FSHN 120 Test 4

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Organic farmers cannot use pesticides.

A) True
B) False

B) false

Which of the following is NOT one of the body’s protective responses after encountering foodborne microbes?

A) fever
B) decreased metabolic rate
C) increased production of white blood cells
D) vomiting and diarrhea

B) decreased metabolic rate

Which of the following is F about bisphenol A (BPA)?

A) BPA is a form of synthetic estrogen.
B) BPA has been linked to breast cancer in both men and women.
C) BPA is found in canned food and plastic products.
D) BPA was banned by the FDA in 2009 due to safety concerns.

D) BPA was banned by the FDA in 2009 due to safety concerns.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a foodborne illness also known as

A) Norwalk virus.
B) hepatitis A.
C) mad cow disease.
D) typhoid fever.

C) mad cow disease

Refrigerating or freezing foods will kill any bacteria present in the food.

A) True
B) False

B) False

Mycotoxins are most commonly found in

A) hamburger and sausage.
B) spinach and tomatoes.
C) milk and cheese.
D) peanuts and grains.

D) peanuts and grains.

In which of the following environments does Clostridium botulinum flourish?

A) alkaline
B) temperatures above 140°F
C) temperatures below 40°F
D) acidic

A) alkaline

Food additives are the potentially carcinogenic chemicals that remain in foods despite cleaning and processing.

A) True
B) False

B) false

The only way to be sure that meat is thoroughly cooked is to check the internal temperature with a food thermometer.

A) True
B) False

A) TRUE

Pasteurization was first developed to kill microorganisms in

A) milk.
B) poultry.
C) cheese.
D) wine.

D) wine

A genetic disorder characterized by excessive iron absorption is

A) beriberi.
B) pellagra.
C) sickle cell anemia.
D) hemochromatosis.

D) hemochromatosis.

Which of these actions does NOT help retain the vitamins in foods?

A) soaking foods in as little water as possible
B) avoiding exposure to air and light
C) avoiding cooking with high heat
D) adding baking soda to vegetables to retain color

D) adding baking soda to vegetables to retain color

Excessive zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce immune cell response and decrease destruction of bacteria.

A) True
B) False

A) true

The meat factor is

A) a special quality found in meat, poultry, and fish that enhances iron absorption.
B) the protein carrier needed by the body to absorb dietary manganese, folate, or vitamin B6.
C) a coenzyme involved in the metabolism of protein and fat.
D) the increased absorption of dietary folate by the mother during pregnancy.

A) a special quality found in meat, poultry, and fish that enhances iron absorption.

Thiamin, consumed in excess, is toxic.

A) True
B) False

B) false

Vitamin C impairs the absorption of iron.

A) True
B) False

B) false

Which mineral increases insulin’s effectiveness in cells?

A) copper
B) chromium
C) fluoride
D) selenium

B) chromium

Vitamin K deficiency is associated with an overgrowth of intestinal bacteria.

A) True
B) False

B) false

High concentrations of homocysteine in the blood are associated with the development of

A) diabetes.
B) heart disease.
C) neural tube defects.
D) osteoporosis.

B) heart disease

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of pellagra?

A) dizziness
B) diarrhea
C) dementia
D) dermatitis

A) dizziness

Which of the following is NOT associated with a reduction in the synthesis of vitamin D?

A) fair skin
B) sunscreens with SPF greater than 8
C) obesity
D) advancing age

A) fair skin

In addition to being a nutrient, vitamin D acts as a hormone.

A) True
B) False

A) true

Marie is 55 years old and just had her first DXA assessment. The results indicated that she has a T-score of -1.5 (minus 1.5). What does her T-score indicate?

A) Nothing. DXA is not able to determine bone density in women over 50.
B) Compared to a 30-year-old healthy adult, she has low bone mass.
C) Compared to a 30-year-old healthy adult, she has osteoporosis.
D) Compared to a 30-year-old healthy adult, her bone density is normal.

B) Compared to a 30-year-old healthy adult, she has low bone mass.

Which of the following is FALSE concerning calcium?

A) Calcium is a major mineral.
B) When blood calcium falls, osteoclasts will liberate calcium from the skeleton.
C) Calcium’s alkalinity assists in regulating acid-base balance.
D) Ninety-nine percent of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue.

D) Ninety-nine percent of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue.

Assuming equal serving sizes, which of the following foods would be the poorest source of calcium?

