gateways to democracy

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Which of the following is most likely a gateway to democracy?
a. lack of knowledge of the political system
b. efforts to increase turnout in elections
c. laws restricting who can vote
d. wealthy interests that counter popular opinion

b. efforts to increase turnout in elections

Laws that regulate the American economy, social issues, and political participation are all examples of
a. direct democracy.
b. public policy.
c. the political agenda.
d. the domestic agenda.

b. public policy

The first stage in the public policy process is
a. identifying the problem.
b. formulating a solution.
c. evaluating the effectiveness of solutions.
d. enacting and implementing solutions.

a. identifying the problem.

Which U.S. president acted as a defense lawyer for British soldiers charged with murder before the Revolution?
a. John Adams
b. George Washington
c. Millard Fillmore
d. Thomas Jefferson

a. John Adams

All of the following are true of the rule of law principle EXCEPT
a. it protects the minority.
b. it helps prevent mob rule.
c. all people are subject to the law.
d. it only affects certain people.

d. it only affects certain people.

John Locke considered life, liberty, and property to be
a. natural rights.
b. unrealistic rights.
c. religious rights.
d. elites-only rights

a. natural rights

Direct democracy was not used in Colonial America due to what reason?
a. direct democracy led to corruption
b. the country was not large enough yet
c. it was impractical in a large country
d. direct democracy had yet to be invented

c. it was impractical in a large country

The Framers referred to a representative democracy as
a. a republic.
b. a direct democracy.
c. an oligarchy.
d. a dictatorship.

a. a republic

Which branch of government is charged with making laws?
a. judiciary
b. administrative branch
c. executive branch
d. legislature

d. legislature

Which branch of government is charged with interpreting the law?
a. judiciary
b. administrative branch
c. legislature
d. executive branch

a. judiciary

Which branch of government is charged with executing the law?
a. judiciary
b. legislature
c. administrative branch
d. executive branch

d. executive branch

Each branch has some power over the other two branches. This system is known as
a. democracy .
b. federalism.
c. checks and balances.
d. republicanism.

c. checks and balances.

The Constitution divides power between the national government and the state governments. This arrangement is known as
a. republicanism.
b. federalism.
c. separation of power.
d. checks and balances.

b. federalism.

Individuals whose views fall on the right end of the political ideology scale are called
a. moderates.
b. liberals.
c. conservatives.
d. populists.

c. conservatives.

Most Americans do not see themselves as either conservative or liberal, but somewhere in the middle of the ideological scale. These people are considered
a. libertarians.
b. populists.
c. moderates.
d. individualists.

c. moderates.

In which economic system are key industries privately owned?
a. socialism
b. feudalism
c. capitalism
d. communism

c. capitalism

Who wrote Democracy in America as a study of American institutions and culture?
a. Hobbes
b. Locke
c. Tocqueville
d. Shakespeare

c. Tocqueville

This text focuses on two basic themes: they are
a. public and private involvement.
b. freedom and justice.
c. responsiveness and equality.
d. the government and the people.

c. responsiveness and equality.

Clean air and clean water are considered
a. commodities.
b. political goods.
c. private goods.
d. public goods.

d. public goods.

As a student, you might take political action in favor of government-backed, student financial aid. This political involvement would likely be based on
a. party identification.
b. political equality.
c. self-interest.
d. civic interest.

c. self-interest.

______________ is the idea that citizens get involved in the political process because they want to be part of the volunteer organizations that make up the civil society that enables communities to flourish.

civic interest — Civic interest is the idea that citizens get involved in the political process because they want to be part of the volunteer organizations that make up the civil society that enables communities to flourish. For more information, see The Demands of Democratic Government in your text. LO1.5: List the responsibilities of individuals in a democracy.

Which generation’s youth, who tend to be more socially liberal, are described as more likely to be optimistic, practical, and identify as political independents?
a. Generation X
b. the "Greatest Generation"
c. Millennials
d. Baby Boomers

c. Millennials

Which of the following is true of the cost of a four-year public college since the 1980s?
a. It has both increased and decreased.
b. It has decreased over this time.
c. It has been generally stable.
d. It has increased over this time.

d. It has increased over this time.

In the United States, educational opportunity is linked to
a. participation responsibility.
b. economic opportunity.
c. political responsibility.
d. social opportunity.

b. economic opportunity.

The Tea Party Movement and the Black Lives Matter Movement have which of the following in common?
a. self-interest opportunity
b. participation opportunity
c. economic opportunity
d. educational opportunity

a. self-interest opportunity

Which document sets forth the basic rules and procedures for how the people of a country shall be governed?
a. writ
b. constitution
c. warrant
d. decree

b. constitution

Prior to the American Revolution, how were British views on political participation and representation different from those of the American colonists?
a. the British believed in greater participation, but wanted to limit representation
b. the British had a more limited view of participation, but believed in greater representation
c. the British had a more limited view of participation and representation
d. the British believed in greater participation and representation

c. the British had a more limited view of participation and representation

The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia to
a. draft the Articles of Confederation.
b. reconcile differences with King George III.
c. send grievances to King George III.
d. draft the U.S. Constitution

c. send grievances to King George III.

