of these are correct

The sun’s declination migrates through

B) 47°.

) Which of the following results from radiation imbalances at different latitudes?
A) global winds
B) hurricanes
C) ocean currents
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

D) all of the above

The __________ emits mainly __________ which is also called __________.

C) Earthlongwave radiationinfrared

) The Tropic of Cancer refers to

C) the parallel that is the farthest northern location for the subsolar point during the year

Which of the following statements is true?
A) December 21 = subsolar point at the Tropic of Cancer.
B) December 21 = vernal equinox.
C) June 21= equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.
D) September 22 = summer solstice in Australia.
E) March 21 = equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.

E) March 21 = equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.

The magnetosphere deflects the solar wind toward Earth’s two poles

true

Earth is at perihelion in early January when it is closest to the Sun

true

Rotation is Earth’s motion on its axis; revolution is its motion about the Sun.

true

) The subsolar point is at the Tropic of Cancer on December 21.

false

The reaction of automobile exhaust and ultraviolet light

D) forms smoke and fog.

Temperatures increase with increasing altitude in what two atmospheric layers?

C) stratosphere and thermosphere

Temperature inversions occur

C) when surface temperatures are lower than warmer overlying air

Temperatures within the stratosphere

A) increase with altitude because of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation

Which of the following is true regarding the depletion of ozone in the ozonosphere?
A) It results from chemical reactions with chlorine derived from CFCs.
B) The notion that ozone is being depleted as a result of human activity has little scientific evidence to
support it.
C) The depletion is restricted to the arctic and antarctic regions.
D) It results from the burning of fossil fuels

A) It results from chemical reactions with chlorine derived from CFCs

Based on composition, the atmosphere is divided into

B) two broad classifications: homosphere and heterosphere

Sources of natural variable gases and materials include all of the following except
A) volcanoes.
B) forest fires.
C) industrial activity. D) plants and decaying plants

C) industrial activity.

Which of the following lists the correct sequence of gases, from most to least, in terms of percentage within
the homosphere?
A) oxygen, ozone, nitrogen, PAN, carbon dioxide
B) nitrogen, argon, oxygen, xenon, carbon dioxide
C) nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, trace gases
D) oxygen, nitrogen, neon, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide

C) nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, trace gases

Which of the following is a consequence of acid rain?
A) changes in soil chemistry
B) the dying of forests
C) damage to aquatic ecosystems (rivers and lakes)
D) All of these are true.

D) All of these are true

A by-product of photosynthesis is

C) oxygen

Three criteria used for classification of the atmosphere explained in the text are

B) composition, temperature, and function

Half of Earth’s atmosphere lies below an elevation of __________ meters.

A) 5500

Which of the following is true of chlorofluorocarbons?
A) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release carbon which then destroys ozone.
B) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release fluorine which then destroys ozone.
C) Most of the CFC-induced ozone destruction is occurring near the equator, rather than near the poles.
D) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release chlorine which then destroys ozone.

D) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release chlorine which then destroys ozone.

Variable atmospheric components refer to

D) both natural and anthropogenic gases and materials.

In the lower atmosphere, H2SO4 is

C) related to the problem of acid deposition.

The thermopause is located

D) approximately 480 km (300 mi.) above Earth’s surface.

Carbon monoxide is potentially dangerous because it

D) replaces oxygen on red blood cells

Based on temperature, the atmosphere is divided into

D) four regions: ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere.

Which gas in the atmosphere is used by plants to form sugars, is soluble in water, and makes rain naturally
acidic?
A) oxygen
B) nitrogen dioxide
C) argon
D) carbon dioxide

D) carbon dioxide

Weather is confined to the troposphere because

D) the temperature of the stratosphere prevents tropospheric air from rising into it.

The ozonosphere is critical to life because it

absorbs most ultraviolet wavelengths.

The highest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the __________ because __________.

E) thermosphere; it is in direct contact with high energy solar radiation

The normal lapse rate for temperature decreases is an average of 3°C per 1000 m.

false

Based on the criteria of composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad regions: the ionosphere and
the ozonosphere

false

Weather (rain, fog, storms, etc.) occurs primarily in the troposphere

true

) The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is higher now than any time in the last 800,000 years.

true

The heterosphere has a layered structure, whereas the homosphere occurs as an even mixture of gases

true

Karst topography is formed primarily by

carbonic acid solution.