A) cheddar cheese
B) skim milk
C) cottage cheese
D) whole milk

C) cottage cheese

Females reach their full adult height earlier than males do.

A) True
B) False

A) true

A vitamin D deficiency in childhood may result in which disease characterized by inadequate mineralization of the skeleton?

A) osteomalacia
B) kyphosis
C) osteoporosis
D) rickets

D) rickets

Where do humans obtain vitamin D?

A) moonlight
B) sunlight
C) stomach bacteria
D) intestinal bacteria

B) sunlight

The family of vitamin K compounds is referred to as quinones.

A) True
B) False

A) true

Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the only method to measure the health of bone tissue.

A) True
B) False

B) false

What are dental caries?

A) cavities
B) juvenile teeth
C) spotting on tooth enamel
D) spaces left following the loss of teeth

A) cavities

The so-called "silver" vitamin and mineral supplements are just a marketing ploy and do not provide any health benefits to seniors compared to standard supplements.

A) True
B) False

B) false

Which of the following is NOT associated with eating a healthy breakfast?

A) reduces math mistakes
B) improves attention and memory
C) impairs students’ ability to learn
D) reduces tardiness and improves overall attendance

C) impairs students’ ability to learn

Due to the additional losses via the menstrual cycle, adolescent girls require more iron than do adolescent boys.

A) True
B) False

A) true

Limiting sugary sweets in children’s diets is important only once their permanent teeth have erupted.

A) True
B) False

B) false

Girls gain more body fat through adolescence than do boys.

A) True
B) False

A) true

Which of the following is NOT related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?

A) Iron is lost because of menstruation (in girls).
B) Muscle mass increases.
C) Iron utilization slows down.
D) Food choices are often inadequate in iron.

C) Iron utilization slows down.

Which of the following does NOT contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals?

A) Kidney function decreases with advancing age.
B) Perspiration increases as we age.
C) Older adults may limit fluid intake due to urinary incontinence.
D) The thirst mechanism is impaired in the elderly.

B) perspiration increases as we age

Multivitamin/mineral supplements should never be recommended for preschoolers.

A) True
B) False

B) false

Adolescent acne is caused by

A) eating fatty foods.
B) consumption of chocolate.
C) hormonal changes.
D) lack of adequate fluid intake.

C) hormonal changes.

Which of the following are two fat-soluble vitamins that humans obtain from non-dietary sources?

A) D and K

B) C and D

C) A and D

D) D and E

A) D and K

Which of the following is NOT an appropriate weight control recommendation for an overweight 11-year-old?

A) Consume appropriate portion sizes of foods.

B) Decrease caloric intake by 1,000 Calories a day.

C) Exercise for at least one hour a day.

D) Limit television watching to no more than two hours a day.

B) Decrease caloric intake by 1,000 Calories a day.

Which of the following foods does NOT pose a choking hazard for children?

A) cherry tomatoes
B) raisins
C) yogurt
D) whole grapes

C) yogurt

Dowager’s hump is one characteristic of

A) the female athlete triad.

B) fluorosis.

C) rickets.

D) osteoporosis.

D) osteoporosis.

What is the primary role of the B-vitamins?

A) provide the body with energy

B) maintain and repair body tissues

C) maintain acid-base balance

D) act as coenzymes

D) act as coenzymes

In which of the following environments does Clostridium botulinum flourish?

A) acidic

B) temperatures above 140°F

C) alkaline

D) temperatures below 40°F

C) alkaline

Which of the following environmental conditions would NOT increase the survival and reproduction of food microorganisms?

A) a low amount of humidity

B) a temperature between 40°F and 140°F

C) the presence of oxygen

D) a preferred range of acidity

A) a low amount of humidity

Which of the following is NOT an effective long-term solution to malnutrition?

A) transitioning of agricultural lands from sorghum and corn to cash crops

B) programs that encourage women to breastfeed their infants

C) small-business loans to support community and family farms and gardens

D) immunization programs

A) transitioning of agricultural lands from sorghum and corn to cash crops

Newborn infants receive a single injection of vitamin K at birth because

A) newborns do not have enough bacteria in their small intestine to make vitamin K.

B) the trauma of labor and delivery depletes the newborn’s vitamin K stores.

C) breast milk is a poor source of vitamin K.

D) newborns cannot absorb any of the vitamin K from breast milk or formula.

