FOS3042 Final Exam

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Effective packaging for food products can be made with

An understanding of man-made solid materials

Which of the following categories from the food manufacturing industry is not represented in MyPlate?

Sugar and confectionery products

Which of the following is not true for almond milk?

It is higher in protein than milk, yogurt or cheese

Which is one of the macronutrients?


Which of the following is NOT a method used for proximate analysis of food composition?

Tasting for sweetness as an indication of carbohydrate content

How many calories or kcals does a gram of protein have?


Which of the following is not a fat soluble vitamin?

Vitamin C

How many calories or kcals does a gram of carbohydrate have?


Cellulose is

a polysaccharide.

The level of pH above which a food is considered to be a low acid food is:


Which line below shows the food items in decreasing order of water content? Hint: If you are not sure, check the USDA Nutrient Database.

Apple juice, apples, bread, honey, flour, vegetable oil


-is not very sweet -can be modified for differing types of thickness -thickens liquids to form gravies, pastes, and gels Correct answer: all of the above

Which of the following is similar to cellulose because it is insoluble dietary fiber?


Which of the following sugars is typically called "table sugar"?


Saturated fatty acids

do not contain double bonds in the carbon chain

In the presence of acid or heat, chlorophyll is degraded to


Which of the following rheological methods measures the time for a liquid to flow down an inclined plane?

Bostwick consistometer

Which of the following are ways consumers judge food quality using their senses?

-appearance -taste -texture correct answer: all of the above

Which attribute of foods do we quantify when we use the L a b scale?


Your friend is majoring in Food Science. Which of the following statements is accurate?

Their dream job is in Food Product Development.

Understanding the changes in the quality of produce on the way to the grocery store is possible with the knowledge of:


In which of the following countries the consumers spent the lowest percent of their income on food consumed at home in 2013?


What does IFT stand for?

Institute of Food Technologists

Based on the Food Groups defined to communicate nutrition information, what food is part of the dairy food group?

-cheddar cheese -cream cheese -butter -all of the above correct answer: cheddar cheese

Which of the following constitutes a basis for categorizing foods?

-Nutrient content -Common raw material or processing method -Food-borne illnesses they may be implicated in -all of the above correct answer: all of the above

How many calories or kcals does a gram of fat have?


Mediterranean Diet is known to be

high in monounsaturated fat.

What vitamin is formed in the body when skin is exposed to sunlight?

Vitamin D

The process where sugars and proteins form characteristic flavor compounds and brown melanoidin compounds is called

-Maillard Browning -Carbonyl-Amine Browning -Non-enzymatic Browning – all of the above correct answer: all of the above

Foods are ___________ composed of elements from the periodic table.


Which of the following are considered organic acids in foods?

-Malic acid -Lactic acid -Fumaric acid -All of the above correct answer: all of the above


helps form jams and jellies

Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone is called


Substances that quench oxidative reactions are


Which of the following are aspects of food quality?

-food safety -nutritional content -appearance correct answer: All of the above

What is the name for the study of flow and deformation characteristics of (food) materials?


Which is not a type of taste testing?

-Duo-trio test -Ranking -Hedonic test -Square test correct answer: square test

Which of the following grades indicates highest quality in beef?


A standard of identity establishes and maintains the identity and quality of a food product by

-specifying mandatory ingredients. -allowing optional ingredients. -specifying processing steps involved in the manufacturing of the food. correct answer: All of the above

Which of the following agencies has the authority to inspect fishing vessels?

NMFS or NOAA Fisheries

What is the compliance date for the new Nutrition Facts Label which became effective in July 2016?

July 2018

Nutritional Labeling and Education Act of 1990

-mandated nutritional labeling on most food products regulated by FDA. -regulated the use of terms used to describe nutrient content, terms such as light, fat free, low fat, reduced fat, etc. -allowed health claims for the first time for a limited number of nutrient or food and disease combinations. correct answer: All of these statements are correct.

The ingredient list on a food label must include the common name and function of any approved preservative used in the food. What is the function of powdered cellulose as indicated on the ingredient list of the pizza maker we used as an example in the lecture?

To prevent caking

Radiation is a mode of heat transfer which occurs when

cake batter is placed in a hot oven

Which of the following is NOT used to transport liquid food during food processing?


Which preservation method leaves a few bacterial spores that do not multiply in the food supply?

commercial sterilization

Which food would need the longest heat treatment at a given temperature?

-Pear chunks in heavy syrup -Pear chunks is water -Pear chunks in light syrup -All would be the same it is the same fruit correct answer: pear chunks in heavy syrup

The acronym "IQF" stand for

individually quick frozen

Which of the following is desirable in frozen foods?

