Food Safety Manager Training

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What are the general guidelines for holding food for service?

1. Use food covers and sneeze guards to protect against contaminants and help maintain a food’s internal temperature 2. Hold food at correct internal temperature 3. Use a thermometer to check a food’s internal temperature. The equipment’s thermometer does not measure internal temperature 4. Check food temperatures at least every four hours. If food is between 41dF and 135dF, throw it out.

What are the guidelines for holding cold food?

Hold cold food at 41dF or lower

What are the guidelines for holding hot food?

Hold hot food at 135dF or higher, Never use hot-holding equipment to reheat food unless it was built to do so. Most equipment reheats too slow to get through the temperature danger zone. Reheat food correctly and then move to the holding unit.

When can food be held without temperature control?

Food can be held without temperature control if you are NOT serving a high-risk population. Food can be held without temperature control if displaying food for a short time (off-site catered event) or when electricity is not available to power holding equipment.

What are the conditions for holding cold food without temperature control?

Cold food can be held without temperature control for up to 6 hours if 1) Food is held at 41dF or lower before removing it from refrigeration 2) Label the food with the time removed from fridge and the time that it expires (ex. Removed: 4:30, Discard 10:30) 3) Make sure the food’s temp does not exceed 70dF while being served. Discard any that exceeds temp 4) Sell, serve, or throw out the food within 6 hours

What are the conditions for holding hot food without temperature control?

Hot food can be held for up to 4 hours if these conditions are met: 1) Hold food at 135dF or above before removing from temp control 2) Label food with time removed from temp control and discard time 3) Sell, serve, or throw out the food within 4 hours.

Which food item is being handled safely? 1) Soup at 120dF 2) Pasta salad at 39dF 3) Potato salad at 75dF 4) Soup placed in a hot holding unit at 40dF


Roy prepared pans of pasta with meat sauce and held them in a 200dF degree oven for two hours. At 5:00pm, he packed them in an insulated container to take to a wedding reception at the beach. There was no equipment to keep the food hot. At 8:00pm, three hours after Roy removed the pasta from the over in his operation, the pasta was served to the guests. Is this food safe to serve?

Yes. The food was held above 135dF and then served within four hours after being removed from temperature control.

At 6am, Alvin removed deli meat, sliced cheese, apples, and pudding cups from the cooler to make box lunches for a high school class field trip. When he finished making the lunches, Alvin left them on a table for the teacher. The lunches were left on the bus that warm spring day while the students toured a museum. At 1pm, they returned to a very warm bus to get their lunches, which they ate in a picnic area. Is the food safe to serve?

No. The lunches were left too long outside of temperature control. The temp of the food also probably rose higher than 70dF as the bus warmed in the sun.

Sally is a cook at the Springfield Retirement Community. As a special treat, she set up a picnic for some of the elderly residents. The picnic included a buffet of cold chicken, potato salad, coleslaw, rolls, and cupcakes. There was no equipment to keep the food cold. The food was served one hour after it was removed from the cooler. Is the food safe to serve?

No. Food cannot be held without temperature control if it is primarily for high-risk populations, such as elderly people.

How can you prevent contamination when serving food?

Contamination can be prevented when serving food by 1) Avoiding bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat foods 2) Using clean and sanitized utensils for each food items. If utensils are being used constantly, clean and sanitize every 4 hours 3) Store serving utensils in the food with the handle extended above the rim of the container or on a clean and sanitized food-contact surface 4) Taking caution when using guest-provided take-home containers.

What precautions should you take when using guest-provided take-home containers?

Take-home containers can be used if they 1) Were designed to be reused 2) Provided to the guest by the operation 3) Are cleaned and sanitized properly

How can you prevent contamination by service staff?

Train them to follow these guidelines: 1) Hold dishes by the bottom or edge 2) Hold glasses by the middle, bottom, or stem 3) Do NOT touch the food-contact areas of dishes or glassware 4) Carry glasses in a rack or a tray to avoid touching the food-contact surfaces 5) Do NOT stack glasses when carrying them 6) Hold flatware by the handle 7) Store flatware so that servers grasp handles, not food-contact surfaces 8) Avoid bare-hand contact with food that is ready-to-eat 9) Use ice scoops or tongs to get ice, NEVER the cup or bare-hands.

How do you prevent preset tableware contamination?

Steps to prevent tableware from becoming contaminated include: 1) Wrapping or covering the items 2) Unused settings are removed when guests are seated and cleaned and sanitized after the guests have left

How do I re-serve food from one guest to another?