What was the purpose of Thomas Paine’s influential pamphlet Common Sense?
a. It established the first set of colonial charters.
b. It called for reconciliation with Britain.
c. It called for independence from Britain.
d. It called for a three branch system of government.

c. It called for independence from Britain

Which document was unanimously adopted by the Continental Congress in 1781 and gave most of the governing power to the states?
a. the Articles of Confederation
b. the Declaration of Independence
c. the Magna Carta
d. the Constitution

a. the Articles of Confederation

Which plan for new government proposed a strong central government with a national executive and a national judiciary, both chosen by the legislature?
a. New Jersey Plan
b. Virginia Plan
c. Maine Plan
d. Florida Plan

b. Virginia Plan

Which plan for new government strengthened the Articles by providing Congress with the authority to regulate commerce and to directly tax imports and paper items?
a. New Jersey Plan
b. Florida Plan
c. Virginia Plan
d. Rhode Island Plan

a. New Jersey Plan

What was the Connecticut Compromise?
a. Slaves would be counted as three-fifths of a person for representation in the House.
b. Representation in the Senate would be proportional to population, but the House of Representatives would represent each state equally.
c. An Electoral College would be used to elect the president rather than allowing the people to choose.
d. Representation in the House of Representatives would be proportional to population, but the Senate would represent each state equally.

d. Representation in the House of Representatives would be proportional to population, but the Senate would represent each state equally.

Which of the following is NOT an enumerated power given to Congress by the Constitution?
a. the authority to veto state laws
b. the authority to regulate commerce
c. the authority to tax
d. the authority to declare war

a. the authority to veto state laws

Which of the following best describes the Electoral College in the United States?
a. The president is elected by electors, selected by each state, representing the votes of their state.
b. The president is elected by electors who are randomly selected to ensure equal representation.
c. The president is elected by electors chosen by members of Congress.
d. The president is elected directly by a popular vote of the people in each of the 50 states.

a. The president is elected by electors, selected by each state, representing the votes of their state.

Which amendment granted the American people the right to elect senators directly?
a. Fourth
b. Twenty-First
c. First
d. Seventeenth

d. Seventeenth

What are the two chambers of Congress called?
a. the legislature and the judiciary
b. the Executive Council and the Cabinet
c. the House of Representatives and the Senate
d. the Assembly and the Council

c. the House of Representatives and the Senate

What is required for Congress to override the president’s veto?
a. a simple majority in the House
b. a two-thirds majority in each chamber
c. a one-half vote in each chamber
d. a unanimous vote in the Senate

b. a two-thirds majority in each chamber

How old must the president of the United States be by the time he or she takes office?
a. 25
b. 40
c. 21
d. 35

d. 35

One very important check the president has on the authority of the legislature is the
a. authority to impeach legislators.
b. presidential filibuster.
c. veto.
d. authority of censure.

c. veto.

Which landmark Supreme Court case gave rise to judicial review?
a. Gibbons v. Ogden
b. Roe v. Wade
c. Marbury v. Madison
d. Plessy v. Ferguson

c. Marbury v. Madison

___________ divides power within the federal government among the three branches of government.

Separations of powers

The Constitution forbids Congress from taking away a prisoner’s right to go before a judge to have the legality of their confinement determined. This is called the
a. necessary and proper clause.
b. ex post facto law.
c. separation of powers.
d. writ of habeas corpus.

d. writ of habeas corpus

Individuals who opposed the ratification of the proposed Constitution became known as
a. Republicans.
b. Democrats.
c. Federalists.
d. Antifederalists.

d. Antifederalists.

Which of the following pieces of legislation particularly alarmed Antifederalists?
a. the necessary and proper clause
b. the advice and consent clause
c. the full faith and credit clause
d. the commerce clause

a. the necessary and proper clause

What was the most serious charge against the Constitution by those in opposition?
a. It gave Congress too much power.
b. It gave the president too little power.
c. It lacked a bill of rights.
d. It did not establish a judicial branch.

c. It lacked a bill of rights.

Which three amendments, known as the Civil War Amendments, addressed issues related to former slaves, due process rights, and voting rights?
a. Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh
b. Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth
c. Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth
d. First, Second, and Third

b. Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth

Which amendment gave women the right to vote?
a. Twenty-Fifth
b. Fifth
c. Nineteenth
d. First

c. Nineteenth

A situation known as ________ occurs when the majority in Congress is from a different party than the president.

divided government

Which of the following is true of voting rights in 1787?
a. The states differed as to whether women and free blacks could vote.
b. All states allowed free blacks to vote, but varied when it came to women and men without property.
c. Women, men without property and free blacks were forbidden to vote in all states.
d. All states allowed women the right to vote, but free blacks could not vote.

a. The states differed as to whether women and free blacks could vote.

A ___________ is said to exist when people in a country have a sense of common identity due to a common origin, history, or ancestry.

nation

Which type of governmental system existed under the Articles of Confederation?
a. unitary
b. confederal
c. federal
d. republic

b. confederal

Which level of government has the most power in a confederation?
a. executive
b. county
c. state
d. national

c. state

Which level of government has the most power in a unitary system?
a. state
b. legislative
c. county
d. national

d. national

The Tenth Amendment declares that "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are _____________ to the States respectively, or to the people".

reserved

Powers that belong to both the federal and state governments are called ___________ powers.

concurrent

A law that makes an act illegal after the fact is called a(n) _____________ law.

ex posto facto

The Equal Protection Clause is found in which amendment?
a. Fourteenth
b. First
c. Eighth
d. Fourth

a. Fourteenth

Which clause makes the Constitution supreme over state law?
a. the equal protection clause
b. the full faith and credit clause
c. the supremacy clause
d. the necessary and proper clause

c. the supremacy clause

The fact that a same-sex marriage performed in Massachusetts is valid in any other state is based on what Constitutional clause?
a. the commerce clause
b. the full faith and credit clause
c. the supremacy clause
d. the necessary and proper clause

b. the full faith and credit clause

Which clause requires that states treat people from other states equally to their own residents?
a. the commerce clause
b. the full faith and credit clause
c. the supremacy clause
d. the privileges and immunities clause

d. the privileges and immunities clause

Alexander Hamilton favored a ________ federalism, while Thomas Jefferson favored a _________ federalism.

national centered; state centered

The Sedition Act was designed to
a. restrict the states from disregarding the national government.
b. encourage the national government to limit the states.
c. protect the people from a tyrannical national government.
d. make criticism of the government illegal.

d. make criticism of the government illegal.