-fast freezing -slow freezing -slow freeze then thaw -slow freeze, fast thaw, then slow freeze again correct answer: fast freezing

What causes freezer burn?

Loss of water over time due to fluctuations in temperature

Which of the following is a reason to dehydrate food?

-food preservation -to dilute the mineral content of the food -to increase the weight of the food -All of the above correct answer: food preservation

Which of the following is a factor associated with the drying rate of food?

air velocity

Air drying is a method used to

dehydrate foods

Which of the following are reasons to concentrate foods?

reduces the weight and volume of the food

What are two proteins important in foaming properties of eggs?

Ovomucin and ovalbumin

On average, how many pound(s) of feed does a broiler chicken eat for its weight to increase 1 pound?


The aircell size in eggs

gets bigger as the egg gets older

What kind of chicken meat is typically marketed in retail?


Which of the following is not required to be on the new Nutrition Facts Label?

Vitamin C

Which of the following is not a major element of FSMA?

-Voluntary product recall -More frequent inspections -Foreign supplier verification program -Preventive controls plan to identify hazards and related controls correct answer: voluntary product recall

Moving food through pipes is an example of

fluid flow

Which of the following is NOT an example of separation in food processing?

-Peeling of potatoes -Shelling of nuts -Filtration of wine -Gelation correct answer: gelation

Which of the following is not a desirable effect of blanching?

-Inactivates enzymes -Enhances color -Traps air -Cleans surfaces correct answer: traps air

Z-value is

the change in temperature needed to shorten the D-value by a factor of 10

The first graph on slide 5 of the lecture "Thermal Processing-Part 2" is cold point v. time. What does the other graph on the same slide show?

The lethality of the process on Salmonella in ground beef that has been treated with cold point temperature changes shown in the first graph

Which of the following is not used to thermally process food that is already packaged?

hot pack

Immersion freezing can be


Fruit stored under refrigeration conditions for extended periods of time might undergo

chill injury

Which of the following statements is TRUE about frozen foods?

food freezes from the outside in

Spray drying

atomizes liquids into small solid particles

What is the quality defect associated with a hard layer on the outside of foods when undergoing dehydration?

case hardening

Which of the following are quality changes that occur during concentration?

-Flavor changes -Off-color formation -Crystallization of sugars correct answer: all of the above

Which of the following is considered a quality downgrade in raw poultry?

broken bones

Regarding the optimal quality of fish fillets, it is important to

wait until rigor mortis has concluded before freezing

Which of the following is a beginning stage of rigor mortis?

muscle tissue becomes very tough

The process that skims boiled animal fat in water is known as


Muscle composition of red meat contains

all essential amino acids

Fats are

crystalline in nature

Hexadecanoic fatty acid is also known as

palmitic acid

Of the three major types of tea, which of the following is most common in the United States?

black tea

Carbonated beverages are infused with

carbon dioxide gas

Which is FALSE regarding coffee production?

-Pulping removes the bean from the cherry -Fermented beans are dried in sun or hot air -Coffee grows best at sea level. -Beans are roasted after fermentation correct answer: Coffee grows best at sea level.

Which of the following statements about Black Tea Processing is FALSE?

-Withering softens the leaves, dries them slightly -Color and flavor develop during fermentation -Rolling releases the enzymes that ferment the tea -Yeasts are added for fermentation of tea leaves correct answer: Yeasts are added for fermentation of tea leaves

Which of the following ingredients does not lower the pH of a carbonated beverage?

-flavors -Carbon dioxide -Citric acid -Phosphoric acid correct answer: flavors

How is juice that comes in a single serve juice box treated to ensure safety?

It is pasteurized and then filled into a sterilized box in an aseptic environment.

Which of the following minerals is not a primary concern for brewers?

-Phosphorus -Zinc -Magnesium -Copper correct answer: phosphorus

Which term is associated with high quality of red meat by visually evaluating fat dispersed throughout muscle tissue?


The more marbling in red meat is equivalent to

increased tenderness of the cut

Which of these make a better meat marinade for dry heat cooking?

soy sauce

Lipids in food are commonly known as

fats and oils

Which of the following is associated with the palatability of ice cream?

fat content

What is the name of the processing step that is used to remove phospholipids in the production of fats and oils?


In solvent extraction of oil from oilseeds, what is one way of increasing yield?

grinding or flaking the seeds

Which of the following lipids comes from a plant source?

palm & palm kernel oil

Lipids designated as oils are most likely _______, at room temperature.