A) newborns do not have enough bacteria in their small intestine to make vitamin K.

One of the side effects of using bisphosphonates is

A) abdominal pain.

B) mood swings.

C) heart palpitations.

D) leg cramps.

A) abdominal pain.

Microorganisms that benefit from and harm their hosts are called

A) parasites.

B) prions.

C) fungi.

D) toxins.

A) parasites

A lack of dietary iodine during pregnancy is the primary cause of which of the following medical conditions, worldwide?

A) cretinism

B) goiters

C) neural tube defects

D) anemia

A) cretinism

Which of the following are substances intentionally put in food to enhance appearance, palatability, safety, and/or quality?

A) persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

B) recombinant genes

C) food additives

D) biopesticides

C) food additives

The hormone that assists in maintaining blood calcium levels by stimulating the activation of vitamin D is

A) calcitonin.

B) parathyroid hormone (PTH).

C) cortisol.

D) insulin.

B) parathyroid hormone (PTH).

The U.S. Department of Agriculture regulates which of the following farming standards in the United States?

A) hydroponic

B) organic

C) nonprofit

D) community-based

B) organic ??? quest 15

The individual with the highest risk of developing a vitamin D deficiency is a(n)

A) adult living in the northern United States.

B) elderly institutionalized adult who consumes no milk and receives little or no sun exposure.

C) adolescent female who consumes no milk or dairy products.

D) exclusively breastfed infant.

B) elderly institutionalized adult who consumes no milk and receives little or no sun exposure.

The main symptom associated with Clostridium botulinum intoxication is

A) paralysis.

B) diarrhea.

C) anemia.

D) jaundice.

A) paralysis

Crops grown to be exported to other countries and not for local consumption are called what?

A) sustainable crops

B) cash crops

C) imported crops

D) surplus crops

B) cash crops

Obesity in children is defined as having a BMI at or above what percentile?

A) 95th

B) 100th

C) 75th

D) 85th

A) 95th

Which of the following is FALSE about trabecular bone?

A) comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton

B) very sensitive to changes in hormones and nutritional deficiencies

C) porous and spongy in composition

D) turnover is very rapid

A) comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton

Which of the following is the MOST abundant mineral in our body?

A) iron

B) phosphorus

C) calcium

D) fluoride

C) calcium

A goiter can result from

A) cretinism.

B) choline supplementation.

C) excess dietary chromium.

D) too much or too little iodine in the diet.

D) too much or too little iodine in the diet.

What is transamination?

A) vitamin deficiency resulting from inadequate protein intake

B) a key process in the creation of nonessential amino acids

C) a symptom of niacin toxicity

D) a deficiency of vitamin B6

B) a key process in the creation of nonessential amino acids

Which mineral’s absorption is enhanced greatly by vitamin C?

A) manganese

B) iron

C) chromium

D) sulfur

B) iron

Which of the following are red blood cells that transport oxygen through the body?

A) myoglobin

B) leukocytes

C) erythrocytes

D) hemoglobin

C) erythrocytes

The primary, active form of vitamin D in the human body is

A) calcitonin.

B) 7-dehydrocholesterol.

C) calcitriol.

D) calcidiol.

C) calcitriol.

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by which gland?

A) parathyroid

B) adrenal

C) pituitary

D) thyroid

D) thyroid

Canned food producers are legally required to eliminate all traces of which of the following from their products?

A) Campylobacter

B) Clostridium botulinum

C) Salmonella

D) Giardia

B) Clostridium botulinum

Which of the following are chemicals added to food to help prevent or slow spoilage?

A) humectants

B) texturizers

C) preservatives

D) stabilizers

C) preservatives

Roquefort cheese, chocolate, and wine are all made using which of the following microorganisms?

A) roundworms and tapeworms

B) yeast and molds

C) bacteria and viruses

D) prions

B) yeast and molds

The animal form of vitamin K produced by bacteria in the large intestine is

A) menaquinone.

B) osteocalcin.

C) prothrombin.

D) phylloquinone.

A) menaquinone.

Chromium assists in the uptake of which of the following?

A) glucose

B) calcium

C) potassium

D) sodium

A) glucose

The most common sites of fracture in an individual suffering from osteoporosis are the

A) sternum and ribs.

B) hip and spine.

C) clavicle and scapula.

D) femur and tibia.

B) hip and spine.

The total amount of energy needed per day for any given age is called what?