Which of the following is an example of a first order of relief?
A) the Alps and Rockies
B) the Shenandoah Valley
C) an ocean basin
D) the Tibetan Plateau

C) an ocean basin

Glacial polish results from

abrasion.

An interruption in a stream’s graded profile of equilibrium is called a

nickpoint.

The total possible load a stream can transport is its ________, whereas a stream’s ability to move particles of
specific size is its ________.

capacity; competence

Drowned glacial valleys are known as

fjords.

Water can be considered a "universal" solvent.

true

Orogenesis refers to

B) a general term for the beginning of a mountain-building episode that thickens continental crust.

A tributary that is physically unable to join the main channel on a floodplain is called a/an

yazoo tributary

Stream transport involves all of the following except
A) traction.
B) bed load.
C) sheet flow.
D) saltation.

sheet flow

Elongated, streamlined ridges aligned parallel to the most effective wind direction are called

yardangs.

Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is

D) generally more complex in content and structure.

Which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in Earth, from the surface to the center?
A) crust, core, lower mantle, asthenosphere
B) crust, lower mantle, asthenosphere, core
C) asthenosphere, lower mantle, crust, core
D) crust, asthenosphere, lower mantle, core

crust, asthenosphere, lower mantle, core

The ultimate base level is

sea level.

Which of the following occurs when the Sun, Moon, and Earth are in alignment (i.e., in opposition or
conjunction)?
A) neap tides occur
B) a lower tidal range occurs
C) maximum tidal ranges occur
D) None of thesethis type of alignment does not happen in nature.

C) maximum tidal ranges occur

A common crescent-shaped dune with horns pointed downwind is called a

barchan dune.

Plate boundaries are associated with
A) earthquakes.
B) rifting.
C) volcanoes.
D) subduction.
E) all of these

E) all of these

The San Andreas system in California is an example of a
A) strike -slip fault.
B) right-lateral motion.
C) transform fault.
D) All of these are correct

D) All of these are correct.

Uplift of the landscape creates ________ energy which is converted to ________ energy when materials begin
to move downslope

D) potential; kinetic

The motion of seismic waves is initiated in a subsurface location along the fault plane called the

A) focus.

Which of the following are erosional landforms created by alpine glaciation?
A) till plains
B) cols and horns
C) eskers
D) drumlins

cols and horns

The rate at which rocks weather depends upon
A) the type of rock.
B) the amount of vegetation in an area.
C) the climate of an area.
D) all of these
E) the climate of an area and the type of rock only

D) all of these

Watersheds are defined by

drainage divides.

A landslide differs from a debris avalanche in that

the materials in a landslide are not saturated with water

Composite cones have steep slopes and experience ________ eruptions because they are composed of
________ magma.

violent; felsic

Regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called

swells.

After water itself, what are the primary elements that occur in sea water?

chlorine and sodium

A glacier that is confined in a bowl-shaped recess is called a

cirque glacier.

Worldwide, alpine glaciers are presently increasing in size and number.

false

Lithification refers to the cementation, compaction, and hardening of sediments

true

The ocean floor is created along midocean ridges.

true

A tarn is a lake in a

cirque

Consider the equation Q = wdv. According to the equation, if Q (discharge) remains constant, but w and d
decrease (as when a channel becomes more narrow and shallow), the velocity will

increase.

When geologists or archaeologists dig downward into a unit of rock or sediment, they are digging "back in
time." This fact is based on the principle of ________.

superposition

Explosive eruptions tend to build up

composite volcanoes

The term "eolian" refers to

D) erosion, transportation, and deposition by the wind.

Pulverized rock and clastic materials ejected violently during an eruption are called

) tephra, or pyroclastics

Stream-related processes are termed

) fluvial.

Molten rock that pours forth on Earth’s surface is called

lava.

Alfred Wegner’s theory of continental drift was immediately accepted by the scientific community when it
was proposed.

false

The bulk of ice on Earth is sitting in

) Greenland and Antarctica

Louis Agassiz called glacially deposited boulders that differ in composition and origin from the ground on
which they rest

erratics.

Pangaea is currently dated at

B) 225 to 200 million years ago.

Continental crust is basically ________, whereas oceanic crust is basically ________.

granite; basalt

If you wanted to avoid earthquakes, which of the following areas would be the safest to live?
A) island arc along a subduction zone
B) convergent plate boundary
C) divergent plate boundary
D) shield

shield

Stream width, depth, and velocity are all responsive to discharge rates.

true

The Appalachians are older than the Rockies

true

Desert pavement refers to

surfaces of concentrated pebbles and gravels that are produced by particle removal and water-delivered cementing materials.