Which Supreme Court case resolved the debate over the national authority to establish a bank?
a. Brown v. Board of Education
b. McCulloch v. Maryland
c. Mapp v. Ohio
d. Loving v. Virginia

b. McCulloch v. Maryland

Which Supreme Court case ruled that the federal government had no authority to regulate slavery in the territories?
a. Brown v. Board of Education
b. Gibbons v. Ogden
c. Dred Scott v. Sandford
d. Miranda v. Arizona

c. Dred Scott v. Sandford

Which amendment prohibited slavery throughout the nation?
a. Thirteenth
b. Eighth
c. Fourth
d. First

a. Thirteenth

President _______ New Deal programs and President _______ Great Society programs expanded federal authority.
a. Lyndon Johnson’s; John F. Kennedy’s
b. Lyndon Johnson’s; Franklin Roosevelt’s
c. Franklin Roosevelt’s;Lyndon Johnson’s
d. John F. Kennedy’s; Lyndon Johnson’s

c. Franklin Roosevelt’s;Lyndon Johnson’s

What plan, favored by President Richard Nixon, gave the states the greatest amount of leeway in spending money from the national government?
a. block grants
b. loans
c. categorical grants
d. general revenue sharing

d. general revenue sharing

President Reagan preferred giving money to the states via which plan?
a. general revenue sharing
b. categorical grants
c. block grants
d. loans

c. block grants

Most governors have the power to veto certain parts of a bill. This is called a
a. pocket veto.
b. full veto.
c. line-item veto.
d. partial veto.

c. line-item veto.

Which of the following powers is granted to governors in all fifty states?
a. the authority to veto laws subject to override by the state legislatures
b. the authority to veto language in appropriation bills
c. the ability to veto certain parts of a spending bill without vetoing the entire bill
d. special budgetary authority to limit spending

a. the authority to veto laws subject to override by the state legislatures

In which plan for selecting judges does a board of experts recommend candidates to the governor, who then selects judges from the list?
a. The Judicial Appointment Plan
b. The Missouri Plan
c. The Virginia Plan
d. The Court-Packing Plan

b. The Missouri Plan

In some states, citizens have the right to remove a candidate from office by gathering signatures on a petition, a procedure known as
a. recall.
b. referendum.
c. initiative.
d. review.

a. recall

Which of the following in NOT a form of direct democracy used by the states?
a. referendum
b. recall
c. nullification
d. initiative

c. nullification d. initiative

Which system of government has the most gateways, but within which it is also the most difficult to determine who is responsible if a policy fails?
a. confederal
b. federal
c. state
d. unitary

b. federal

_____________ refers to the general patterns of voters’ party identification and their behavior on election day.

Party in electorate

Which of the following is an example of the party in government?
a. the state or national political parties (e.g. Republican National Committee)
b. the number of registered Democratic and Republican voters
c. the Democratic primary election, in which only Democrats may participate
d. the number of Democrats and Republicans in Congress

d. the number of Democrats and Republicans in Congress

The internal structure that guides how a party operates at the federal, state, and local levels is called the party
a. organization.
b. in government.
c. platform.
d. in the electorate.

a. organization.

An election held to choose the party’s candidate to run in the next stage of the election is called a __________ election.

primary

A(n) __________ primary is restricted to voters affiliated with a particular party.

closed

A primary in which voters do not have to affiliate with a party is called a(n) __________ primary.

open

In which case did the Supreme Court rule that blanket primaries were unconstitutional?
a. Griswold v. Connecticut
b. California Democratic Party v. Jones
c. Marbury v. Madison
d. Buckley v. Valeo

b. California Democratic Party v. Jones

____________ means that the candidate who wins the majority of the votes in a primary convention will win all of the delegates for that state.

The winner-take-all system

___________ are active members of a party invited to the national convention because they will be instrumental in turning out party voters in the general election.

Superdelegates

An electoral system that assigns party delegates according to vote share in a presidential primary election or that assigns seats in the legislature according to vote share in a general election is known as
a. caucusing.
b. a winner-take-all system.
c. proportional representation.
d. an open primary.

c. proportional representation.

The Framers who favored ratification of the Constitution called themselves
a. Republicans.
b. Antifederalists.
c. Federalists.
d. Democrats.

c. Federalists.