You can’t really. 1) Never re-serve food returned by one guest to another guest 2) Condiments must be in their original contianers (i.e. individual packets or portions) 3) Bread or rolls cannot be re-served 4) Garnishes cannot be reused 5) You may re-serve only unopened, prepackaged food in good condition like condiment packets and wrapped crackers.

How can you prevent contamination in self-serve areas?

Contamination in self-serve areas can be prevented by 1) Protecting the food using sneeze cards, display cases, or packaging 2) Labels for handles and containers 3) Temperature control: hot food = 135dF or higher and cold = 41dF or lower 4) Do not let guests refill dirty plates or use dirty utensils at self-service areas 5) Stock food displays with the correct utensils for dispensing food 6) Never use ice for food/beverages as an ingredient.

When should Bulk Food be labelled?

Bulk food in self-service areas must be labeled and in plain view of the guest and includes the processor label provided with the food. Bulk Unpackaged food (bakery products and unpackaged food portioned for customers) does not need to be labeled if: 1) The product makes no claim regarding health or nutrient content 2) There are no laws requiring labeling 3) The food is manufactured or prepared at another food operation or processing plant owned by the same person and is regulated 4) The food is manufactured or prepared on the premises.

How can you prevent contamination and time-temperature abuse when serving food off-site?

Contamination at off-site service can be prevented by following these procedures: 1) Pack food in insulated food containers that are food-grade 2) Label foods with a use-by date and time, and reheating and service instructions 3) Clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly 4) Check internal food temperature in containers and during delivery 5) Make sure the site has safe water for cooking, dishwashing, and handwashing and garbage contianers stored away from food-prep, storage, and serving areas 6) Store raw meat, poultry, seafood separate from ready-to-eat items

How can you prevent contamination and time-temperature abuse when serving food through a vending machine?

Contamination through vending machines can be prevented by checking product shelf life daily (throw out after 7 days), keep food at the correct temperature for hot or cold food items, dispense TCS food in its original contianer, wash and wrap fresh fruit with edible peels before putting it in a machine

Re-serve or Throw out: Chili held without temperature control for five hours

Throw out

Re-serve or Throw Out: Previously served, but untouched, basket of bread

Throw out

Re-serve or Throw Out: Bottle of ketchup with cap on


Re-serve or Throw Out: Untouched slice of pie with whipped cream returned by a customer

Throw out

Re-serve or Throw Out: Individually wrapped crackers


Re-serve or Throw Out: Unwrapped butter served on a plate

Throw out

Re-serve or Throw Out: Mustard packets


Re-serve or Throw Out: Ice used to hold cold food on a self-service area

Throw out

Re-serve or Throw Out: Breaded, baked fish returned by a customer who wanted broiled fish

Throw out

Re-serve or Throw Out: A washed and wrapped pear that has been in a vending machine for eight days


Which part of the plate should a food handler avoid touching when serving customers? Bottom, Edge, Side, or Top


An operation has a self-service salad bar with 8 different items on it. How many serving utensils are needed to serve the items on the salad bar? 2, 4, 6, 8


At what maximum internal temperature should cold TCS food be held? 0dF, 32dF, 41dF, 60dF


What item must customers take each time they return to a self-service area for more food? Clean plate, extra napkins, hand sanitizer, new serving spoon

Clean plate

At what minimum internal temperature should hot TCS food be held? 115dF, 125dF, 135dF, 145dF


An operation is located in a jurisdiction that allows it to hold TCS food without temperature control. How many hours can it display hot TCS food without temperature control before the food must be sold, served, or thrown out? 2, 4, 6, 8


How often must you check the temperature of food that is being held with temperature control? At least every 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours


A pan of lasagna at 165dF was packed in a heated cabinet for off-site delivery. What is the minimum information that should be on the pan label? A) Use-by date and time and reheating and service instructions B) Use-by date and reheating and service instructions C) Use-by time and reheating and service instructions D) Use-by date and time and reheating instructions


Which may be handled with bare hands? Cooked pasta for salad, Chopped potatoes for soup, Canned tuna for sandwiches, Pickled watermelon for garnish


When a utensil is stored in water between uses, what are the requirements? A) Running water at any temp or a container of water at 70dF or lwoer B) Running water at any temp, or a container of water at 135dF or higher C) Running water at 70dF or lower, or a container of water at 70dF or lower D) Running water at 135dF or lower or a container of water at 70dF or lower.


What are food safety management systems?

A group of practices and procedures intended to prevent foodborne illness by actively controlling risks and hazards throughout the flow of food.

What is active managerial control and how can it be applied?

The manager’s responsibility to actively control the risk factors for foodborne illness. It is PROACTIVE, not reactive.

What is a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system?