A) required energy requirement

B) allowable energy requirement

C) recommended energy requirement

D) estimated energy requirement

D) estimated energy requirement

Which of the following does NOT increase the risk of developing osteoporosis?

A) high caffeine consumption

B) moderate alcohol consumption

C) smoking

D) low dietary intake of calcium

B) moderate alcohol consumption

The chronic overconsumption of which of the following foods can result in a biotin deficiency?

A) grapefruit juice

B) raw egg whites

C) natural licorice

D) herbal tea

B) raw egg whites

Which of the following additives gives ham, hot dogs, and bologna their pink color?

A) sulfites

B) acids

C) nitrates and nitrites

D) phosphates

C) nitrates and nitrites

Which of the following BEST describes the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) List?

A) government recommendation that all predatory fish be tested for mercury before being sold to the consumer

B) government law that prevents the intentional addition of compounds that have been shown to cause cancer in animals or humans

C) pending legislation to ban irradiation as a method of food preservation

D) catalogue of food additives generally regarded as safe; established in 1958 by the U.S. Congress

D) catalogue of food additives generally regarded as safe; established in 1958 by the U.S. Congress

Previously known as the Food Stamp program, the new name for the USDA program that is the primary food assistance program for low-income households is the

A) Nutrition Services Incentive Program.

B) Supplemental Nutrition Assessment Program.

C) Child and Adult Care Program.

D) Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

B) Supplemental Nutrition Assessment Program.

Which temperature range referred to as the "danger zone" of foodborne illnesses?

A) between 40° and 50°F

B) between 40° and 70°F

C) between 40° and 180°F

D) between 40° and 140°F

D) between 40° and 140°F

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a foodborne illness?

A) illness caused by ingesting a water-borne microorganism

B) an illness caused by an allergic reaction to a food

C) an illness caused by ingesting a food with bacteria or other infectious agent

D) illness caused by ingesting food or water containing a toxic substance

B) an illness caused by an allergic reaction to a food

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a Calorie-restricted (CR) diet?

A) The reduced caloric intake results in reduced oxidative damage to DNA and other cells.

B) Calorie restriction results in decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass.

C) The reduced metabolic rate results in a significantly lower production of free radicals.

D) Caloric restriction causes marked improvement in insulin sensitivity.

B) Calorie restriction results in decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass.

The type of cell responsible for the resorption of bone is

A) osteoblast.

B) trabecular.

C) osteoclast.

D) cortical.

C) osteoclast

How can we increase our absorption of dietary magnesium?

A) eat a high-fiber diet

B) eat a high-protein diet

C) eat a high-fat diet

D) eat a high-carbohydrate diet

B) eat a high-protein diet

Which of the following organs is NOT involved in the synthesis of vitamin D?

A) liver

B) skin

C) heart

D) kidneys

C) heart

Federal guidelines in the United States specify that school lunches must contain no more than what percentage of total Calories from saturated fat?

A) 20 percent

B) 15 percent

C) 10 percent

D) 25 percent

C) 10 percent

Salt preserves food by drawing water out of the cells through a process called

A) osmosis.

B) hydrolysis.

C) glycolysis.

D) saponification.

A) osmosis

Which of the following is associated with the premature closure of the epiphyseal plate?

A) malnutrition

B) obesity

C) reduced activity level

D) excessive calcium intake

A) malnutrition

Which of the following produces a neurotoxin?

A) Clostridium botulinum

B) Salmonella

C) hepatitis A

D) Norwalk virus

A) Clostridium botulinum

Federal guidelines in the United States specify that school lunches must provide how much of the 1989 RDAs for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and energy?

A) 2/3

B) 1/4

C) 1/3

D) 1/2

C) 1/3

Which of the following correctly describes "milk displacement"?

A) the selection of low-nutrient beverages (e.g., soda) in place of milk

B) the avoidance of dairy products due to the fear of agricultural contaminants

C) the self-weaning of an infant from breast milk

D) the recent surge in formula use

A) the selection of low-nutrient beverages (e.g., soda) in place of milk

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the majority of food infections are caused by

A) viruses.

B) prions.

C) microorganisms.

D) fungi.

C) microorganisms.

The fluid portion of the blood is called

A) plasma.

B) platelets.

C) hemoglobin.

D) lymph.

A) plasma

When does bone growth and modeling start?