Party machines of the late nineteenth century were fueled by what group of individuals?
a. wealthy aristocrats
b. rural voters
c. Republicans
d. immigrants

d. immigrants

Which issue ignited the formation of the Republican Party?
a. education
b. immigration
c. unemployment
d. slavery

d. slavery

Which system awards government programs and benefits based on political loyalty to a party?
a. patronage
b. merit
c. socialist
d. nonpartisan

a. patronage

Which piece of legislation was passed to reform the civil service by requiring that government jobs be filled based on qualifications?
a. the Stamp Act
b. the McCain/Feingold Act
c. the Pendleton Act
d. the Emancipation Proclamation

c. the Pendleton Act

The _____________ asserts that, in a two-party race, if voters select candidates on the basis of ideology and everyone participates equally, the party closer to the middle will win.

median voter theorem Downs’ median voter theorem asserts that, in a two-party race, if voters select candidates on the basis of ideology and everyone participates equally, the party closer to the middle will win. For more information, see The Effects of a Two-Party System in your text. LO9.3: Explain why two parties dominate the U.S. political system.

What type of system is the American electoral system?
a. a patronage system
b. a single-member plurality system
c. a proportional representation electoral system
d. a parliamentary system

b. a single-member plurality system

Teddy Roosevelt ran for president under which third party label?
a. Democrat
b. Progressive
c. Federalist
d. Whig

b. Progressive

Which amendment allowed for the direct election of U.S. senators?
a. Seventeenth
b. Twelfth
c. Tenth
d. Sixteenth

a. Seventeenth

Why do candidates who are elected from third parties have little influence in legislatures?
a. They have no party organization to join in the legislature.
b. They are not allowed to speak in legislative sessions.
c. They cannot participate in legislative votes.
d. They cannot be elected to the Senate.

a. They have no party organization to join in the legislature.

A long-term shift in voter allegiance from one party to the other is called a
a. party renewal.
b. dealignment
c. party caucus.
d. party alignment.

a. party renewal.

Which party established itself as the party for civil rights for African Americans in the 1960s?
a. Republicans
b. Democrats
c. Whigs
d. Federalists

b. Democrats

Although Barack Obama won reelection in 2012 by a margin of 51 to 47 percent, due to a Republican majority in the House, the country experienced
a. a unique time of bipartisanship.
b. little bipartisanship and divided government.
c. a period of Democratic policy control.
d. strong bipartisanship and responsible party government.

b. little bipartisanship and divided government.

Which Republican president attracted significant support from working-class, ethnic, northern voters and southern white voters?
a. Ronald Reagan
b. George H.W. Bush
c. George W. Bush
d. Richard Nixon

a. Ronald Reagan

The term _______________ means that if voters give one party control of the White House and Congress, they have high expectations and will hold that party accountable for policy outcomes in the next election.

responsible party

Which state has the MOST electoral votes?
a. Texas
b. Florida
c. California
d. Oklahoma

c. California

The number of electoral votes a state receives corresponds to
a. the state’s area.
b. the number of senators and members of the House of Representatives for the state.
c. the popularity of the state’s major political players.
d. the number of major cities in the state.

b. the number of senators and members of the House of Representatives for the state.

Which two U.S. states can split their electoral votes, as opposed to winner-take-all?
a. Florida and Georgia
b. Nebraska and Maine
c. Oklahoma and Texas
d. Alabama and Arkansas

b. Nebraska and Maine

To win the presidency, a candidate needs
a. a majority of electoral votes.
b. a plurality of the national popular vote.
c. a majority of the national popular vote.
d. a plurality of electoral votes.

a. a majority of electoral votes.

In 1796, John Adams was elected president. His vice president was his chief rival
a. Thomas Jefferson.
b. Benjamin Franklin.
c. George Washington.
d. Aaron Burr.

a. Thomas Jefferson.

How many times in history has an individual NOT gained the popular vote and still become president?
a. ten
b. four
c. one
d. fifteen

b. four

Senators serve ________ -year terms.

six

Members of the House of Representatives serve ________ -year terms.

two

When state legislatures redraw district lines to try to keep districts equal in terms of population, it is called
a. gerrymandering.
b. microtargeting.
c. pork-barreling.
d. redistricting.

d. redistricting.

The politicization of drawing district boundaries is called
a. pork-barreling.
b. microtargeting.
c. redistricting.
d. gerrymandering.

d. gerrymandering.

_________ concerns when politicians, especially presidents, spend too much time working toward reelection and not enough time governing.

The permanent campaign

The period before the primaries during which the candidates attempt to capture party support and media coverage is called
a. open primaries.
b. the permanent primary.
c. the beauty contest primary.
d. the invisible primary.

d. the invisible primary.

At the national convention, the party’s nominee will usually lay out the party’s plan for government. This is called the
a. party platform.
b. valence issue.
c. party mandate.
d. position issue.

a. party platform.

The first televised presidential debate was between __________ and ___________ .

Richard Nixon debated John F. Kennedy in the 1960 presidential debate.

What groups are formed with the express purpose of donating money to political candidates?
a. caucuses
b. 501(c)(3) organizations
c. political action committees
d. factions

c. political action committees

Which of the following is true of spending on presidential elections from 2000 to 2016?
a. It has declined slowly.
b. It has fluctuated.
c. It has been relatively stable.
d. It has risen sharply.

d. It has risen sharply.

States that are not clearly pro-Republican or pro-Democrat are considered __________ states.

Swing states do not fall into the Democratic or Republican camp and are pivotal in determining the winner of elections.

Noncontroversial issues that are not likely to differ between candidates are called
a. position issues.
b. retrospective issues.
c. wedge issues.
d. valence issues.

d. valence issues.

________ are often controversial and divisive, and are used in campaigns to break up an opponent’s coalitions.

Wedge issues are divisive issues focused on a particular group of the electorate that candidates use to gain more support by taking away from their opponent and/or breaking up the opponent’s coalitions.