A HACCP system is based on identifying significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards at specific points within a product’s flow. An effective HACCP system must be based on a written plan specific to each facility’s operations.

What steps can you take to implement active managerial control in your operation?

1) Identify Risks: Find and document the potential foodborne-illness risks in your operation. Then, identify the hazards that can be controlled or eliminated 2) Monitor: Food will be safe if managers monitor critical activities in the operation. Make not of where employees must monitor food-safety requirements 3) Corrective Action: Take the appropriate steps to correct improper procedures or behaviors 4) Management Oversight: Verify that all policies, procedures, and corrective actions are followed 5) Training: Ensure employees are trained to follow procedures and retrained when necessary 6) Re-evaluation: Periodically assess the system to make sure it is working correctly and effectively.

What are the FDA’s specific recommendations for controlling the common risk factors for foodborne illness?

1) Demonstration of Knowledge: Manager must be able to demonstrate food safety certification. 2) Staff Health Controls: Procedures must be in place for personal hygiene. 3) Controlling hands as a source of contamination: Prevent bare hand contact with ready to eat food using tongs or gloves 4) Time and temp parameters for controlling pathogens: Limit the time food spends in the temp danger zone and frequently check temperatures 5) Consumer Advisories: Provide notices to customers if you serve raw or undercooked menu items and the risks associated with consuming them

Identify the Risk Factor: A cook brought his uniform home but forgot to wash it before starting his shift. A) Purchasing food from unsafe sources B) Failing to cook food correctly C) Holding food at incorrect temperatures D) Using contaminated equipment E) Practicing poor hygiene


Identify the Risk Factor: A cook plated a chicken breast after making sure it was cooked to 155dF. A) Purchasing food from unsafe sources B) Failing to cook food correctly C) Holding food at incorrect temperatures D) Using contaminated equipment E) Practicing poor hygiene


Identify the Risk Factor: The purchasing manager bought frozen steaks from his friend who raises and sells meat from his home. A) Purchasing food from unsafe sources B) Failing to cook food correctly C) Holding food at incorrect temperatures D) Using contaminated equipment E) Practicing poor hygiene


Identify the Risk Factor: A cook served rice at 120dF from a holding unit. A) Purchasing food from unsafe sources B) Failing to cook food correctly C) Holding food at incorrect temperatures D) Using contaminated equipment E) Practicing poor hygiene


Identify the Risk Factor: A Chef used a cutting board to prep fish and then used it to prep fruit salad. A) Purchasing food from unsafe sources B) Failing to cook food correctly C) Holding food at incorrect temperatures D) Using contaminated equipment E) Practicing poor hygiene


What are the six important steps to take when implementing active managerial control?

Identify risks, monitor, corrective action, management oversight, training, and re-evaluation

What are Public Health Interventions?

FDA recommendations for controlling the common risk factors for foodborne illnesses and are designed to protect public health.

What are HACCP systems based on?

They are based on identifying significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards at specific points within a product’s flow. Once identified, the hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels.

A manager’s responsibility to actively control risk factors for foodborne illnesses is called: A) HAACP B) Quality control and Assurance C) Food Safety management D) Active managerial control


A pest-control program is an example of a(n): A) HACCP program B) Workplace safety program C) Food Safety program D) Active Managerial Control program


A cook preps a beef tenderloin on a cutting board and then immediately cuts pies for dessert on the same cutting board. This is an example of which risk factor? A) Purchasing food from unsafe sources B) Holding food at incorrect temperatures C) Using contaminated equipment D) Practicing poor personal hygiene


The purpose of a food safety management system is to: A) keep alla reas of the facility clean and pest-free B) identify, tag, and repair faulty equipment within the facility C) prevent foodborne illness by controlling risks and hazards D) use the correct methods for purchasing and receiving food


Three components of active managerial control include: A) identifying risks, creating specifications, and training B) identifying risks, corrective action, and training. C) identifying risks, creating purchase orders, and training D) identifying risks, record keeping, and training.


A manager asks a chef to continue cooking chicken breasts after seeing them cooked to an incorrect temperature. This is an example of which step in active managerial control? A) Identifying risks B) Monitoring C) Corrective Action D) Re-evaluation


A manager walks around the kitchen every hour to answer questions and to see if staff members are following procedures. This is an example of which step in active managerial control? A) Identifying risks B) Corrective Action C) Management oversight D) Re-evaluation


One way for managers to show that they know how to keep food safe is to: A) become certified in food safety B) take cooking temperatures C) monitor employee behaviors D) conduct self-inspections


What are interior requirements for safe operation?