A) at birth

B) during fetal development

C) during childhood

D) during infancy

B) during fetal development

Which of the following is FALSE concerning calcium?

A) Calcium is a major mineral.

B) When blood calcium falls, osteoclasts will liberate calcium from the skeleton.

C) Ninety-nine percent of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue.

D) Calcium’s alkalinity assists in regulating acid-base balance.

C) Ninety-nine percent of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue.

Approximately how long would a person’s life be prolonged if he or she did not start consuming a Calorie-restricted diet until the age of 55 years?

A) 5 years

B) 4 months

C) 1 year

D) 10 years

B) 4 months

The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that by 2020, deaths due to diabetes will increase worldwide by more than what percentage?

A) 10 percent

B) 35 percent

C) 50 percent

D) 25 percent

C) 50 percent

A lack of intrinsic factor can lead to what form of anemia?

A) pernicious

B) sickle cell

C) megaloblastic

D) microcytic

A) pernicious

A person exhibiting symptoms of impaired work performance, general fatigue, pale skin, depressed immune function, impaired cognitive and nerve function, and impaired memory is likely suffering from

A) iron-deficiency anemia.

B) pernicious anemia.

C) macrocytic anemia.

D) neural tube defects.

A) iron-deficiency anemia.

Which of the following is NOT one of the secondary contributors responsible for the acne flare-ups that plague many adolescents?

A) genes

B) chocolate consumption

C) personal hygiene

D) emotional stress

B) chocolate consumption

Which of the following provides 100% of the RDA of folate?

A) 1 cup cooked spinach

B) 3/4 cup of whole grain Total cereal

C) 1 cup cooked spaghetti

D) 1 cup cooked broccoli

B) 3/4 cup of whole grain Total cereal

Who is responsible for determining the safety and efficacy of any dietary supplement?

A) the manufacturer of the supplement

B) the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

C) the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

D) the Attorney General

A) the manufacturer of the supplement

Cindy is 63 years old and at risk for osteoporosis. Which of the following dietary supplements would be the MOST helpful to minimize bone loss?

A) calcium and phosphorus

B) calcium and vitamin D

C) magnesium and fluoride

D) vitamin K and fluoride

B) calcium and vitamin D

The RDA for which nutrient decreases with age, for women?

A) vitamin D

B) calcium

C) iron

D) vitamin C

C) iron

Pellagra is the deficiency disease associated with

A) riboflavin.

B) thiamin.

C) niacin.

D) folate.

C) niacin

People with diseases that result in the malabsorption of which nutrient are at risk for a vitamin D deficiency?

A) carbohydrate

B) minerals

C) fat

D) protein

C) fat

Vitamin D toxicity is associated with

A) seafood.

B) sunburns.

C) supplements.

D) suntan lotions.

C) supplements.

Which of the following is a poor source of dietary magnesium?

A) green leafy vegetables

B) refined grain products

C) seafood

D) seeds and nuts

B) refined grain products

In which phase of a woman’s life cycle is bone loss the greatest?

A) pregnancy

B) menopause

C) lactation

D) puberty

B) menopause

A process that uses gamma rays to eliminate harmful bacteria in meat and poultry is called

A) irradiation.

B) pasteurization.

C) processing.

D) packaging.

A) irradiation.

Which of the following would NOT be good advice to offer someone who is selecting a calcium supplement?

A) Look for a calcium supplement that is labeled "lead free."

B) Take your calcium supplement on an empty stomach to increase absorption.

C) Select a calcium carbonate supplement as it contains the most calcium per dose.

D) Your body cannot absorb more than 500 mg at any given time.

B) Take your calcium supplement on an empty stomach to increase absorption.

Insufficient intake of iron will FIRST affect which of the following levels in the body?

A) ferritin

B) hemoglobin

C) hematocrit

D) transferrin

A) ferritin

The point in life at which our bones are the densest is called what?

A) pubertal bone density

B) late adulthood bone density

C) peak bone density

D) menopausal bone density

C) peak bone density

Which of the following is NOT a good source of vitamin K?

A) soybean oil

B) intestinal bacteria

C) exposure to sunlight

D) spinach

C) exposure to sunlight

A person suffering from osteomalacia is prone to

A) bone fractures.

B) high blood pressure.

C) diseased gums.

D) bowed legs.

A) bone fractures

If a healthy individual were to consume too much calcium from the diet, which of the following is MOST likely to occur?