Individuals who currently hold the contested office but who run again are called
a. incumbents.
b. veterans.
c. diplomats.
d. justices.

a. incumbents.

What are the elections called during the middle of a presidential term?
a. advisory
b. general
c. primary
d. midterm

d. midterm

What usually happens to total seats in the House of Representatives at the midterm elections?
a. The president’s party usually loses seats.
b. The present’s party gains seats about half the time, and loses seats the other half.
c. The president’s party gains about the same number of seats as it loses.
d. The president’s party usually gains seats.

a. The president’s party usually loses seats.

Since the 1960s, competitiveness in congressional elections has been declining. This trend is referred to as
a. presidential coattails.
b. term limits.
c. safe seats.
d. vanishing marginals.

d. vanishing marginals.

When a popular president running for reelection brings additional party candidates into office, it is called the ____________ effect.

When a popular president running for reelection brings additional party candidates into office, it is called the presidential coattails effect.

In December 2013, with President Barack Obama’s popularity sagging and a struggling economy, many quality Democratic candidates decided not to run in the 2014 elections. This demonstrates
a. the strategic politician hypothesis.
b. vanishing marginals.
c. the permanent campaign.
d. retrospective voting.

a. the strategic politician hypothesis.

Which political figure claimed that "our government rests on public opinion?"
a. Franklin Roosevelt
b. Abraham Lincoln
c. George W. Bush
d. Thomas Jefferson

b. Abraham Lincoln

Which of the following presidents was the only president to receive an approval rating higher than 90 percent?
a. Franklin Roosevelt
b. George W. Bush
c. Ronald Reagan
d. John Kennedy

b. George W. Bush

____________ is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs about certain issues or officials, and it is the foundation of any democracy.

Public opinion

Which term refers to the extent to which people believe their actions affect the course of government?
a. confidence interval
b. political trust
c. efficacy
d. conceptualization

c. efficacy

Which of the following best defines political trust?
a. the extent to which people believe the government acts in their best interests
b. the extent to which people evaluate the job of the president or Congress
c. the extent to which people have attitudes or beliefs about certain issues
d. the extent to which people believe their actions can affect public affairs

a. the extent to which people believe the government acts in their best interests

During President McKinley’s administration, what was used to gauge public opinion?
a. letters to Congress
b. public opinion polling
c. newspaper articles
d. focus groups

c. newspaper articles

What was wrong with the 1936 Literary Digest poll conducted during the presidential campaign?
a. it did not poll enough people
b. the poll was biased in sampling
c. the poll was conducted too early in the campaign
d. the question wording was biased

b. the poll was biased in sampling

George Gallup, who founded the American Institute of Public Opinion in 1935, correctly predicted the outcome of the 1936 election by generating a __________ of people to participate in surveys.

random sample

Which university founded the Survey Research Center and is now the academic center for all sorts of polling?
a. University of Texas
b. University of Illinois
c. University of Michigan
d. University of Iowa

c. University of Michigan

Which of the following is a potential problem with Internet polling?
a. Internet polling tends to have older sample populations because seniors are more likely to be retired and therefore available.
b. Internet polling may be biased against younger Americans who are more likely to move around frequently.
c. Internet polling lacks security and is more likely to be tampered with by political campaigns.
d. Internet polling may be biased against older and poor Americans who are less likely to have Internet access.

d. Internet polling may be biased against older and poor Americans who are less likely to have Internet access.

Which type of poll is conducted as voters are leaving the voting booth?
a. absentee
b. exit
c. tracking
d. push

b. exit

The process by which our attitudes are shaped is called
a. polarization.
b. socialization.
c. ideology.
d. efficacy.

b. socialization.

If your parents are Democrats, what is the likelihood that you will also identifies yourself as a Democrat?
a. about 95 percent
b. about 33 percent
c. about 67 percent
d. about 88 percent

c. about 67 percent

What have preliminary studies of twins suggested about the formation of political attitudes?
a. Genetics may play a role in the formation of political attitudes
b. Political attitudes are not influenced by either socialization or genetics.
c. Early family socialization plays no role in the formation of political attitudes.
d. Genetics are irrelevant to the formation of political attitudes.

a. Genetics may play a role in the formation of political attitudes

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were a defining event that caused Americans to change their views on national security and express a willingness to give up some personal freedom to reduce the threat of terrorism. This is an example of
a. a generational effect.
b. a non-attitude.
c. a level of conceptualization.
d. polarization.

a. a generational effect.

Mariella was a Democrat when she was young, but as she got older and began making more money, she became a Republican because Republicans have pursued tax policies that protect individual wealth. In this case, Mariella is choosing a political ideology based upon
a. generational effect.
b. self-interest.
c. civic interest.
d. political trust.

b. self-interest.

Which concept deals with the psychological attachment that individuals have towards Democrats or Republicans?
a. self-interest
b. rationality
c. party identification
d. political trust.

c. party identification

Liberals tend to be _______, and conservatives tend to be _______.
a. Libertarians; Independents
b. Republicans; Democrats
c. Libertarians; Democrats
d. Democrats; Republicans

d. Democrats; Republicans

How did the Framers feel about the public’s capacity to be politically informed and make good choices?
a. They were concerned about the public’s ability to make good political decisions.
b. They felt that most of the public was trustworthy, although there were a few "bad eggs."
c. They completely trusted the public’s ability to make political decisions.
d. They were unsure about the public’s ability but felt the public deserved a chance to participate in a true and complete democracy regardless.

a. They were concerned about the public’s ability to make good political decisions.