Choose flooring, wall, and ceiling materials that are smooth and durable. This will make cleaning easier. Replace and maintain these materials when necessary. Make sure equipment that will come in contact with food is smooth, nonabsorbent, and easy to clean. Floor-mounted equipment must be put on legs at least six inches high or sealed to a masonry base. Tabletop equipment must be put on legs at least four inches high or sealed to the countertop.

What considerations should be given to dishwashing stations?

Dishwashing machines must be installed so that they prevent contamination of utensils, equipment and other food-contact surfaces.

What should handwashing stations include?

Handwashing stations should include hot and cold running drinkable water, soap, and a way to dry hands. They should also include a garbage container if paper towels are provided, and signage reminding staff to wash hands before returning to work.

Food-safe plumbing is . . .

Always installed and maintained by a licensed plumber. This will help prevent cross-connections from occurring.

What is a cross-connection in plumbing?

A cross-connection is a physical link between safe water and dirty water, which can come from drains, sewers, or other wastewater sources.

What is a backflow?

Backflow is the reverse flow of contaminants through a cross-connection into a drinkable water supply. It can be the result of the pressure pushing contaminants back into the water supply. It can also happen when high water use in one area of an operation creates a vacuum in the plumbing system that sucks contaminants back into the water supply, also known as backsiphonage.

What is a foodborne illness?

A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people by food.

What is a foodborne-illness outbreak?

A foodborne illness is considered an outbreak when 1) 2 or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food 2) An investigation is conducted by state and local regulatory authorities 3) The outbreak is confirmed by a laboratory analysis.

What is TCS food?

TCS food is food requiring Time and Temperature Control for Safety.

What are the five risk factors for foodborne illness?

1) Purchasing food from unsafe sources 2) Failing to cook food correctly 3) Holding food at incorrect temperatures 4) Using contaminated equipment 5) Practicing poor personal hygiene

Which populations have a higher risk for foodborne illness?

High-risk populations include: Elderly people, preschool-age children, and people with compromised immune systems

How can you help to keep food safe in your operation?

By focusing on these measures: Purchasing from approved, reputable suppliers Controlling time and temperature Preventing cross-contamination Practicing personal hygiene Cleaning and sanitizing

What are the roles of government agencies in keeping food safe?

FDA: inspects all food except meat, poultry, and eggs; regulates food transported across state lines; issues a Food Code USDA: regulates and inspects meat, poultry, and eggs; regulates food that crosses state boundaries or involves more than one state CDC and US Public Health Service (PHS): assist the FDA, USDA and state/local health departments; conduct research into the causes of outbreaks, assist in investigating foodborne illnesses.

What are the three categories of contaminants?

Biological: pathogens like viruses, parasites, fungi, and bacteria. Chemical: Foodservice chemicals like cleaners, sanitizers, and polishes. Physical: Foreign objects like metal shavings, staples, bandages, glass, dirt, hair, etc.

Time-Temperature Abuse

When food has stayed too long at temperatures that are good for the growth of pathogens.


Pathogens transferred from one surface or food to another

What are four practices related to foodborne illness?

Time-temperature abuse, cross-contamination, poor personal hygiene, poor cleaning and sanitizing

What are ready-to-eat foods?

Ready-to-eat foods are foods that can be eaten raw or without further preparation, washing or cooking.

Why are preschool-age children at a higher risk for foodborne illness?
A) They have not built up strong immune systems
B) They are more likely to spend time in a hospital
C) They are more likely to suffer allergic reactions
D) Their appetites have increased since birth


A customer told Daniel the server that he had a dairy allergy. The customer wanted to know if the chicken salad had any dairy in it. Daniel was honest and told him that he was not totally sure, but it was probably fine. Did Daniel do the right thing to keep the customer safe? Why or why not?

No. Daniel should not have guessed about the ingredients. Servers must be able to describe how a dish is prepared. Servers should also be able to suggest menu items that they know do not have food allergens.

The customer with the dairy allergy then asked about the chicken sandwich. Now Daniel was positive that there was no dairy in that one, so he let him know. The customer ordered the chicken sandwich and fries and Daniel made sure to not the allergy on the order. The customer’s friend ordered a cheeseburger. Did Daniel do the right thing to keep the customer safe? Why or why not?

Yes. Daniel was able to confirm that there was no dairy in the item. He also clearly identified the allergen special order on the order ticket.

In the kitchen, Laura the cook noted the allergen special order. She could not remember if the breaded chicken used in the sandwich was dairy-free, so she double-checked the label. Fortunately, it did not have any dairy. Did Laura do the right thing to keep the customer safe? Why or why not?

Yes. Laura checked the ingredient label to confirm that the breaded chicken did not contain any dairy.

