# Geo Ch 4

Total word count: 610
Pages: 2

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 Which of the following refers to primary circulation? general circulation of the atmosphere Which of the following refers to secondary circulation? migratory high and low pressure systems Which of the following refers to tertiary circulation? Landd-sea breezes Air flow is initiated by the pressure gradient force. The horizontal motion of air relative to Earth’s surface is wind Normal sea level pressure has a value of 1013.2 millibars or 29.92 inches of mercury in a barometer. The average height of a column of mercury (Hg) in a barometer at sea level is 760 mm (76 cm). An instrument used to measure air pressure is an aneroid barometer. An increase in air pressure will cause the mercury in a barometer to ________. rise The normal range for air pressure at sea level is 980 to 1050 mb. As air temperature increases, the speed of the molecules in a mass of air ________ and the air pressure ________. increases; increases Which of the following describes the pressure gradient force? It drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure. An isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as an isobar. Air flows ________ a surface high pressure area because the density of the air in the high pressure zone is ________ than that of the surrounding air. out of; more dense If Earth did not rotate, air would flow perpendicular to the isobars, i.e., straight across the isobars. Which of the following is true of high pressure areas? Air descends and diverges within high pressure systems. On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars? a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air Which of the following describes the Coriolis force? It causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path. The deflection produced by the Coriolis force is caused by the fact that Earth’s rotation decreases in speed toward the poles. In the absence of friction, the combined effect of the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient geostrophic winds at high altitudes above the ground. The intertropical convergence zone is characterized by convergence and uplift of warm surface air Between 20° to 35° north latitude and 20° to 35° south latitude are the world’s arid and semi-arid desert regions. Winds that blow predominantly from the northeast and the southeast are the trade winds. The dominant surface winds from the subtropics to high latitudes are the westerlies. If you were between 40° and 50° north latitude and you wanted to stand with the average winds blowing in your face, you would stand facing west Air flow in a Northern Hemisphere high pressure zone is downward, outward and clockwise. Within the upper-air westerly wind flow are great waving undulations known as Rossby waves that involve contact between cooler and warmer air masses The jet streams help control the movement of high and low pressure systems, the movement of storms, the boundary between cold polar air to the north and warm air to the south. Land-sea breezes are caused by onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon as the land heats faster than neighboring water surfaces. Mountain-valley breezes are caused by warm air rising upslope during the day and cooler air descending the slopes at night. The winds that blow off the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland are called katabatic winds. Monsoonal winds are regional wind systems that seasonally vary. Ocean currents are produced by friction, Coriolis force, and water density differences only. Which of the following is true of upwelling zones? They are nutrient-rich, They occur along the west coasts of continents, They are most common above deep ocean basins, They are nutrient-rich and along the west coasts only.

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