How has party polarization in Congress changed from the 1970s to present?
a. It has increased steadily over this period.
b. It has declined steadily over this time period.
c. It has remained stable over this time period.
d. It increased until the 1990s and has declined since.

a. It has increased steadily over this period.

Working-class people who support the Republican party because they believe in a conservative social agenda and a decreased role for government welfare-based programs are known as
a. Bush Republicans.
b. Nixon Republicans.
c. Yellow Dog Democrats.
d. Reagan Democrats.

d. Reagan Democrats.

Overall, _______ tend to be the most politically conservative group.

Protestant

Which of the following terms does the text use to describe the differences in political attitudes among men and women?
a. polarization
b. gender gap
c. glass ceiling
d. quid pro quo

b. gender gap

Which of the following is true when it comes to Latinos and African Americans regarding party identification?
a. Latinos and African Americans are more likely to be Republicans than Democrats.
b. Latinos are more likely to be Republicans, but African Americans are more likely to be independents.
c. Latinos are roughly equally split among the parties, but African Americans are more likely to be Republicans.
d. African Americans are more likely to be Democrats than Republicans, and both parties compete for Latino support.

d. African Americans are more likely to be Democrats than Republicans, and both parties compete for Latino support.

How do college graduates differ in their perspective about immigration reform when compared with those who have a high school education or less?
a. College graduates are more opposed to allowing illegal immigrants to become citizens.
b. College graduates are more in favor of allowing illegal immigrants to become citizens.
c. College graduates are less likely to be knowledgeable about this issue, and tend to have no opinion.
d. College graduates feel similarly to those with a lower level of education about immigration reform.

b. College graduates are more in favor of allowing illegal immigrants to become citizens.

The minimum age for a House of Representatives member is _______ years, and the minimum age for a U.S Senator is _______ years.
a. 21; 25
b. 30; 35
c. 25; 30
d. 18; 21

c. 25; 30

Which of the following is a reason that Congress is a bicameral institution?
a. to allow each chamber to check each other’s power
b. to increase efficiency and the speed by which Congress could operate
c. to increase the power of Congress relative to the other branches
d. to limit members of Congress to only two terms

a. to allow each chamber to check each other’s power

Which amendment provided for the direct election of senators?
a. Second
b. Seventeenth
c. Thirteenth
d. Fifteenth

b. Seventeenth

How many years constitute a term in the U.S. Senate?
a. eight
b. six
c. two
d. four

b. six

Which term refers to the redrawing of a district’s boundaries?
a. muckraking
b. campaigning
c. franking
d. redistricting

d. redistricting

In its most recent session, how do the House and Senate compare demographically to the U.S. population?
a. Women and ethnic minorities make up smaller percentages in the House and Senate than their percentages in the overall U.S. population.
b. Women and ethnic minorities make up similar percentages in the House and Senate as their percentages in the U.S. population.
c. Women make up about the same percentage in the House and Senate as their percentage of the total population, but ethnic minorities are underrepresented.
d. Ethnic minorities make up about the same percentages in the House and Senate as their percentages in the U.S. population, but women are underrepresented.

a. Women and ethnic minorities make up smaller percentages in the House and Senate than their percentages in the overall U.S. population.

Redrawing district boundaries so that the majority of voters in a district favor of one particular party is called
a. redistricting.
b. gerrymandering.
c. electioneering.
d. franking.

b. gerrymandering.

Most congressional powers are listed in which section of the Constitution?
a. Article I, Section 8
b. Article I, Section 2
c. Article III, Section 1
d. Article II, Section 1

a. Article I, Section 8

Where do bills concerning raising revenue originate?
a. the Executive Branch
b. the Supreme Court
c. the Senate
d. the House of Representatives

d. the House of Representatives

The Senate has the power of ______ , which allows them to review or confirm presidential appointments.

advice & consent

Congress may remove judges and executive officials from office via
a. gerrymandering.
b. impeachment.
c. advice and consent.
d. pocket veto.

b. impeachment.

What authority given to Congress has been most instrumental in expanding its power relative to the other branches of government?
a. taxation and appropriation
b. appointments and treaties
c. war powers
d. regulation of commerce

a. taxation and appropriation

Which Supreme Court case established judicial review whereby laws could be declared unconstitutional?
a. McCulloch v. Maryland
b. Wickard v. Filburn
c. Marbury v. Madison
d. Bush v. Gore

c. Marbury v. Madison

Which is the top leadership position in the House of Representatives?
a. president pro tempore
b. majority whip
c. committee chairman
d. Speaker of the House

d. Speaker of the House

Who was the first female Speaker of the House?
a. Nancy Pelosi
b. Jeanette Rankin
c. Hillary Clinton
d. Jan Brewer

a. Nancy Pelosi

Who can break a tie vote in the Senate?
a. the president
b. the Senate majority leader
c. the vice president
d. the Speaker of the House

c. the vice president

Which type of congressional committee is permanent and reports to the full chamber?
a. select
b. joint
c. special
d. standing

d. standing

Senators may use the _______ to delay or even prevent the passage of a bill, however, they may vote to stop it with a _______ vote.
a. cloture; filibuster
b. filibuster; gerrymander
c. gerrymander; filibuster
d. filibuster; cloture

d. filibuster; cloture

How many senators constitute a supermajority?
a. 75
b. 25
c. 60
d. 10

c. 60

The term unanimous consent applies to which of the following?
a. Congress, the president, and the judiciary
b. the House and the Senate
c. the House
d. the Senate

d. the Senate

The president may wait for Congress to go out of session and simply not sign a bill. This is called a(n)
a. override.
b. tabling of the bill.
c. executive agreement.
d. pocket veto.

d. pocket veto.