Before starting the order, Laura washed, rinsed, and sanitized the prep station and got out clean utensils. Then she washed her hands and put on new gloves. She used the fryer that is only for allergen special orders to cook the chicken and fries. As she finished assembling the sandwich and plating the order, she was careful to use the clean prep station and keep the special order separated from the other orders. Did Laura do the right thing to keep the customer safe? Why or why not?

Yes. Laura washed, rinsed, and sanitized the equipment before preparing the order. She used the fryer designated for allergy special orders. She made sure that no dairy touched the order as she was prepping it.

When the order was ready, Daniel confirmed with the kitchen that is was the allergen special order. He also checked the plate to make sure that there was not anything with any dairy on it. Then he hand-delivered the chicken sandwich order to the customer with the dairy allergy. Another server brought out the cheeseburger for the customer’s friend. Did Daniel do the right thing to keep the customer safe? Why or why not?

Yes. First, he checked with the kitchen staff to make sure of the order. He made sure the plate did not have any other allergen. He hand-delivered the special order to the guest and it was delivered separately from the other order to prevent contact with allergens.

What is contamination?

The presence of harmful substances in food. Those substances can be biological, chemical, or physical.

What are pathogens?

Disease-causing microorganisms. There are four types that can contaminate food and illness: viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Of the six most common pathogens, four are bacteria and two are viruses.

When does biological contamination occur?

When pathogens grow in food. This happens under certain conditions like FAT TOM: Food, Acidity, Temperature, Time, Oxygen, and Moisture. Of these, you will most likely be able to control only time and temperature.

How do viruses grow?

Viruses require a host. People can get viruses from contaminated food, water, or surfaces. Many viruses are transferred through the fecal-oral route. Most are not destroyed by normal cooking temperatures. The best prevention measures are to purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers, and to practice good personal hygiene.

How do parasites cause foodborne illness?

They require a host to live and reproduce. They are commonly associated with seafood and food processed with contaminated water. The most important measure for preventing parasites from causing a foodborne illness is to purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers.

What is fungi?

Fungi include mold, yeasts, and mushrooms. Like parasites, they are best prevented by purchasing food from approved reputable suppliers.

How does chemical contamination occur?

Chemical contamination occurs when chemicals get into food and beverages. Chemical contaminants include toxic metals, cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, and machine lubricants. To help prevent chemical contamination, store chemicals away from prep areas. food storage areas, and service areas. Always follow the manufacturers’ directions when using chemicals.

When does physical contamination occur?

Physical contamination can happen when objects get into food. Naturally occurring objects, such as bones in a fish fillet, are a physical hazard. Closely inspect the food you receive. make sure no physical contaminants can get into it at any point during the flow of food.

What is a food allergen?

A naturally occurring protein in a food or ingredient that some people are sensitive to. The most common food allergens include milk, eggs, soy, fish, tree nuts, peanuts, crustacean shellfish, and wheat.

How do staff protect customers from allergens?

Service staff must be able to tell customers about menu items that contain potential allergens. Kitchen staff must make sure that allergens are not transferred from food containing an allergen to the food served to the customer with allergies.

What are the most common symptoms of a foodborne illness?

Diarrhea, vomiting, fever, nausea, abdominal cramps, and jaundice

How does most contamination of food happen?
A) Through contaminated water
B) When contaminants are airborne
C) When people cause the contamination
D) Through the use of contaminated animal products


What is the most important way to prevent a foodborne illness from bacteria?
A) Control time and temperature
B) Prevent cross-contamination
C) Practice good personal hygiene
D) Practice good cleaning and sanitizing


What is the most important way to prevent a foodborne illness from viruses?
A) Control time and temperature
B) Prevent cross-contamination
C) Practice good personal hygiene
D) Practice good cleaning and sanitizing


Parasites are commonly linked with what type of food?
A) Rice
B) Poultry
C) Seafood
D) Canned Food


A guest had a reversal of hot and cold sensations after eating seafood. What most likely caused the illness?
A) Parasites
B) Allergic reaction
C) Biological toxins
D) Chemical contamination


A prep cook stores a bottle of sanitizer on a shelf above a prep table. To prevent chemical contamination, what should be done differently?

Store the sanitizer bottle away from the prep area

To prevent the deliberate contamination of food, a manager should know who is in the facility, monitor the security of products, keep information related to food security on file, and know:
A) When to register with the EPA
B) how to fill out an incident report
C) where to find Safety Data Sheets in the operation
D) whom to contact about suspicious activity


What should food handlers do to prevent food allergens from being transferred to food?

Use clean and sanitized utensils when prepping the order

What step should be taken if a manager suspects a foodborn-illness outbreak?

