GEO2200 4

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Which of the following is a feature that commonly forms where limestone has been dissolved?

All of these.

Lichens play a special role in chemical weathering by

secreting oxalic acid, which dissolves carbonates particularly well.

Some rocks and minerals are not stable at the surface because they

All of these.

Which, if any, of the following is probably NOT important in assessing an area’s potential for slope failure?

All of these are important.

What factors lead to the Vajont (Vaiont in textbook) Dam landslide disaster?
For a look at old (1960s) TV footage of the disaster, you can check out the video here: (Links to an external site.)

the rock sedimentary layers were folded at the bottom of a syncline valley, and dipped downslope toward the reservoir.

Compared to a gentle slope, a steep slope will have a

slower rate of soil formation and less soil.

Which sequence of events is required to form a limestone cave where you can walk around and observe cave formations, such as stalactites? (Note: stalactites hang from the ceiling – they have to hold on tight to the roof.)

limestone is below the water table, then lowering of the water table, then water dripping from the ceiling

Which of the following is a way that slopes fail?

All of these.

In 1999, heavy rains caused debris floods and flash floods that raced through the coastal cities. What should have warned the people of coastal northern Venezuela that they were in a hazardous zone?

All of these.

Aside from limestone, which other kinds of environments produce karst terrain?

areas underlain by salt or evaporate rocks, but not sandstone

The angle of repose is

the steepest angle at which loose material remains stable.

Which of the following factors control how minerals weather?

All of these.

What is the main force involved in the stability of slopes?


All other factors being equal, a slope facing away from the Sun will tend to have

faster soil formation than the slope in direct sunlight, primarily because chemical weathering processes will be accelerated.

What is the main reason why the oceans are salty?

Weathering of rocks releases chemical elements that make the oceans salty.

Which, if any, of the following is NOT a common trigger for slope failure?

All of these are common triggers for slope failure.

Which of the following is true about how coasts are affected from the water side?

Waves can erode, deposit, or simply transport sediment.

What is the primary reason an increase in glaciation on land would cause sea level to fall?

Glaciers tie up large volumes of water that would otherwise be in the sea

Which of the following can influence whether a coast gains or loses sand with time?

All of these.

What was a key point demonstrated by photographs in the textbook from before and after hurricanes?

Waves and storm surge caused erosion of beaches and destruction of houses.

Sand and other sediment

can move laterally along the coast if waves approach the beach at an angle.

Rip currents form because

backwash occurs in a narrow zone.

It has been proposed that the reason that the Pacific Ocean has many more coral reefs than the Atlantic Ocean is that

the last glacial advance left the Atlantic too cold to allow coral to survive.

Which of the following is NOT an approach communities have tried to address shoreline problems?

lowering the local sea level

Factors that affect the appearance of a shoreline include

All of these.

The feature pictured below formed as

an island flanked by coral sank.

This spit is a(n) _______ landform.


What does LIDAR data tell us about shorelines?

changes in elevation, including destruction of houses

High and low tides are caused by

water being pulled by the gravity of the Moon.

With the Moon in this position, which area or areas will experience high tide?

Pick the most correct answer.

2 and 4

What geologic event is probably indicated by this irregular coast, with estuaries?

a rise in sea level

What happens to the land surface when large ice sheets melt away?

The land flexes upward due to isostatic rebound.

How was Payne’s Praire formed?

Via underground dissolution of limestone and settling of the overlying surface as a massive sinkhole

Which of the following statements about the hydrologic conditions favorable for the formation of sinkholes in Florida is true?

Sinkholes are most likely in both floods and droughts.

Which of the following statements about the gravitational pull of the Sun and the Moon on tides in the Earth’s ocean waters is true?

During the course of about a month the Sun and Moon both pull together and oppose one another on two occasions.

What direction is the longshore drift in this picture?

From the bottom of the page towards the top of the page

Summer temperatures are high in arid climates because

high sun angle and low relative humidity.

Köppen’s intent in developing his climatic classification system was to correlate temperature and precipitation with


Where there are abrupt changes in elevation, climate patterns

change over short distances especially over land.

Temperatures become more variable and precipitation decreases as one travels from west to east from Europe into Asia. This is best explained by

prevailing westerlies and the orientation of mountain chains.

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