# GEO Ch1

Total word count: 760
Pages: 3

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 Reid; 1906, San Francisco The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ____________ following the ____________ earthquake. focus When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The source is also referred to as the __________. S waves travel through solids and P waves travel through liquids Which one of the following statements is correct about S and P waves Primary waves ____________ have the highest velocities they are started by fault-induced, horizontal shifts in the sea floor that suddenly propel great masses of water in opposite directions Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis design of structures, intensity and duration of the vibrations, nature of the surface material The amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations is affected by __________. surface waves On a typical seismogram, ____________ will show the highest amplitudes aftershocks Major earthquakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as Richter The ____________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage. seismograph The instrument which records earthquake events is termed a XII ____________ is the maximum possible damage designation on the Mercalli scale. epicenter The position on Earth’s surface directly above the earthquake source is called the elastic rebound The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is termed surface wave this type of seismic wave is the most destructive 30 times Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5 are faster than S waves and surface waves P waves I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake The Mercalli Scale is a scale from arrival times of P and S waves The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the amplitude of the surface waves The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the they have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths Which one of the following best characterizes tsunamis? San Francisco, 1906 The ____________ earthquake was accompanied by extensive fire damage Liquefaction A ____________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking seismogram The record of an earthquake obtained from a seismic instrument is a seismic waves Most of our knowledge about Earth’s interior comes from oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon Which one of the following statements about the crust is NOT true iron The dense core of Earth is thought to consist predominantly of a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material The lithosphere is defined as basalt The average composition of the oceanic crust is thought to approximate that of granite The average composition of the continental crust most closely approximates that of weak electrical currents associated with fluid motions in the outer core The Earth’s magnetic field originates by in the upper mantle The asthenosphere is located strike slip A ____________ fault has little or no vertical movements of the two blocks. reverse In a ____________ fault, the hanging wall block move up with respect to the footwall block. the crust is shortened and thickened In thrust faulting, a hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults A graben is characterized by tensional stresses and normal-fault movements The mountains and valleys of the Basin and Range Province of western United States formed in response to the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block In a normal fault a strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates A transform fault is cooler temperatures Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which of the following conditions? a low-angle, reverse fault A horst is A syncline is a fold in which the strata dip toward the axis a low-angle, reverse fault A thrust fault is best described as dome The Black Hills of South Dakota are a good example of a basins Large circular downwarped structures are called high temperature and high confining pressure Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting? normal faults Tensional forces normally cause which one of the following San Andreas strike-slip fault The ____________ in California is the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. accretionary-wedge complex A(n) ____________ is a thick accumulation of sediments and small, tectonic blocks formed of material scraped off a descending, lithospheric plate. fault blocks uplifted by late Tertiary to Quaternary normal faulting The Sierra Nevada, CA, and Teton, WY ranges are examples of

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