Set aside the suspected product and label it with "do not use" and "do not discard."

When should you use single-use gloves?
1) Slicing apples for an apple pie
2) Garnishing a plate with chopped herbs
3) Chopping lettuce for a mixed green salad
4) Breading chicken wings before frying them
5) Assembling a cooked hamburger for presentation

2) Garnishing a plate with chopped herbs 3) Chopping lettuce for a mixed green salad 5) Assembling a cooked hamburger for presentation

When do food handlers pose the greatest risk of contaminating food?

When they have a foodborne illness; wounds or boils that contain a pathogen; contact with someone who is sick; or symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, diarrhea, vomiting, or jaundice; touching hair, skin, ears, pimples/wounds; wearing dirty uniforms; coughing/sneezing into hands; spitting in the operation; or when food handlers use the restroom and do not wash their hands.

How can hand washing prevent foodborne illness?

Hands must be washed at a sink designated for handwashing. They also must be washed at the correct times, which includes before preparing food, working with clean equipment and utensils, putting on single-use gloves, and starting a new task, after using the restroom, and other activities. Hand antiseptics should never be used to place of handwashing.

How do you take corrective action against handwashing infractions?

If you see that food handlers have not washed their hands correctly and have touched food or food-contact surfaces, you must take corrective action immediately. Dispose of the contaminated food. Clean equipment and utensils that may have been contaminated. As needed, retrain or coach employees on handwashing.

Before working in prep areas, what should food handlers ensure of?

That they are wearing clean clothing and a clean hair restraint. They must remove jewelry from hands and arms. Aprons should be removed and stored when food handlers leave prep areas. They should only eat, smoke, or chew gum/tobacco in designated areas. They may drink from a covered container that has a lid and straw or a sip-lid top if they are careful to prevent contamination.

How can management minimize the risk of foodborne illness?

By operating a good personal hygiene program, establishing a program, training staff, and enforcing the program. Most important, by setting an example yourself by practicing good personal hygiene.

After which activity must food handlers wash their hands?
A Cleaning tables
B) Putting on gloves
C) Serving customers
D) Applying hand antiseptic

A) Cleaning Tables

When washing hands, what is the minimum time you should scrub with soap?
A) 5 seconds
B) 10 seconds
C) 20 seconds
D) 40 seconds

B) 10 Seconds

What should food handlers do after prepping food and before using the restroom?
A) Wash their hands
B) Take off their hats
C) Change their gloves
D) Take off their aprons

D) Take off their aprons

A food handler will be wearing single-use gloves to assemble boxed lunches. When must the food handler’s hands be washed?
A) After 4 hours
B) After the first hour
C) After putting on the gloves
D) Before putting on the gloves

D) Before putting on the gloves

A cook wore single-use gloves while forming raw ground beef into patties. The cook continued to wear them while slicing hamburger buns. What mistake was made?

The cook did not wash hands and put on new gloves before slicing the hamburger buns.

Who is most at risk of contaminating food?
A) A food handler whose spouse works primarily with high-risk populations
B) A food handler whose daughter has diarrhea
C) A food handler who gets a lot of aches and pains
D) A food handler who eats a lot of rare meat

B) A food handler whose daughter has diarrhea

A food handler has diarrhea and has been diagnosed with an illness from Shigella spp. What should the manager tell this food handler to do?
A) Wear gloves while handling food
B) Work in a non-food handling position
C) Stay home until approved to return to work
D) Wash hands frequently while handling food

C) Stay home until approved to return to work

A food handler prepares meals for a child day-care center. What symptoms require this food handler to stay home from work?
A) Thirst with itching
B) Soreness with fatigue
C) Sore throat with fever
D) Headache with soreness

C) Sore throat with fever

When is it acceptable to eat in an operation?
A) When prepping food
B) When washing dishes
C) When sitting in a break area
D) When handling utensils

C) When sitting in a break area

What should a manager of a hospital cafeteria do if a cook calls in with a headache, nausea, and diarrhea?
A) Tell the cook to stay home and see a doctor
B) Tell the work to come in for a few hours and then go home
C) Tell the cook to rest for a couple of hours and then come in
D) Tell the cook to go to the doctor and then immediately come to work

A) Tell the cook to stay home and see a doctor

How do you prevent cross-contamination?

By keeping ready-to-eat and raw food separated; using separate equipment for each type of food; cleaning and sanitizing all work surfaces, equipment, and utensils before and after each task

When does time-temperature abuse occur?

It happens any time food remains between 41dF and 135dF. This range is called the temperature danger zone. Establish policies and procedures to avoid abuse. Use thermometers and times.

What is the proper way to check a food’s temperature?