Which of the following is likely to occur if the gradient of a stream increases? (Assume that the discharge
and sediment load remain unchanged.)
A) The amount of aggradation in the channel will increase.
B) The stream will begin to erode its channel and/or its banks.
C) The stream will begin to deposit more of its load.
D) The amount of bed load transport will decrease.

B) The stream will begin to erode its channel and/or its banks.

Karst topography involves the chemical weathering of granite landscapes.

false

A rock transformed from any other rock through profound physical and/or chemical processes is referred to
as

metamorphic

Coral formations

are made of animals living symbiotically with simple algae

The removal and lifting of individual loose particles by the wind is termed

deflation

Which of the following is true regarding permafrost?
A) The surface layer in a permafrost region never thawseven during the warm season.
B) It is an area that is covered by glaciers.
C) It develops where soil or rock temperatures are below freezing for at least two years.
D) It occurs at a lower elevation in the midlatitudes than in the high latitudes.

C) It develops where soil or rock temperatures are below freezing for at least two years.

A winding hill of sorted sand and gravel deposits is known as a/an ________ and is deposited by a/an
________ glacier.

esker; continental

When two valley glaciers join together, they form a ________ at the point at which they merge.

medial moraine

The ocean floor subducts under continents because
A) the ocean floor has a lower density and therefore sinks more easily.
B) the ocean floor is made of mafic material and is therefore more dense than continental material.
C) the ocean floor is made of felsic minerals and is heavier than continental material.
D) the weight of the continents is so great that they push the ocean floor material downward.
E) both A and B

B) the ocean floor is made of mafic material and is therefore more dense than continental material.

Coral bleaching refers to
A) the loss of algae from the coral.
B) the replacement of normal, colored algae by white algae.
C) the killing of coral formations by chlorine bleach pollution.
D) all of these

A) the loss of algae from the coral.

Terranes refer to

D) displaced and migrating pieces of Earth’s crust.

Uniformitarianism assumes that

the same physical processes we see today are a key to understanding the processes that have been operating throughout geologic time

The disintegration and dissolving of surface and subsurface rock is called

weathering

Rivers make excellent political boundaries since they are clearly defined landform features.

false

A cutoff on a meandering stream results in the formation of

an oxbow lake

The science that specifically studies the origin, evolution, form, and spatial distribution of landforms is

geomorphology

In the Northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, slopes that face ________ have more trees on them because
________.

C) north; they are more moist

Rocks that appear pitted and grooved, and sometimes polished smooth by eolian processes, are termed

ventifacts

The presence of meltwater at the bottom of a glacier can increase its rate of movement.

true

Coal is a fossil fuel formed from

plants

Continental shields, or cratons, are generally of low elevation and old in age.

true

Which of the following is false regarding floodplains?
A) They are formed by recurrent flooding in the area adjacent to the stream.
B) They are characterized by rapids and low waterfalls.
C) They are generally low-lying areas.
D) Natural levees on either side of a stream are formed during times when the stream is at flood stage
and overflows the bank.

B) They are characterized by rapids and low waterfalls.

Which of the following is not a sedimentary rock?
A) bituminous coal
B) sandstone
C) shale
D) marble

marble

The uplift of mountains is caused by

endogenic processes

At which of the following locations does subduction occur?
A) along collision zones between continental and oceanic plates
B) along collision zones between two continents
C) at sea floor spreading zones
D) above mantle hot spots

A) along collision zones between continental and oceanic plates

An earthquake, submarine landslide, or eruption of an undersea volcano is capable of producing a

tsunami

Particles of sand, gravels, and shells that move along the shore form the

beach drift

The crust is thickest under mountains and thinnest under the oceans

true

Vertical elevation differences in a local landscape are referred to as

relief

The effect of urbanization on a typical stream hydrograph is to

A) decrease lag time between storm peak and peak stream discharge.

) Snow that has a compact, granular structure is known as

firn

The large sheets of rock that break off batholiths, such as Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, develop as a
result of

exfoliation

) Other than the rock itself, the most important chemical substance needed for the majority of weathering
processes is

water

Which of the following lists of processes are in the correct sequence as to their occurrence in nature?
A) weathering, deposition, erosion, transport
B) weathering, erosion, transport, deposition
C) deposition, erosion, transport, weathering
D) weathering, erosion, deposition, transport

weathering, erosion, transport, deposition

Mass wasting occurs when gravity overcomes friction.

true

The term "periglacial" refers to

A) cold-climate processes along the margins of glaciers.