How do freshman congress members typically choose their committee assignments?
a. based upon the needs of their district or state
b. by choosing a mentor and joining his or her committee
c. by polling their constituents and determining on which committee they want representation
d. based upon what issues are on the public radar nationally

a. based upon the needs of their district or state

__________ are narrowly defined federally funded local projects that members of Congress try to secure for their districts.

Earmarks

Members of Congress may send mail to their constituents free of charge. This is called
a. franking.
b. gerrymandering.
c. bulk mailing.
d. pork-barreling.

a. franking.

Cultivating direct links with constituents and making a good impression on them is what the political scientist Richard Fenno calls ________ , or the way members portray themselves to constituents.

homestyle

What is the minimum age required to attain the office of U.S. president?
a. 25
b. 40
c. 35
d. 30

c. 35

Which amendment set the eligibility requirements for vice president?
a. Fifth
b. Second
c. Tenth
d. Twelfth

d. Twelfth

What determines the presidential order of succession?
a. the Supreme Court
b. the Constitution
c. vote by current Congress
d. popular vote

b. the Constitution

The president’s tenure was limited to two terms following what president’s election to a fourth term?
a. Franklin Roosevelt
b. Ronald Reagan
c. Lyndon Johnson
d. Teddy Roosevelt

a. Franklin Roosevelt

Because a president in his second term cannot seek reelection, he is commonly referred to as a
a. bully pulpit.
b. omnibus.
c. privileged executive.
d. lame duck.

d. lame duck.

As ___________ , the president directs all war efforts and military conflict.

commander in chief

The president has the power to _______ , which is the ability to fully forgive an individual’s federal prison sentence.

pardon

Congress can override a presidential veto with a _________ vote in each chamber

2/3

What authority or role does the president have regarding the judicial system?
a. The president appoints all federal judges, including Supreme Court justices.
b. The president nominates judges in the federal judicial system, including Supreme Court justices.
c. The president has no authority or role in the judicial system.
d. The president may nominate and remove federal judges, including Supreme Court justices.

b. The president nominates judges in the federal judicial system, including Supreme Court justices.

Who was the first president to have impeachment charges brought against him?
a. Andrew Johnson
b. Grover Cleveland
c. Bill Clinton
d. Richard Nixon

a. Andrew Johnson

Which scandal led to the resignation of Richard Nixon?
a. Iran Contra
b. Cold War
c. Watergate
d. Whitewater

c. Watergate

Which case indicated that the president’s power of executive privilege is not absolute?
a. Bush v. Gore
b. United States v. Nixon
c. Wickard v. Filburn
d. McCulloch v. Maryland

b. United States v. Nixon

Presidents use the executive power to issue ________ that give specific instructions on a federal policy and do not require congressional approval.

presidential directives

_______ are written remarks that reflect the president’s interpretation of the law that are not required or authorized by the Constitution.

Signing statements

What is the Federal Register?
a. a list of politicians that have served in office since the signing of the Constitution
b. a Washington D.C. newspaper that reports on social events
c. the official record of government regulations
d. a political think tank

c. the official record of government regulations

In which case did the Supreme Court rule that the president could not seize domestic property when the U.S. was at war abroad?
a. American Title Company v. Davis
b. Mapp v. Ohio
c. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer
d. Wickard v. Filburn

c. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer

Pursuant to the War Powers Act, the president may send troops into military conflict for no more than _____ days without an official declaration of war or authorization from Congress.

90

Which case blocked the Bush administration from denying habeas corpus privileges to an enemy combatant who was a U.S. citizen?
a. McCulloch v. Maryland
b. Marbury v. Madison
c. Michaels v. Guantanamo
d. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

d. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Which of the following organizations is NOT part of the Executive Office of the President?
a. the National Security Council
b. the White House Office
c. the Office of Management and Budget
d. the Bureau of Land Management

d. the Bureau of Land Management

Which president appointed the first chief of staff?
a. Lyndon B. Johnson
b. John F. Kennedy
c. Franklin Delano Roosevelt
d. Dwight D. Eisenhower

d. Dwight D. Eisenhower

Which first lady showed her support for civil rights by arranging for the first African American opera singer to perform on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial?
a. Lady Bird Johnson
b. Jacqueline Onassis Kennedy
c. Eleanor Roosevelt
d. Betty Ford

c. Eleanor Roosevelt

Which president’s program, known as the New Deal, was designed to address problems associated with the Great Depression?
a. Franklin Roosevelt
b. Herbert Hoover
c. Barack Obama
d. Harry Truman

a. Franklin Roosevelt

Lyndon Johnson’s federal social welfare programs became known as the
a. Contract with America.
b. Cold War.
c. Great Society.
d. New Deal.

c. Great Society.

