Geo Quiz 9

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A disappearing (sinking) creek is ________.

an influent stream in a karst area

A perched water table develops when ________.

a horizontal aquitard above the regional water table lies below an aquifer

A ________ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.

stalactite

An aquifer is ________.

a saturated, porous, and permeable layer or stratum

An artesian well is one in which ________.

water rises above the top of the aquifer without any pumping

An unconfined water table is the ________.

boundary between the aerated zone above and saturated zone below

Excessive groundwater withdrawals can cause ________.

the water table to drop or decline in elevation

For unconfined aquifers, what hydrologic factor is approximated by the slope of the water table?

hydraulic gradient

The Unsaturated zone ________.

lies above the water table

The hot spring deposits at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, are travertine. What rock probably lies somewhere beneath the hot springs?

limestone

The water table is ________.

boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above

What force pushes groundwater from pore to pore below the water table?

pressure gradient or hydraulic gradient

Which common, rock-forming mineral or mineral group is most readily dissolved by groundwater?

Calcite

Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt?

With a slight reduction in pressure, water in a saturated, natural conduit suddenly boils, sending a plume of steam and hot water into the air above the vent.

Which of the following describes the configuration of an unconfined water table around a pumping well?

cone of depression

Which one of the following concerning artesian wells is not true?

When the well penetrates the aquifer, the water rises to the bottom of the aquitard above the aquifer.

Which one of the following concerning stalactites and stalagmites is not true?

Stalagmites form on the floors of caves below the water table.

Which one of the following statements is true for an artesian aquifer?

The water table in the recharge area is at a higher elevation than the top of the aquifer in the subsurface.

________ account for the largest usage of groundwater in the United States.

Agriculture and irrigation

_______ are characteristics found in all good aquifers.

High porosity and high permeability

________ are specific features of karst topography.

Streams flowing into depressions and continuing underground

________ controls the ease (or difficulty) of groundwater transmission through a porous material.

Permeability

________ is the volume of voids or open space in a rock or unconsolidated material.

Porosity

________ would have the largest capacity to naturally remove sewage pollutants.

Slightly clayey sand

Artesian groundwater conditions can develop in an inclined aquifer with aquitards above and below.

True

In areas underlain by unconsolidated or weakly consolidated strata, lowering of the water table can cause the land to subside.

True

In general, contaminated groundwater will be naturally cleaned faster by circulation through porous and permeable sands than by circulation through fractured, crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.

True

In humid areas and for unconfined, groundwater conditions, the water table generally slopes toward the valley of a perennial stream.

True

The water table is a surface separating the saturated and unsaturated zones.

True

Water-saturated muds have low permeabilities but can have greater porosities than well-cemented sandstone.

True

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