The most active tectonic regions of North and South America are on the

western coast

A single groin can produce both sand erosion and deposition.

true

The suspended load of a stream consists of particles that are

held aloft in the stream flow

Natural levees are created during

floods

As regards wetlands, which of the following is correctly matched?
A) mangrove swamps poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere
B) salt marsh between the equator and the 30th parallel in both hemispheres
C) salt marsh poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere
D) salt marshes low productivity due to the salinity

C) salt marsh poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere

The undulating form that gives Earth’s surface its character and general configuration is called

topography

The opposite of the accumulation zone in a glacier is the

ablation zone

Which of the following is matched correctly?
A) magma lava
B) granite metamorphic
C) basalt sedimentary
D) sandstone igneous

magma-lava

A floodplain consists of alluvium.

true

Wave action works to straighten a coast as wave energy focuses around headlands and tends to disperse
energy in coves and bays in a process called

wave refraction

Normal faults are associated with

tensional

The angle of repose of snow avalanche slopes is typically higher than that for soil or rock.

true

) In most areas, the upper surface of bedrock is partially weathered to broken-up rock called

regolith

Unlike a stream-cut valley that assumes a characteristic ________-shape, a glacially-carved valley evidences
a characteristic ________-shape

V; U

The dynamic equilibrium model of landscape evolution emphasizes a balance among forces, form and
processrather than cyclical stages of development.

true

Which of the following is endogenic in nature?
A) glacial erosion
B) volcanism
C) weathering
D) stream deposition

volcanism

a circumstance in which performing an action causes more performances of the action.

positive feedback

data that paleoclimatologists gather from natural recorders of climate variability, e.g., tree rings, ice cores, fossil pollen, ocean sediments, coral and historical data

proxy data

is the power per unit area produced by the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the Earth’s surface after atmospheric absorption and scattering.

solar irradiance

oxygen isotopes

~extremely important in deciphering past climates ~evaporation and condensation influence the ration of heavy oxygen to light oxygen in oceans *water molecules with lighter oxygen tend to evaporate easier *water molecules with heavier oxygen condense easier ~oxygen ratios found in water trapped in glaciers and water in marine plants and animals’ shells are used to predict the past temperature

his recording of carbon dioxide at the Mauna Loa Observatory first alerted the world to possible anthropogenic (human impacted) contribution to the Greenhouse Effect and global warming

charles keeling

what does the keeling curve measure?

measures the progressive buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

radiative forcing

the measurements of the capacity of a gas or other forcing agents to affect that energy balance, thereby contributing to climate change. Put more simply, RF expresses the change in energy in the atmosphere due to GHG emissions. ~the difference of insolation absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back into space ~quantified at the tropopause in watts per square meter ~(+) forcing warms the system (more incoming) ~(-) forcing cools the system (more outgoing) ~causes: changes in isolation and the concentrations of radiatively active gases (GHG and aerosols)

the outflow of the thick, deep layer of water (high salinity and oxygen and CFCs)

north atlantic deep water (NADW)

the flow of warm surface waters from the Southern Hemisphere into the North Atlantic water is modified through evaporation and mixing; increase of salinity the water cools and sinks (because decreased temperature and increased salinity) increased density
*

thermohaline circulation

thermohaline is essential to what all over the world?

essential to the transportation of large amounts of water, heat, salt, carbon, nutrients, and other substances all over the world

the instrumental temperature record shows fluctuations of the temperature of earth’s climate system. Initially the instrumental temperature record only documented land and sea surface temperature, but in recent decades instruments have also begun recording ocean temperature.

instrumental record

the amount of radiation reflected off of a surface

albedo

earth’s average albedo?

.31 – 1/3 of incoming radiation is relfected

the lack of ice does what to albedo?