A) excess calcium excreted in the feces

B) hypercalcemia

C) accumulation of calcium in the soft tissues of the body

D) toxicity symptoms, including nausea and dizziness

A) excess calcium excreted in the feces

Which of the following is an antioxidant added to food as a preservative?

A) nitrate

B) vitamin C

C) cornstarch

D) gingko

B) vitamin C

The iron-carrying protein that assists in the transport of oxygen into muscle cells is

A) hematocrit.

B) hemoglobin.

C) hemosiderin.

D) myoglobin.

D) myoglobin

The leading cause of death among high-school youths is

A) automobile accidents.

B) eating disorders.

C) drug overdoses.

D) alcohol intoxication occurrences.

A) automobile accidents.

Which of the following provides more than three times the recommended Adequate Intake (AI) of Vitamin K?

A) 1 cup of boiled broccoli

B) 1/2 cup of boiled turnip greens

C) 1 cup of raw cabbage

D) 1 tablespoon of canola oil

B) 1/2 cup of boiled turnip greens

Which of the following statements is F about the role of fungi in causing adverse food reactions?

A) Fungal growth makes food taste unappealing.

B) Fungal growth makes food look unappealing.

C) Most fungi that cause disease in humans are not foodborne.

D) Many species of fungi can cause serious illness in otherwise healthy people.

D) Many species of fungi can cause serious illness in otherwise healthy people.

Which of the following is NOT a recommendation to avoid allergies in children?

A) Rotate foods in the diet rather than serving them every day.

B) If a child has a negative reaction to a food, never offer it to that child again.

C) When introducing a new food, watch for any allergic reaction for a week before offering another new food.

D) Introduce new foods one at a time.

B) If a child has a negative reaction to a food, never offer it to that child again.

A toxicity of folate can disguise a true deficiency of which nutrient, resulting in nerve damage?

A) vitamin B6

B) iron

C) niacin

D) vitamin B12

D) vitamin B12

The mycotoxin associated with peanuts is

A) aflatoxin.

B) ciguatoxin.

C) botulism.

D) salmonella.

A) aflatoxin.

A reduced production of gastric secretions often seen in older adults can result in

A) a reduced absorption of calcium.

B) an increased absorption of vitamin C.

C) a reduced absorption of vitamin B12.

D) a reduced absorption of potassium.

A) a reduced absorption of calcium.

The use of anabolic steroids during adolescence can cause

A) rapid growth spurts.

B) significant increases in body fat.

C) obesity.

D) premature closure of the epiphyseal plates.

D) premature closure of the epiphyseal plates.

Insufficient vitamin D during adulthood is associated with

A) rickets.

B) kidney stones.

C) hypocalcemia.

D) osteomalacia.

D) osteomalacia.

Microorganisms that lack a true nucleus and have a chemical called peptidoglycan in their cells walls are called

A) bacteria.

B) protozoa.

C) helminths.

D) prions.

A) bacteria.

The primary sources of folate in the American diet are

A) milk and dairy products.

B) enriched ready-to-eat cereals, bread, and grain products.

C) meat, fish, and poultry.

D) fresh fruits and vegetables.

B) enriched ready-to-eat cereals, bread, and grain products.

Perishable foods should be refrigerated or frozen within

A) one hour.

B) two days.

C) two hours.

D) one day.

A) one hour

The oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells is called

A) hemoglobin.

B) hemocysteine.

C) homocysteine.

D) myoglobin.

A) hemoglobin.

Which of the following individuals would NOT be eligible to receive the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits?

A) Bonita, a three-month-old infant

B) James, a seven-year-old child

C) Mary, a 32-year-old pregnant woman

D) Juan, a two-year-old child

B) James, a seven-year-old child

It’s 10 am, and Maya is trying to decide what to prepare for that night’s dinner. She selects a frozen turkey breast and must thaw it before she can proceed with cooking preparations. Which of the following would be an appropriate method of thawing her poultry?

A) Place the turkey breast in a basin of warm water.

B) Place the turkey on a top refrigerator shelf in a bowl of water.

C) Use a microwave.

D) Leave the turkey breast out on the kitchen counter throughout the day.

C) Use a microwave.

Which of the following is NOT a function of calcium?

A) muscle contraction

B) maintenance of blood pressure

C) promotes osteoclasts to break down bone

D) transmission of nerve impulses

C) promotes osteoclasts to break down bone

Which of the following individuals would LEAST likely need dietary supplementation?