Using a thermometer, stick the stem or probe into the thickest part of the food. Then take another reading in a different spot. Before recording temp, wait for reading to steady. Never use glass thermometers.

A food handler has finished trimming raw chicken on a cutting board and needs the board to prep vegetables. What must be done to the cutting board?
A) It must be dried with a paper towel
B) It must be turned over to the other side.
C) It must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized.
D) It must be rinsed in hot water and air-dried.

C) It must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized

How far must a bimetallic stemmed thermometer be inserted into the food to give an accurate reading?
A) Just past the tip of the thermometer stem.
B) Halfway between the tip of the thermometer stem and the dimple
C) To the dimple in the thermometer stem.
D) Past the dimple of the thermometer stem

C) To the dimple in the thermometer stem

Which probe should be used to check the temperature of a chicken breast?
A) Air probe
B) Immersion probe
C) Penetration probe
D) Surface probe

C) Penetration probe

At what temperatures do most foodborne pathogens grow most quickly?

Between 70dF and 125dF

Which thermometer is used to measure surface temperatures?
A) Thermistor
B) Thermocouple
C) Infrared thermometer
D) Bimetallic stemmed thermometer

C) Infrared Thermometer

A thermometer used to measure the temperature of food must be accurate to what temperature?
A) +/-2dF
B) +/-4dF
C) +/-6dF
D) +/-8dF

A) +/- 2dF

Which practice can help prevent cross-contamination?
A) Using color-coded cutting boards
B) Rinsing cutting boards between use
C) Purchasing food requiring preparation
D) Prepping raw and ready-to-eat food at the same time

A) Using color-coded cutting boards

What device can be used to monitor both time and temperature abuse during the shipment or storage of food?
A) Infrared thermometer
B) Time-temperature indicator
C) Thermistor with an air probe
D) Bimetallic stemmed thermometer

B) Time-temperature indicator

How long can food stay in the temperature danger zone before it must be thrown out?
A) 1 hour
B) 2 hours
C) 3 hours
D) 4 hours

D) 4 hours

What is an approved, reputable supplier?

An approved, reputable supplier is inspected and meets applicable local, state, and federal laws.

What are the criteria to accept food during receiving?

Criteria to accept includes: -Visual inspection is good -No signs of contamination within the truck -Items are correct temperature -Packaging is clean and correct -Contains the correct documentation

What are the criteria to reject food during receiving?

Criteria to reject includes: -Recalled food items -Item is contaminated -Items are not correct temperatures -Items are damaged

How should food be labeled and dated?

Food should be labeled before it is stored. The label should include the common name of the food. If TCS food was prepped in-house and will be stored longer than 24 hours, it must also be date marked. This food can be stored for only seven days if held at 41dF or lower. After that, it must be discarded.

How should food items be stored to prevent time-temperature abuse and contamination?

Food must be stored in ways that prevent cross-contamination. For example, no cleaning supplies with food supplies. Raw meat, poultry, and seafood should be stored separately from ready-to-eat food. If this is not possible. store ready-to-eat food above raw meat, poultry, and seafood. All non-food items should be stored away from food items. If not possible, they should be stored on the lowest shelf to avoid contaminating the food items. Food should only be stored in a designated storage area. It should be stored away from walls and at least six inches off the floor. Stored food items should always be rotated so that older items are used first.

What should you do with recalled items?

If an item has been recalled by the manufacturer, identify the items, remove them from inventory, and secure them in an appropriate location. Mark them so that staff does not use them.

What is the most important factor in choosing a food supplier?

It has been inspected and complies with local, state, and federal laws.

What is the best method of checking the temperature of vacuum-packed meat?

Place the thermometer stem or probe between the two packages of product.

What is the correct temperature for receiving cold TCS food?

41dF or 5dC or lower

Milk can be received at 45dF (7dC) under what condition?

It is cooled to 41dF (5dC) or lower in 4 hours.

What causes large ice crystals to form on frozen food and its packaging?

Time-temperature abuse

Whole potatoes were coated with olive oil and salt, baked in-house, and stored in a cooler for several days. What must be included on the label for the baked potatoes?

Date that the food should be discarded.

When must you discard tuna salad that was prepped on July 19?

July 25

What is the problem with storing raw ground turkey above raw-ground pork?


Due to an operation’s space limits, ready-to-eat and uncooked foods must be stored in the same cooler. How should foods be stored, in top-to-bottom order?

According to minimum internal cooking temperatures, with ready-to-eat foods on the tops shelf and poultry on the bottom.

How many inches (centimeters) from the floor should food be stored?

At least 6 inches (15 cm)

Why must prep tables be cleaned and sanitized between uses?