-decrease albedo – in turn, increase overall temperature

the science that studies past climates and uses a number of proxies to determine them

paleoclimatology

a fly that is a insect that is sensitive to temperature and you can use it to estimate past temperature

chironomids

milutin milankovitch

astronomer and mathematician

milankovitch theory

– made links between orbital theory and forcing – collaborated with geographers

three cycles of milankovitch theory

– Eccentricity (orbit) – 100,000 year cycle – Obliquity (tilt)- 41,000 year cycle – Procession of Equinoxes (axis orientation)- 27,000 year cycle

last glacial maximum pleistocene

– two pulses: 115,000 years ago and 75,000 years ago – Major sea level decrease – Land bridge between Siberia and Alaska – Ended about 15,000 years ago

a spot or patch appearing from time to time on the sun’s surface, appearing dark by contrast with its surroundings

sunspot

sunspots occur?

ever 7-17 years

how are sunspots caused?

caused by magnetic storms on the sun and can range in diameter from 10,000km-50,000km or up to 160,000km (12x the Earth)

The first to discover the fact that glaciers had expanded in the past and is associated with understanding how alpine glaciation occurred

Louis Agassiz

a circumstance in which performing an action causes fewer performances of the action.
~surface temperature increases slightly increased ocean evaporation more low clouds in the atmosphere reflects more sunlight surface temperature decreases slightly12

negative feedback

– largest of the climatic oscillations that characterized the late- Pleistocene
– A period of dramatic cooling that occurred between- 13,000 and 11,800 years before present (bp)
– Return to near glacial conditions in the North Atlantic region; impacts documented globally
– Evidence suggests rapid onset and abrupt ending
– Nature and magnitude of event still poorly understood in Southern Hemisphere

younger dryas

– largest of the climatic oscillations that characterized the late- Pleistocene
– A period of dramatic cooling that occurred between- 13,000 and 11,800 years before present (bp)
– Return to near glacial conditions in the North Atlantic region; impacts documented globally
– Evidence suggests rapid onset and abrupt ending
– Nature and magnitude of event still poorly understood in Southern Hemisphere

younger dryas

science of determining past climates from trees (primarily properties of the annual tree rings). Tree rings are wider when conditions favor growth, narrower when times are difficult.

dendroclimatology

the principle or assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe

uniformitarianism

the last period in the Earth’s climate history during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension. Growth of the ice sheets reached their maximum positions 26,500 years ago.

last glacial maximum (LGM)

a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climate Optimum).

little ice age

greenhouse gases

Carbon dioxide and water vapor are the principal radiatively active gases causing earth’s natural greenhouse effect. radiatively active gases include atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, Chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor, which absorb and radiate longwave energy

a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet, most commonly from the polar ice caps of Antarctica, Greenland or from high mountain glaciers elsewhere.

ice cores

warmest year

2014 was Earth’s warmest year on record; December 2014 record warm; Global oceans also record warm for 2014.

a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.

climate change

global temperature

temperature of the earth’s entire surface atmosphere

what is the concentration of CO2?

400 ppm

global climate change

E. all of these are true

when did the last glacial maximum occur?

occurred approximately 20,000 years ago

what was the year with the highest surface temperature?

2014

what is the present atmosphere methane concentration, concentration of methane in the atmosphere?

1800 ppm

what is a coronamans?

a fly that is a insect that is sensitive to temperature and you can use it to estimate past temperature.

what is a coronamans?

a fly that is a insect that is sensitive to temperature and you can use it to estimate past temperature.

what is dendroclimatology?

using tree rings to measure past climates

what is the primary anthropogenic source of climate change?

burning of fossil fuels

who is lewis agassiz?

the first to discover the fact that glaciers had expanded in the past and is associated with understanding how alpine glaciation occurred

who is lewis aggassiz?

what is a coronamans?

greenhouse gases

Carbon dioxide and water vapor are the principal radiatively active gases causing earth’s natural greenhouse effect. radiatively active gases include atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, Chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor, which absorb and radiate longwave energy

An area of high pressure circulates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and is called an
anticyclone

false

Ocean currents play a relatively small role in regulating climate.

false

Winds are named for the direction in which they are blowing

false

) On Earth between 30° north latitude and the equator, winds flow from the __________ as they flow out of the
__________ pressure zone toward the ITCZ.

C) NE; subtropical high

Land-sea breezes are caused by

D) onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon.

Which of the following is incorrect regarding the subpolar low-pressure cells?

A) In the Northern Hemisphere, they are generally stronger in summer than in winter.

The effect of the Coriolis force is __________ in the upper atmosphere because __________.

E) enhanced; there is less friction

Particles produced by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo __________ the albedo of the atmosphere, and this
__________ Earth.

) increased; cooled

Which of the following is true of high pressure areas?

B) Air descends and diverges within high pressure systems.

Which is true of air flowing into low pressure center?

) Air converges and descends.