Ronald Reagan is referred to as ____ because he came across very well on television.

the Great Communicator

Which major controversy marred the presidency of Ronald Reagan?
a. Watergate
b. the Cold War
c. the Iran-Contra scandal
d. Whitewater

c. the Iran-Contra scandal

Because trial courts sometimes make mistakes about questions of law, the American legal system has followed the British practice by allowing
a. probation.
b. appeals.
c. plea bargains.
d. convictions.

b. appeals

Which term refers to a judge’s decision to adhere to the previous decisions of other judges?
a. conviction
b. bench
c. appeals
d. precedent

d. precedent

Which article of the Constitution establishes the judicial branch of government?
a. Article V
b. Article II
c. Article III
d. Article I

c. Article III

All of the following provide proper jurisdiction to have a case heard in federal court EXCEPT
a. a dispute over federal law.
b. a dispute over state law.
c. a dispute over the Constitution.
d. a dispute involving public ministers.

b. dispute over state law.

Which power, held by the federal judiciary, involves constitutional interpretation?
a. judicial review
b. rule of four
c. oral argument
d. appeal

a. judicial review

Which term refers to a request for review of a case directed to the U.S. Supreme Court?
a. plea bargain
b. en banc
c. habeas corpus
d. writ of certiorari

d. writ of certiorari

Outside interests can file ________ briefs, stating their concerns in a court case.

amicus curiae

Which term refers to a specially empaneled group that decides whether the government has enough evidence to charge the suspect with a crime?
a. voir dire
b. hung jury
c. grand jury
d. writ of certiorari

c. grand jury

Which term refers to the method used to resolve MOST federal criminal cases?
a. plea bargain
b. arraignment
c. incarceration
d. appeal

a. plea bargain

Supreme Court justices who disagree with the result reached by the majority can write _________ explaining why they believe the Court’s decision was in error.

dissenting opinion

Which rule is used to decide if the Supreme Court will grant cert?
a. the rule of precedent
b. the rule of jurisdiction
c. the rule of judicial restraint
d. the rule of four

d. the rule of four

What is the term for an opinion that agrees with the majority opinion, but has a separate rationale for doing so?
a. minority opinion
b. concurring opinion
c. dissenting opinion
d. majority opinion

b. concurring opinion

Under what circumstances can Congress simply overturn a court’s decision?
a. if the court’s decision is based on the meaning of a statute
b. if the court declares a practice unconstitutional
c. if Congress implements a referendum
d. if the Court reaches a plurality judgment as opposed to a majority opinion

a. if the court’s decision is based on the meaning of a statute

According to the text, which of the following is true regarding ideology and its relationship to judicial restraint and activism?
a. The vast majority of judges are restrained toward laws that they agree with ideologically, but are willing to overturn laws that they are distant from ideologically.
b. The vast majority of judges are willing to overturn laws that they both agree with ideologically and are distant from ideologically.
c. Few judges are restrained toward laws that they agree with ideologically, but most are willing to overturn laws that they are distant from ideologically.
d. The vast majority of judges are restrained toward both laws that they agree with ideologically and those that they do not agree with ideologically.

a. The vast majority of judges are restrained toward laws that they agree with ideologically, but are willing to overturn laws that they are distant from ideologically.

Who is responsible for confirming Supreme Court nominees?
a. the Attorney General
b. the Senate
c. the Secretary of State
d. the House of Representatives

b. the Senate

Who was the only Supreme Court justice impeached by the House of Representatives?
a. Samuel Chase
b. Clarence Thomas
c. William Rehnquist
d. Robert Bork

a. Samuel Chase

Who was the first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court?
a. Ruth Bader Ginsburg
b. Sandra Day O’Connor
c. Elena Kagan
d. Sonia Sotomayor

a. RBG

Who was the first Hispanic to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court?
a. Elena Kagan
b. Sonia Sotomayor
c. Samuel Alito
d. William Rehnquist

b. Sonia Sotomayor

Which Supreme Court justice’s ethics were questioned following sexual harassment accusations during the nomination process?
a. Thurgood Marshall
b. Clarence Thomas
c. Samuel Alito
d. William Rehnquist

b. Clarence Thomas

Who was the first African American Supreme Court justice?
a. Clarence Thomas
b. Sonia Sotomayor
c. John Roberts
d. Thurgood Marshall

d. Thurgood Marshall

The commerce clause is at the heart of which major Supreme Court case?
a. Gibbons v. Ogden
b. Brown v. Board of Education
c. D.C. v. Heller
d. Marbury v. Madison

a. Gibbons v. Ogden

Which Supreme Court case ruled that blacks could not be citizens?
a. Dred Scott v. Sandford
b. Marbury v. Madison
c. D.C. v. Heller
d. Plessy v. Ferguson

a. Dred Scott v. Sandford

Which Supreme Court case argued that Congress could not use the 14th Amendment’s due process clause to give them authority over individuals, only states?
a. Dred Scott v. Sandford
b. Brown v. Board of Education
c. Gibbons v. Ogden
d. United States v. Cruikshank

d. United States v. Cruikshank

After the Court struck down several pieces of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation, how did he strike back?
a. He proposed a court-packing plan that would have allowed him to appoint a new justice for every justice over age 70 who failed to resign.
b. He increased the size of the Court to fifteen members.
c. He refused to appoint any new justices who did not agree with his policies.
d. He gave Congress veto power over Supreme Court decisions.

a. He proposed a court-packing plan that would have allowed him to appoint a new justice for every justice over age 70 who failed to resign.

Which case resolved the 2000 presidential election?
a. Lawrence v. Texas
b. Bush v. Gore
c. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
d. District of Columbia v. Heller

b. Bush v. Gore

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