To prevent cross-contamination

What should happen to food right after it is thawed in a microwave oven?

Cook it in conventional cooking equipment

When cooling TCS food, the temperature must go from 135dF to 70dF (57dC to 21dC) in . . .

2 hours

A food handler left a hotel pan of pasta salad on the prep while preparing several lunch orders. What is the problem with this situation?

Time-temperature abuse

What is the maximum water temperature allowed when thawing food under running water?


What is the required minimum internal cooking temperature for ground turkey?

165dF for 15 seconds

A safe way to cool a stockpot of meat sauce is to put it into a . . .

Sink of ice water

Which food item should not be served to high-risk populations?
A) Vegetable stir-fry
B) Grilled salmon
C) Roasted chicken
D) Raw oysters

Raw Oysters

To what temperature must soup that contains cooked beef be reheated for hot holding?

165dF for 16 seconds

When partially cooking food for later service, what is the maximum amount of time that the food can be heated during the initial cooking step?

60 minutes

What are the most important food safety features to look for when selecting flooring, wall, and ceiling materials?

Smooth and durable

What organization creates national standards for foodservice equipment?


When installing tabletop equipment on legs, the space between the base of the equipment and the tabletop must be at least . . .

4 inches

An operation has a buildup of grease and condensation on the walls and ceiling. What is the most likely problem?

The ventilation system is not working correctly.

A handwashing station should have a garbage container, hot and cold water, signage, a way to dry hands, and . . .


What is the only completely reliable method for preventing backflow?

air gap

A food handler drops the end of a hose into a mop bucket and turns the water on to fill it. What has the food handler done wrong?

created a cross-connection

An operation received a violation in the outside area of the facility. The manager reviewed the area and saw that the dumpster was placed on a freshly graveled drive. The lids were closed and the drain plug was in place to prevent the dumpster from draining. What was the problem?

The surface underneatht the dumpster should have been paved with concrete or asphalt.

A broken water main has caused the water in a operation to appear brown. What should the manager do?

Contact the local regulatory authority before use

What is the best way to eliminate pests that have entered the operation?

Work with a licensed pest control operator

What are the different ways of sanitizing and the requirements for each?

Cleaning removes food and other dirt from a surface. Sanitizing reduces the number of pathogens on a surface to safe levels. You must clean and rinse a surface before it can be sanitized. Then the surface must be allowed to air-dry. Surfaces can be sanitized with hot water or a chemical sanitizing solution. Each sanitizing method and sanitizer chemical has specific requirements for use.

How and when should surfaces be cleaned and sanitized?

All surfaces should be cleaned and rinsed. Food-contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized after every use. You should also clean and sanitize each time you begin working with a different type of food or after handling different, raw TCS fruits and vegetables. Also clean and sanitize surfaces when a task is interrupted. If items are in constant use, they must be cleaned and sanitized every four hours.

How should items be washed in a dishwasher or a three-compartment sink and then stored?

Dishwashers: Follow manufacturers instructions when using dishwashers. Three-Compartment Sink: Before washign items, clean and sanitize the sinks and drain boards. Scrape, rinse, or presoak items before washing them. Then wash them in a detergent solution, rinse in clean water, sanitize them for a specific amount of time in hot water or chemical sanitizing solution. Then set out to air-dry. Tableware and equipment should be stored in a food safe area away from the risk of contamination.

How should cleaning tools and supplies be used and stored?

Cleaning tools and supplies should be stored away from food and equipment, be properly labeled, be approved for use in food service operations.

How do you develop an effective cleaning program?

Create a master cleaning schedule Train your staff to follow it Monitor the program to make sure it works

What is required for measuring the sanitizing rinse temperature in a high-temperature dishwashing machine?

Maximum registering thermometer

What is the acceptable contact time when sanitizing food-contact surfaces?

Soak the item in a chlorine solution for 7 seconds

If food-contact surfaces are in constant use, how often must they be cleaned and sanitized?

Every 4 hours

What must food handlers do to make sure sanitizing solution for use on food-contact surfaces has been made correctly?

Test the solution with a sanitizer kit

George is getting ready to wash dishes in a three-compartment sink. What should be his first task?

Clean and sanitize the sinks and drain boards

Which feature is most important for a chemical storage area?

Good lighting

How should flatware and utensils that have been cleaned and sanitized be stored?

With handles facing up

What is the correct way to clean and sanitize a prep table?

Remove food from the surface, wash, rinse, sanitize, air-dry

Pete the buser poured some cleaner from its original container into a smaller, working container. What else does he need to do?

Label the working container with its contents

What information should a master cleaning schedule contain?

What should be cleaned, when, by whom, and how

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