) The jet streams help control
A) the movement of high and low pressure systems.
B) the boundary between cold polar air to the north and warm air to the south.
C) the movement of storms.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the abovejet streams do not affect surface weather phenomena.

D) all of the above.

The intertropical convergence zone is characterized by

A) convergence and uplift of warm surface air.

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is associated with

the equatorial low-pressure trough

The normal range for air pressure at sea level is

C) 980-1050 mb.

The highest surface air pressure ever recorded occurred when the air was

D) very cold.

The polar jet is closely associated with

C) polar front

) Which of the following primary pressure areas are produced by thermal factors, rather than dynamic
factors?
A) equatorial low and Bermuda high
B) subtropical high and subpolar low
C) equatorial low and polar high
D) Aleutian low and Icelandic low

C) equatorial low and polar high

Monsoonal winds are

) regional wind systems that seasonally vary.

The mercury barometer (consisting of mercury in a tube, sealed at one end and open at the other, and
inserted in a vessel of mercury), was invented by

Evangelista Torricelli.

Normal sea level pressure has a value of

1013.2 millibars.

The Coriolis force
A) decreases with height above the surface.
B) drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure.
C) is the only force acting on flows of air in the upper troposphere.
D) causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.

D) causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.

Which of the following are correctly matched?
A) cyclones low pressure cells
B) high pressure ascending, converging air movements
C) anticyclones subpolar pressure cells
D) high pressure cells cyclonic circulation

A) cyclones low pressure cells

A isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as

an isobar

) Forceful northward flowing warm currents in the Northern Hemisphere are the

Gulf Stream and Kuroshio.

Which instrument would you use to measure wind speed?

A) an anemometer.

On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars?

D) a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air

If you were between 40° and 50° north latitude, and you wanted to stand with the average winds blowing in
your face you would stand facing

west

air flow is initiated by the

pressure gradient force

Scientific study of the Earth’s climate during the past.

Paleoclimatology

Change in the state of a system that enhances the measured effect of the initial alteration.

positive feedback

Data that measures the cause and effect relationship between two variables indirectly

proxy data

Dark colored region on the Sun that represents an area of cooler temperatures and extremely high magnetic fields

Sunspot

• Processes that either amplify or reduce climatic trends, toward either warming or cooling

Climate Feedbacks

• In 1953, he began collecting detailed measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide in Cali and later Hawaii.

Charles Keeling

• In Hawaii, he produced the single most important environmental data set of the 20th century

Charles Keeling

a graph of monthly average CO2 concentrations

• Keeling Curve

• The amount by which some perturbation causes Earth’s energy balance to deviate from zero; a positive forcing indicates a warming condition, while a negative forcing indicates cooling

Radiative forcing

Weather is

atmospheric conditions over short periods of time

Paleoclimatologists use materials that have retained a unique signature of ancient climatic conditions. These materials are known as

proxies

The roundeness of the Earth’s orbit is known as

eccentricity

The most important greenhouse gas also occurs in one of the smallest quantities. This greenhouse gas is

water vapor

The balance between the amount of energy entering and exiting the Earth system is known as

radiative balance

The average atmospheric conditions in a region over a long period of time is known as

climate

The lowermost layer of the Earth’s atmosphere, the one in which humans live, is known as the

troposphere

The Earth’s primary source of energy is the

Sun

Small particles suspended in the Earth’s atmosphere are known as

aerosols

The long-term storage of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s surface is known as

sequestration

The primary method by which the Earth gets rid of energy is known as

long-wave radiation

The Earth’s ozone layer is located near the top of the

stratosphere

The most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere is

nitrogen

Theincrease in volume, or equivalently the decrease in density, that results from increased ocean temperature is known as

thermal expansion

The combination of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession dictates the input and distribution of solar radiation on the planet and is a major driver of the Earth’s cliimate on extremely long time scales. This is known as

the Milankovitch Theory

The wobble of the Earth’s axis is known as

precession

The tilt of the Earth’s axis is known as

obliquity

What will happen to a negative mass balance glacier?

It will recede

How can one divide the period of the last ice-age?

Short warm episodes; long cold periods

Predict what is presently happening to the mass balance of glaciers in the northern hemisphere.

Decreasing

How and why do temperatures change from low latitude to high latitudes?

Temperature decreases because insolation decreases.

When was the Younger Dryas period?

About 12,000 years ago

Which Milankovitch cycle lasts about 100,000 years?

Orbital eccentricity

Which of the following represents a proxy record of long-term climate change?

Oxygen isotopes

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