Cod liver oil comes from what animal?

a fish

Why does the processor want to remove chlorophyll from vegetable oil?

Chlorophyll would contribute to oxidation of the oil

Which is NOT a method used to decaffeinate coffee?

-Methylene chloride extraction -Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction -Swiss water process -Chill proofing correct answer: chill proofing

In beer production, roasted barley is also known as

barley malt

Soft drinks are made up mostly of


What are adjuncts in beer making?

Cereals like corn and rice added used to cut down cost and add flavor

Which is a juice box made of?

Paper, aluminum foil and plastic

What causes variability in the taste of orange juice?

-Amount of sunshine, rain during the growing season -Differences in sugar, acid and flavor compounds in oranges -Whether the juice comes from early or late fruit in the growing season correct answer: all of the above

What causes temporary hardness in water?

Calcium and magnesium salts which can be removed by boiling

Why would one sometimes see rice salt shakers?

Rice helps salt flow freely by binding excessive moisture.

Each of the following indicates a desirable characteristic of a chemical preservative except:

-Is active on a wide spectrum of spoilage and pathogenic organisms -Enhances flavor and color of the product -Is active throughout the shelf life of the food. -Does not interfere with microbial activity such as leavening of bread. correct answer: enhances flavor and color of the product

The most common way of reducing foodborne pathogens in food is

to properly cook the food

Which of the following organisms is associated with the direct contact of cat feces?

Toxoplasma gondii

Which of the following is a parasitic hazard in raw pork?


Fermentation and pickling of vegetables are examples of

controlled spoilage

Contamination of organisms that cause foodborne illness is uncommon in

commercially processed foods

Which microorganism is otherwise known as STEC?

E. coli O157:H7

Although Norovirus is thought to be responsible for 50% of foodborne gastroenteritis in the United States

it is rarely diagnosed because symptoms disappear within 24 hours and are not reported

Infant botulism might be obtained by the consumption of


Which of the following are potential hazards in foods?

-chemical -physical -biological correct answer: all of the above

Which of the following is not a manifestation of excessive moisture?

Reduced mold growth

Heat applied to make scrambled eggs

denature proteins

Which of the following is not a possible result of microbial activity?

crystallization of water

Which of the following statements about chill injury is incorrect?

Bananas can tolerate lower temperatures than avocados.

All of the following statements about enzymes are correct EXCEPT:

Pectin methyl esterase causes browning of cut fruit.

Which of the following is not a result of light exposure of food?

Reduced tenderness and juiciness in meat

Chill injury in fruits and vegetables can occur at temperatures as high as

56 degrees F

Which of the following is not a correct match?

-Calcium chloride in canned green beans-Preserving texture -Lecithin in ice cream-Combining oil, air and water into a smooth mixture -Glycerine in granola bar-Retaining moisture for a chewy texture -Polysorbate in squeezable relish-Antioxidant correct answer: Polysorbate in squeezable relish-Antioxidant

Short-chain organic acids are mostly used in foods that have a pH<5.5 because…

only at low pH the acid can penetrate the microbial cell membrane.

Microwaves, UV light and ionizing radiation…

-are examples of electromagnetic radiation. -can be used to preserve food. -are better suited for treatments at substerilization doses. correct answer: All of these are correct.

Which of the following is the major cause of microbial death during drying?

High temperature-low moisture conditions that last throughout cooling


inhibits microbial growth

Which of the following combinations are not commonly encountered during drying?

High temperature-high humidity

Which of the following help rice grains absorb fairly large levels of moisture in a salt shaker?

The starchy matrix inside the grains which allow swelling.

Which is a good way to keep guacamole from turning brown?

Keeping in a well-sealed container

What causes plasmolysis?

Placing food in syrup or brine.

Why is raw milk "off limits" according to the authors of the book "Food Bites"?

Because of Listeria.

Lactic acid is one of the main products of

bacterial fermentation

Which of the following statements is incorrect about the job of the International Public Health & Trade Manager at FDA whom you were introduced to one of the additional videos of Module 1?

inspecting beef carcasses in the Maryland Abattoir

What is the average number of items carried in a supermarket today?

More than 30,000

Which of the following are considered functional groups in foods?

-Ketone group -Methyl group -Ester group correct answer: all of the above

Beef, pork and poultry are part of what category in the food manufacturing industry?

Animal Slaughtering and Processing

Which of the following are responsible for evaluating the safety of their products instead of seeking premarket approval by FDA?

incorrect answer: Food manufacturer using additives

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