A) people who eat a vegan diet

B) people with lactose intolerance

C) people who eat a balanced diet

D) pregnant teenagers

C) people who eat a balanced diet

In women, the risk of osteoporosis increases with menopause due to the loss of the hormone

A) thyroid.

B) progesterone.

C) insulin.

D) estrogen.

D) estrogen

In addition to proper growth and development, bone remodeling is critical in maintaining

A) blood calcium levels.

B) blood coagulation.

C) vitamin D production.

D) blood glucose levels.

A) blood calcium levels.

Around what age does bone resorption generally begin to occur more rapidly than bone formation?

A) 10

B) 40

C) 60

D) 20

B) 40

What is the maximum percentage of total Calories from fat recommended for a preschooler?

A) 50% of total energy

B) 15% of total energy

C) 10% of total energy

D) 35% of total energy

D) 35% of total energy

Which of the following is most commonly associated with foodborne illnesses?

A) grains

B) foods of animal origin

C) vegetables

D) fruits

B) foods of animal origin

Why is rBGH given to many U.S. dairy cows?

A) to increase milk production without increasing feed

B) to prevent the growth of microbes in the cows’ milk

C) to strengthen the cows’ immune systems

D) to improve the nutritional quality of the cows’ milk

A) to increase milk production without increasing feed

What medication is effective in treating osteoporosis because of its estrogen-like properties?

A) selective estrogen receptor modulators

B) calcitonin

C) thyroid hormone

D) bisphosphonates

A) selective estrogen receptor modulators

The average person will absorb no more than how many mg of calcium at one time?

A) 1000

B) 500

C) 1500

D) 200

B) 500

Which of the following is NOT a common storage site in the body for iron?

A) liver

B) spleen

C) kidney

D) bone marrow

C) kidney

Which of the following BEST describes the "Milk Matters" campaign?

A) government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy foods

B) media literacy curriculum for adolescent girls that promotes healthy body images

C) fundraising campaign to supplement financial revenues lost when vending machines are banned from public schools

D) nationwide initiative that aims to improve the calcium intake among senior citizens

A) government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy foods

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for what process regarding foods and surplus commodity foods during an emergency?

A) acquisition

B) re-sale

C) distribution

D) sale

C) distribution

In the body, vitamin D is essential for

A) muscle contraction.

B) stimulation of nerve impulses.

C) blood clotting.

D) calcification of bone.

D) calcification of bone.

Research studies indicate that consuming which of the following supplements can cause gastrointestinal upset?

A) ginseng

B) gingko

C) vitamin C

D) melatonin

B) gingko

Growth acceleration in adolescence is primarily driven by

A) increased physical activity.

B) changes in muscle composition

C) hormonal changes.

D) increased caloric intake.

C) hormonal changes.

Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding the proper refrigeration and freezing of food?

A) Thaw frozen meat and poultry on the kitchen counter.

B) When storing in the refrigerator, keep meat and poultry wrapped in plastic so juices will not drip onto other foods.

C) Keep the refrigerator temperature at or below 40°F.

D) Unless used within 48 hours of purchase, meat and poultry should be stored frozen.

A) Thaw frozen meat and poultry on the kitchen counter.

Phosphorus consumption has increased approximately 10 to 15% over the past 30 years. This is largely due to the increased consumption of

A) milk.

B) processed foods.

C) water.

D) meat.

B) processed food

The development of which system is particularly dependent on adequate consumption of fat during the toddler years?

A) urinary

B) skeletal

C) digestive

D) nervous

D) nervous

Which nutrient deficiency in older adults can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell?

A) vitamin D

B) zinc

C) iron

D) protein

B) zinc

Which human organ system is MOST affected by toxic levels of mercury?

A) nervous

B) cardiovascular

C) renal

D) digestive

A) nervous

The food/population ratio is one of the major causes of undernutrition in developing countries. Which of the following is NOT a way to improve the food/population ratio?

A) Improve immunization programs in children to decrease the spread of infectious diseases.

B) Focus on increasing population growth.

C) Educate women to increase their earning power and productivity.

D) Improve methods to increase food production and the importation of foods from other countries.

B) Focus on increasing population growth.

A severe vitamin B12 deficiency results what form of anemia?

A) sickle cell

B) thalessemia

C) pernicious

D) microcytic

C) pernicious

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